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Presented to the Carnegie Library, Atlanta, Ga. by Judge Robert 
L. Rodgers, was formerly the property of Dr. Robert Y. Rodgers, a 
prominent physician. He lived most of his life in Washington coun- 
ty, Ga., where he was well known, and did a large practice. 

He died suddenly, fell dead as he was walking on the street, in 
Monticello, Ga., on Saturday, October 7th, 1893. 

The following notice of him appeared in the Jasper County News, 
October 12th, 1893: 

The sadden death of Dr. It. Y. tlodgers, last Saturday morning, was in- 
deed a shock to our community. It had been but a short while since his 
friends had seen him up town, in his usuai health and cheerful spirits, and 
when a few minutes later the sad news that be had fallen dead on the 
street was being circulated, it was hard to realize the possibility of such a 
tbing. Although it was not discernable to a casual observer, yet his most inti- 
mate friends had noticed for several weeks that he was failing. His death, 
the Physicians announced, was caused from heart failure. 

Dr Robert Young Kodgers was born in Mecklenburg county. North Caro- 
lina, on the 4th day of August, 1817. He was the eldest child of his parents, 
and his parents were children of soldiers of the Kevolutionary War, and they 
were among those sturdy patriots who first declared the Independence of the 
people of this country when the Mecklenburg Declaration was published. The 
paternal grand father was Matthew Rodgers. The maternal grandfather was 
John Gillen. They were of that Scotch Irish stock that came from the Nbrth 
of Ireland to this country before the Revolution, and settled in North Caro- 
lina. They both joined the colonial forces in resistance to the British usurpa- 
tion in America. John Gillen was wounded severely by a sabre cut, parting his 
scalp on the left side, and left a scar the full length of the wound, and Dr. 
Rodgers said he had laid his little fingers on the scar many times in his child- 
hood, and listened to his grandfather, John Gillen, tell of the scenes of t hat 
struggle for the liberty of America. John Gillen married Jane Young, a lady 
born in Antrim county, Ireland. They were married in South Carolina. Prom 
the Gillen grandmother's family name came the middle name, Young, of the 
subject of this sketch. When he was about 16 years old his parents moved 
from North Carolina to Harris county, Georgia. There they reared their chil- 
dren, four in all, two sons and two daughters. The brother of Dr. Rodgers 
died in Camp Chase prison in 1865. About 1844 Dr. R. Y. Rodgers attended 
medical lectures at the first school or college of medicine ever established in 
this State, at Forsyth, in Monroe county, Ga. It was the same college which is 
now located in Atlanta. Ga., and known as the Eclectic Medical College. From 
the college lectures be went to Sandersville, in Washington county, Ga., and 
began the practice of medicine, and subsequently became one of the most dis- 
tinguished physicians in Middle Georgia, and had a very extensive and lucra- 
tive practice. 

In Washington county he married Miss Martha Lin Greer, a daughter of a 
prominent citizen there, David Greer, who was himself a soldier and survivor 
of the war of 1812 and 1814. 

In this marriage of Dr. Rodgers only one child was born to him, a son, who 
is now Judge Robert L. Rodgers, a citizen and lawyer of Atlanta. 

In 1871 the wife of Dr. Roigers died in Burke county, <ia. 

in 1888 he was tgarried to Mrs. Martha E. Carter, a most excellent lady of 
Monticello, and he resided here from then until his death. His wife survives 
him, and has the earnest sympathy of all our people in this county. 

The son. Judge Rodgers, came to the burial, and likewise has the sympathy 
of our citizens. 

His remains were interred Sabbath afternoon, at the Baptist Cemetery, 
Rev. A. J. Beck officiating. 





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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1858, by 


In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Souther* 

District of New York. 

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Objections to their use— Of uncertain value — Frequently inert — Facts of analy- 
sis — Influences of soil, climate, cultivation, ki n-drying, etc. 



Acids — Alkaloid? — Indifferent or neutral substances — Cellulose — Xylogen — 
Cuticular or cork substance — Protein — Amylum — Dextrine — Sugars — Pectin — Gum 
— Mucilage — Muciresins — Viscin — Inorganic elements — Fixed oils — Wax — Vola- 
tile oils — Camphors — Resins — Oleo-Rcsins — Gum-Resins — Resinoids — Caoutchouc 
— Coloring matters — Extractive substances or neutrals — Humus — Apothem 
Fermentation — Decomposition — Putrefaction — Amygdalin — Ernulsin — etc., etc. 



Officinal preparations — Infusions — Decoctions — Extracts — Aqueous, Alcoholic, 
Hydro-alcoholic, Inspissated, Fluid, etc. — their liability to decomposition — of vari- 
able strength — frequently inert, etc. — Concentrated Medicines Proper — their advan- 
tage — uniform and defiuite in strength — not liable to change — methods of adminis 
tratiou, etc., etc 



Their therapeutic and clinical history — Senecin — Asclepin — Golsemin — Macrotin 
— Ampelopsin — Gcranin — Populin— Cypripedin— Chimaphiiiu — Dioscorcin — Cheio- 
nin — Helonin— Leptandrin— Digitalin — Khusin — Baptisin — Podophyllin— Myricin— 
Euonymin — Alnuin — Viburnin — Cornin — Rumin — Caulophyllin — Jalapin — Phyto- 
hu-in — Hyoscyamin — Stillingin — Lupulin — Veratrin — Eupatorin Perfo. — Eupatoria 
Purpu. — Corydalin — Juglandin — Trilliin — Scutellarin— Apocynin — Irisin — Hydras- 
tin — Hamameliu — Euphorbin — Lycopin — Fraserin— Xanthoxylin — Aconiiiu — C©lo« 
eynthin — Rhein — Atropin— Boptisin — etc., etc. 




Powders. grs. 

Ahmin £ to 10 

Ampelopsin 2 to 5 

Apocjnin i to 3 

Asclepin 1 to 5 

Baptism 1 to 3 

Caulophyllin 2 to 6 

Ceraseiii 2 to 10 

Chelonin 2 to 5 

Chimaphilin 2 to 6 

Collinsonin 2 to 6 

Coram 2 to 5 

Corydalin 1 to 3 

■Cypripcdin 2 to 4 

Digitalin £ to i 

Dioscorein 2to 6 

Euonymin 1 to 4 

Euphovbin 1 to 3 

Eupatorin Perfo 1 to 4 

Eupatorin Purpu..... 2 to 5 

Fraserin 2 to 10 

•Gdsemin i to 2 

<3<?ranin„ 2 to 5 

Hamameliu lto 3 

Helonin 2 to 6 

Hydrastin lto 3 

Hyoscyamin i to £ 

Irisin 1 to 3 

Jalapin 2 to 5 

Juglandin 2 to 10 

Leptandrin 2 to 5 

Lupulin 1 to 4 

Lycopin 1 to 4 

Macrotin £ to 2 

jVIenispermin 1 to 5 

.IVlyricin 2 to 5 

Podophyllin \ to 3 

Populin 2 to 5 

Prunin lto 3 

Phytolacin i to 3 

Rhusia lto 3 

llumin lto 3 

Powders. grs. 

Sanguinariu i to 2 

Senecin.. ." 2 to 6 

Scutell aria 2 to 5 

Stillingin 2 to ft 

Smilacin 2 to 6 

Strychnia s \ to ,', 

Trilliin 2 to ft 

Veratrin i to 1 

Viburniu 2 to 5 

Xanthoxylia 2 to 5 




Apocynum .. 2 to 10 

Collinsonia 6 to 20 

Digitalis 1 to 4 

Euonymus 2 to 10 

Eupatorium Purpu 2 to 10 

Gelseminum 5 to 20 

Hyoscyamus 5 to 20 

RhusGlab 2 to 10 

Scutellaria 2 to 10 

Smilax 10 to 20 

Senecio 2 to 10 

Veratrum 1 to 8 

Xauthoxy luni 2 to 5 


Capsicum i to 2 

Erigerou 2 to 10 

Lobelia £ to 2 

Solidago 2 U> 5 

Stillingia i to 2 

Xanthoxylum 2 t j 5 

Con. Comp. Stillingia Altera- 
tive 2 to 10 

Wine Tinct. Lobelia :— 

As an expectorant 2 *.*» 10 

As an emetic 3 " i "* 


He is said to be a bold author who writes a preface, 
Nevertheless, undaunted by the fates of our prede- 
cessors, we voluntarily submit to the allegation of 
hardihood, and bow our head submissively in defe- 
rence to the omniscient wisdom of the critics. 

We remember to have somewhere read a good 
story of an artist, who, after painting a beautiful pic- 
ture, bestowing upon it much time and labor, exposed 
it for criticism in the market place. Beside the pic- 
ture he placed brushes and a pallet of colors, with a 
request that all good judges of the art of painting 
would remedy those defects they might discover which 
had escaped his own eye. 

Nothing could be more gratifying to the innate 
vanity of such as considered themselves capable of 
deciding upon the merits or demerits of all they saw, 
than this general invitation. Every one who looked 
upon the canvass discovered something essentially 
wrong in the composition, which was retouched, ac- 


cording to his individual idea of the sublime or the 
beautiful. The brush was no sooner laid down than 
another took it up ; it was, therefore constantly ap- 
plied ; but when the author called at evening to ex- 
amine and admire the friendship which had been mani- 
fested for his reputation as an artist, not a single 
vestige of the original design remained. Although 
all who chose had contributed the pigment they con- 
sidered absolutely indispensible to perfect the picture, 
the next day it was unanimously declared that the 
painter was a man of no ingenuity or knowledge of his 

In the arrangement of the little volume now submit- 
ted to the profession, the writer has consulted his own 
notions of propriety, striving to keep in view, at the 
same time, the best interests of his readers. That it 
has its imperfections, will be apparent to all who do 
him the honor to peruse it. Yet we can not emulate 
the generosity of the artist by supplying the materials 
with which to remedy apparent defects, although con- 
scious that had the original materials been placed in 
abler and more experienced hands, a more perfect 
work would have been secured. Like the artist, we 
may extend a general invitation to the profession to 
modify the peculiarities of detail, not for universal ap- 
plication, but for the purpose of meeting the require- 
ments of individual circumstances and necessities. 

We have not sought to charm the sense by elegance 
of diction, nor aimed to delude the reason by ingeniously 
wrought hypotheses ; but simply to present, in a con- 
cise manner, an array of scientific facts which we hope 
will be of practical utility to the profession. We 


invite attention to the subject matter of our treatise, 
rather than to a critical examination of the language 
in which it is embodied. In treating of crude organic 
remedies, constituents of plants, and officinal prepara- 
tions, we have presented many new, and, it may be, 
startling facts ; but they are none the less worthy, for 
this reason, of the serious and impartial consideration 
of the profession. Therapeutical and pharmaceutical 
science are at the very foundation of practical medi- 
cine, and he who perfects their principles will be the 
acknowledged benefactor of his race. The field ot 
organic chemical science has been, as yet, but little 
tilled, and much ground still remains wherein progres- 
sive explorations and manipulative skill have inex- 
haustible resources vet to unfold, But notwithstand- 
ing the existence of hidden mines of therapeutic 
wealth yet undeveloped, much has already been 
accomplished in bringing forth from the secret recesses 
of nature's store-house the means wherewith to prac- 
tice the art of healing. Organic chemistry has solved 
the problem of vegetable organisms, defined the cha- 
racteristics that distinguish the physical from the thera- 
P'Utic, isolated the motor-excitant constituents from 
their non-medicinal investure, and furnished the physi- 
cian with the means of cure, defined in sensible proper- 
ties, of uniform therapeutic power, and of specific 
value in fulfilling the indications of disease. The isola- 
tion and re-combination of the active constituents of 
medicinal plants is one of the most important features 
of modern pharmacy, Instead of isolating a single 
principle and rejecting the remainder, thus doing vio- 
lence to the therapeutic integrity of the plant, the 


aggregate medicinal constituents are now combined 
in one preparation, and thus we have a pharmaceutical 
compound of nature's own preparing. Hereby are 
secured the various therapeutic powers of which the 
plant, from a consideration of its physiological effects, 
is known to be possessed. 

The reader will perceive, in the second part of tins 
vomme, that we have ignored the medical casuistry 
of those authors who have attempted to disprove, with 
specious arguments, the existence of certain classes 
of therapeutic powers. We have faithfully recorded 
our carefully made observations of the physiological 
effects of the remedies, and we hold that, when a 
medicine produces a specific physiological effect, it 
should be accredited with the power known to be 
requisite to produce it. It is not for us to determine 
whether this result be primary or secondary, so long 
as we can rely upon the certainty of the remedy in 
fulfilling the indications for which we exhibit it. As 
Podophyllin promotes the catamenial flow, we award 
it the possession of an emmenagogue power. As Ve- 
ratrin lessens the force and frequency of the pulse, 
when abnormally excited, we term it an arterial seda- 
tive, although the question might arise whether the 
^eiiative influence is the result of primary or reflex 
action. In a practical point of view it is sufficient for 
as to know that it may be relied upon for fulfilling this 
indication. Gelsemin, Viburnin, Dioscorein and Lobe- 
: ? (ia lelax spasm and control the action of the muscular 
|jsystom, hence we term them, and we think with pro- 
Y>rie'*y, anti-spasmodics. But as we have to deal with 
tne jwactical rather than the theoretical, we leave the 


solution of the modus operandi of medicines to those 
whose forte lies in framing plausible hypotheses. 

In the second chapter, in giving the chemical formu- 
las of the various constituents, it will be observed that 
we have followed the earlier method of single atoms 
Most of the facts there adduced in relation to vegeta- 
ble constituents have been elucidated by recent analy- 
ses. The history of the resinoid, neutral, and mucire- 
sin principles is entirely original, never before having 
appeared in print, and is the fruit of personal research. 
We have to acknowledge but little indebtedness to 
other authors. In some few instances we have con- 
sulted Berzelius, Rhind, and other vegetable physiolo- 
gists and chemists, when controversial points arose, 
preferring, however, to rely upon recent personal 
analyses and experiments. 

To Adolph Behr, A.lVf ., the gentlemanly and accom- 
plished chemist attached to the laboratory of B. Keith 
& Co., we are under especial obligations. He has 
kindly afforded us access to valuable private notes, 
and materially facilitated our labors by timely furnish- 
ing important facts and suggestions. The profession 
are deeply indebted to the labors of this gentleman for 
having so successfully elevated the standard of thera- 
peutical and pharmaceutical science. 

Our thanks are likewise due to the enterprising 
publishers, Messrs. B. Keith & Co., for the liberal man- 
ner in which they have gotten up this volume, a com- 
pliment which, together with the approbation of the 
profession, rewards us amply for the labor bestowed. 

Some few typographical errors have undoubtedly 
crept in, consequent upon family afflictions and pro- 


fessionai cares, by which our attention has been much 
diverted, but we trust to the kindly consideration of 
our readers to overlook the mechanical defects. The 
text we have carefully revised, and believe it to be free 
from any serious imperfections. 

And now we commit our little volume to the hands 
of a conservative, yet liberal profession, confident that 
they will impartially consider the substance of our ex- 
position, and neither approve nor condemn except in 
accordance with the rigid requirements of experimental 

If we have herein recorded a single additional truth 
that shall be deemed worthy of being employed in rear- 
ing the superstructure of medical science; if we have 
suggested aught that shall enable our professional 
brethren to smooth a single wrinkle in the pillow ot 
care, or check the coursing of a single tear down the 
furrowed cheek of suffering humanity, we will accept 
the token, with gratitude, as the full measure of our 
reward. G. C. 

New York, Sept., 1858. 




The urgent demands of the profession rendering a 
second edition of the present volume necessary, the 
author avails himself of the opportunity to express 
his sincere acknowledgments for the favor with which 
his feeble attempt to elevate the standard of Materia 
Medica has been received. Progression is the order of 
the day, and in no department of medical science is its 
operations more manifest than in that of therapeutics. 
The writer hopes to see, at no distant day, the formation 
of an indigenous Materia Medica, competent for the 
wants of all, and at once the pride and glory of our 
common country. 

To the present volume has been added the history 
of several agents not unknown to the profession, 
but for the first time presented in their present form. 
The characteristic difference is the same as that of the 
other concentrated preparations described in this work, 
namely, the isolation and recombination of the several 


active constituents resident in each plant. Their clin- 
ical history has been drawn from competent sources, 
upon which the writer has been compelled to rely in 
the absence of satisfactory personal observation. The 
authority, however, is as much entitled to credence as 
would be the vouching of the author's own experience. 

This addition has been made in the form of addenda, 
with a view to an ultimate revision of the entire work 
together with the rendition of whatever valuable ori- 
ginal information upon the subject of organic remedies 
may have been at such time developed. The writer 
is well aware that such revision is much needed, and 
trusts that • his life and health may be spared to the 
completion of his ultimate design. 

A word in reference to the doses of the concentrated 
remedies. Complaints have reached the author that of 
some of the preparations the doses indicated were too 
large, as of the Gelsemin, for instance. In the course 

of the work the writer frequently referred to the fact, 


that the doses named were such as he employed in the 
locality where he then resided, and that while the 
properties- of the remedies would remain the same un- 
der all circumstances, the ji Igment of the practitioner 
must decide the propriety of quantity, repetition, and 
continuance. Since the pi >sent work was written, the 


author lias had several months' experience in practice 
in the South, and has practically tested the fact, that 
in warn climates the doses of sedatives, narcotics, re- 
laxants, &c. y require to be diminished from 25 to 50 
per cent., while stimulants and tonics require a propor- 
tionate increase. For instance, in the locality where 
the present lines are written, one-fourth of a grain of 
Gelsemin is equivalent in effect to one-half grain in 
the latitude of New York. On tn« contrary, three 
grains of Podophyllin are required here where two 
would answer the purpose at the North. The proper- 
ties and employment of a remedy being given, it re- 
mains for the practitioner to graduate the dose. This 
can never be stated with such precision as to meet the 
necessities of every case, but only approximative^, 
time, circumstance, and idiosyncrasy forming the stand- 
ard by which to judge. 

Again this little volume is committed to the pro- 
fession, with the assurance that the author holds him- 
self strictly responsible for whatever of error as well 
as of truth may be incorporated in its pages, frankly 
inviting clinical criticism of all he may have said in 
relation to the properties and employment of the 
remedies considered. None are claimed to be specifics 
in the cure of disease, but all are claimed to possess 

1G P R E F A C F. 

specific properties, manifested, however, not uniformly, 
butin -specific conditions. The condition ascertained, and 
adaptation of a suitable remedy being had, a manifest- 
ation of its specific powers may reasonably be expected. 
That those of the profession into whose hands this 
volume may fall, will receive and test the opinions and 
statements put forth by the author, and render their 
verdict in the same spirit in which it was indicted is 
the wish of 

Their obedient servant, 


Wilmington, N. C, June, 1860. 



Objections to their Use — Of Uncertain Value — Frequently Inert — 

Facts of Analysis, etc. 

The essential pre-requisites to the successful employment 
of Organic Remedies, are the possession of specific therapeutic 
powers, uniformity of strength, non-liability to deteriorate 
. by age, and convenience of administration. Such remedies, 
either simple or compound, may be appropriately termed 
positive medical agents. Positive, not because they will 
infallibly cure disease, but because their sensible properties 
are definite, uniform, and certain. Such are the remedies of 
which it is proposed to treat in the present volume. In order 
to demonstrate the correctness of this appellation, it will bo 
necessary to point out the deficiencies of crude medicines, and, 
by contrast, make apparent the superior claims of concentrated 
remedies to our confidence. To this end we shall endeavor to 
adduce a few facts in support of the exceptions we have taken 
to the use of crude remedies at the head of this chapter. 

We have charged that they are of uncertain remedial value. 
By this we mean to be understood, that plants of the same 
gpecies vary infinitely as to the amount of proximate principles 
inherent in them. The fact has been amply demonstrated bj 



analysis. The causes we will endeavor to explain. Vegetable 
organisms may be said to be possessed of two constitutions, 
physical and therapeutical, blended into one system. By the 
term physical we would designate the structural apparatus of 
the plant; and the therapeutic to consist of the various secre- 
tions of this apparatus. By drawing a nicer line of distinction, 
we may divide the products of this apparatus into nutritive 
and medicinal. The constituents of this apparatus we term 
lignin, liber, &c; of the nutritive products, amylum, gluten, 
sugar, mucilage, and albumen constitute the principal ; while 
therapeutic constituents are variously denominated resins, 
resinoids, gum-resins, balsams, oils, alkaloids, neutrals, cam- 
phors, &c. In order to ensure the perfect development of the 
plant, it is evident that certain conditions of soil, climate, 
season, &c, must be present. The soil must be supplied with 
the various inorganic elements of the plant, and afford a suffi- 
ciency of water, in order that a proper degree of diluency of 
the various juices may be maintained. The climate must be 
such as will afford the requisite temperature, while the season 
must be of sufficient length to enable the plant to complete i ts 
numerous processes, and perfect its varions parts. Any de- 
parture from these conditions will be followed by a corresponding 
deviation in the constituents of the plant. Poverty of the soil 
will starve the plant of its necessary food. Too high a tem- 
perature will urge on the various functions of the plant to 
complete its labors prematurely. Too low a temperature will 
retard the organic energies of the plant, and prolong its labors 
into the frosts of winter, which there will shut out all further 
chances of maturity. Excess of moisture, accompanied, as it 
must necessarily be, with a corresponding deficiency of sun- 
liglit and warmth, will exercise a strong influence over the 
future history of the plant. The burning sun of the summer 
drought, will, with insatiable thirst, drink dry every pore of 
the yielding soil, and the thirsting plants will droop and wither 
on the parched bosom of the parent earth. Thus do we behold 
the inevitable results which attend the working of nature's 
laws. Adaptation is the law of the universe, and in no lio-ht 


is it more vividly portrayed, than in its relation to the growth 
and development of the vegetable world. There are sermons 
in stones, and books in running brooks, saith the proverb. 
The vegetable kingdom may be called the very printing press 
of nature, each verdant leaf a type that prints a thousand va- 
ried impressions upon the quickened tablets of the reverent 
mind. The " still small voice " of creative wisdom is audible 
in all of nature's works, but the voiceless language of plants 
6peaks most unassumingly in praise of " Him who doeth all 
things well." No study is more instructive, and at the same 
time interesting, than that of the laws which govern organic 
srrowth ; and none more conducive to our best interest in this 
life. As the creatures of those laws, we must, of necessity, 
understand them, that»we may be enabled to yield the alle- 
giance implied in their establishment. By studying the phy- 
siology of plants, then, we may derive much instruction for 
the proper government, of our own bodies. The facts set 
forth above in relation to the causes which influence the 
growth and development of plants, may teach us a useful 
lesson in regard to the conditions necessary to preserve the 
integrity of our own systems. 

Dependent upon the, causes above enumerated, plants are 
oftentimes entirely inert, so far as regards the possession of any 
therapeutic power. The vicissitudes of the climate and season 
may have so interrupted or suspended the secretive functions 
of the plant, that not a single proximate principle has been 
perfected. On the other hand, the absence of proper elements 
in the soil may have been the sole cause of the defect. Other 
causes might be enumerated, chief amongst which is, the 
gathering of a plant at an improper season. By so doing, the 
development of the proximate principles is arrested while they 
are yet, so to speak, in a transition state. The elaborating pro- 
cesses of the plant are arrested, perhaps, at the very moment 
when the various medicinal constituents are approximating 
the perfected principle. In such an event it is most certain 
that nothing of therapeutic value can attach to the plant. 

In order that the reader may more fully understand our 


meaning, we will endeavor to be mOre explicit. For this pur- 
pose, we will enter briefly into the physiological history of 
plants. To illustrate the subject, we will choose a perennial,, 
deciduous plant of the temperate zone. The life of such a 
plant may be said to consist of api indefinite number of com- 
pleted cycles periodically conjoined. These cycles are marked 
by four eras, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. During 
the winter months the organic energies of the plant lie 
dormant, nor are they awakened from their hibernal 
slumber except by the dawning of the succeeding era. 
This period illustrates the static condition of organic activity 
most forcibly. It is emphatically the season of rest, and may 
be appropriately termed the sleep of plants. Presuming 
that the labors of the previous seasons have completed the 
object of their mission, it is philosophical to suppose the plant 
to be complete in all its parts. Gathered at this season, and 
subjected to the searching powers of analysis, the manipulative 
skill of the chemist will penetrate each well-stored cell, and 
bring from their secret hiding places the various constituents 
of the organic body. Isolated, they stand forth as fractional 
representatives of the different constitutions of the plant — 
elementary parts of a compound system. This is the proper 
season to select such a plant, in order to determine its chemical 
constituency. This is the proper season to gather it for medi- 
cinal use ; and this the season to collect it as timber for the 
purposes of the builder. Let us note the changes which follow 
an awakening of its latent forces. Now it may be compared 
to a well-stocked storehouse, wherein all the rich harvestings 
of the previous season are carefully laid by for future use. 
Let us watch how the present store may add in turn to the 
capital stock. The snows have melted under the thermal 
breath of returning spring, and gone to swell the volume of 
the turbid streams. The rigid, frozen earth has thrown off 
the icy chains that bound it in the embrace of winter, and its 
bosom swells with grateful pride as it drinks in the rich in* 
ispiring draughts of warm sunlight. The gentle showers de- 
scend, and the quickened soil presents, in each liberated pore, 


a willing reservoir. The time has now arrived for the resump- 
tion of organic activity on the part of the plant. The condi- 
tions necessary to this manifestation are, the presence of certain 
external stimuli. These consist of certain nutritious matters 
contained in the soil, water, atmospheric gases, electricity, and 
its allotropic conditions, light and heat. The stimuli of the 
soil are first available, being rendered so by the presence of 
water, and impelled by the electrical forces. The nutritive 
elements of the soil consist of carbon, silex, magnesia, lime, 
soda, potass, sulphur, the oxides of iron, alumina, etc. Water 
is the necessary vehicle of the nutritive elements of plants; 
but it is also decomposed, and its components, hydrogen arid 
oxygen, enter into the structure of the plant. Carbon is also 
derived from the atmosphere, in the form of carbonic acid gas. 
The other elements afforded by the atmosphere, are, oxygen, 
both in its combined and simple form, and nitrogen. Before 
the nutritive matters of the soil can be appropriated by the 
plant, it is necessary that they should be in a state of solution. 
This is mainly effected by water. The roots, by means of 
minute vessels attached to their extremities, termed spongioles, 
now absorb the juices from the moist soil, and these, ascend- 
ing, mingle with those already in the stem. These juices con- 
stitute the sap, so-called, of the plant. It holds, in solution, 
the proper nutritious substances which go to add to the 
volume of the plant, and also affords the necessary material 
for the reparation of its expended fluids. T^hat it deposits 
some of its nutritive materials in its ascent, is undoubtedly 
true ; but, of necessity, a certain portion must, be conveyed to 
the extremities of its branches, in order that the gemmules, or 
buds, may receive the food necessary to their development, 
and the formation of leaves. The sap, in its ascent, has per- 
formed certain changes in the constituent principles of the 
plant, which, in the elucidation of our subject, it is important 
for us to notice. It has dissolved out a greater portion of the 
contents of the living cell, reduced them to a condition of 
solubility, ,and commingled them in one heterogenous mass. 
This we hold to be the established advent of the first era in 
the annual history of the plant. 


Out of the ascending sap each part of the plant absorbs 
the material requisite for its nourishment. Following it in its 
ascent, we shall find that, as it successively reaches the buds,, 
they swell, expand, and develope into leaves and flowers. The 
development of the leaves gives rise to the establishment of 
new functions on the part of the plant, which now will play a 
conspicuous part in its future history. Taking from the sap 
such materials as are necessary to the completion of this struc- 
ture, they combine them with others drawn from the atmos* 
phere, and appropriate the perfected constituents to the com- 
pletion of their own apparatus. They are now in a condition 
to perform their share of the labor imposed by the establish- 
ment of organic activity, and to assist in the consummation of 
its object. Leaves have been denominated the lungs of plants.. 
The similitude is correct, so far as regards the object, which is 
mutual , but will not apply to their functions. While the of- 
fice of the lung is to absorb oxygen and give off carbonic acid,, 
that of the leaf is to absorb carbonic acid and give off oxygen. 
In both instances the object is the preparation of nutritive ma-- 
erials for the purpose of organic growth and reparation. 

We now have a period of organic activity which, at its 
culmination, will complete the first era. This is the final 
elaboration in the leaf of the various nutritive elements drawn 
from the soil and atmosphere, and their descent into the per- 
manent structure of the plant. The fluid which, in its ascent, 
was called sap, has now, by its elaboration in the leaf, been 
converted into what is termed the proper juice of the plant. 
It is a highly elaborated, viscid fluid, composed of various rudi- 
mentary compounds, which, when reduced to perfected princi- 
ples, will be recognised as starch, gluten, sugar, resins, gum, 
oils, alkaloids, resinoids, etc. The first era closes with what 
might properly be termed the completion of the digestive pro- 
cesses of the plant. The second era will comprise the period 
during which the nutritive apparatus of the plant makes 
appropriation of the duly elaborated materials. ' During this 
period the plant more sensibly increases in volume, new 
repositories are formed, and new stores laid ill for a future season. 


We would not be understood to imply that this is exclusively 
the period for the manifestation of these changes. On the 
contrary, we distinctly state, that these various phenomena are 
being carried forward during the entire period of organic ac- 
tivity. But we wish simply to impress the fact, that this is 
essentially the period when the organic stimulus is in its 
greatest force. During this, the second era, is the proper 
season for gathering leaves for medicinal use. They are now 
charged with the proper juice of the plant in a highly elabor- 
ate form. Should we wait until after the descent of the proper 
juice into the stem of the plant, we shall find that nothing but an 
exhausted apparatus is left behind. True, the leaf may pre- 
serve all its outward semblances of vitality, yet shall we find 
on anatysis, that the therapeutic constituents are mostly want- 
ing. The cellular tissue will be found deserted of its nutritive 
and medicinal substances, and their presence partially replaced 
with air A tree cut down during the second era, will be 
found useless for all the purposes of timber. The vital forces 
being mainly distributed to the periphery, that is, to the leaves, 
together with a greater portion of the vital constituents of the 
plant, the stem will be found to be deprived of too great a 
proportion of the preservative principles to enable it to resist 
decay. The alburnum commences a rapid decomposition, 
giving rise to a generation of worms, which, in turn, eat into 
the duramen or heart, and thus complete the destruction of the 
stem. We are assured by a gentleman from North Carolina, 
that a stem cut from a pine tree in the month of May, and 
placed in contact with the trunk of a healthy growing pine, 
will destroy it in the course of the season. The worms gener- 
ating in the severed stem will pass to the living tree, and 
rapidly compass its destruction. We have seen the monarch 
of our northern forests, the lordly oak, when felled in June, 
pass into a state of complete decay in a space of from four to 
eight weeks. 

Botanists have remarked that a plant early stripped of its 
leaves will soon perish. The reason given for this result is, 
that the absorption by the roots is insufficient to supply all the 


materials for its nourishment. This we have reason to be* 
lieve, however, is not the sole cause. A great proportion of 
the resident nutritive materials of the plant having been dis- 
solved out of the stem by the ascending sap, and carried in a 
state of solution to the leaves, it follows that if they are 
stripped, off at this period, the stem will be exhausted beyond 
all chances of recuperation. A major part of the vitality of 
the plant is now at its circumference, and the severance of the 
lea res at this juncture will result in 'the hopeless impoverish- 
ment of the stem. 

The third era in the annual history of the plant, comprise? 
the period during which the products of the labors of the pre- 
vious era are stored away in the various repositories of the 
6tem ; thp withdrawal of the organic forces from the peri- 
phery ; the exhalation of superfluous moisture ; the fall of the 
leaf, and the suspension of all organic activity, preparatory to 
the coming of the fourth era, winter. Now, for a season, is 
all manifestation of organic activity withheld, and thus we 
have the completion of the cycle. 

Let us recapitulate briefly the different stages of organic 
growth. First we have the ascending sap dissolving out the 
nutritive deposits of the root and stem, and conveying them 
to assist in the development of leaves and flowers. Now it 
is evident that if the root, bark, or st^m of the plant be gath- 
ered at this season for medicinal purposes, it must, of necessity, 
be deficient of the constituents of which we are in pursuit. 
Not only will they be deficient in amount, but defective in 
composition ; for, in arder to be of assimilative utility, the 
various constituents must be reduced to their rudimentary 
forms. Researches upon this point have established this fact 
beyond a doubt. Analysis has determined that the entire secre- 
tions of the living cells of the plant undergo complete disintegra- 
tion and re-assimilation. What wonder then, if the plant be col- 
lected at this season, that we find it nearly or quite inert. If, 
on the other hand, we gather the Jeavcs at this period, we shall 
find that they are premature and worthless. Nor, if we wait 
until the advent of the second era, shall we find that either the 


bark, root, or stem is of full therapeutic value. True, the 
proper juice is now descending, a new layer of cambium is be- 
ing deposited, and the various parts of both liber and stem are 
succulent with the returning fluid. But much labor remains to 
be done ere the various proximate principles shall have reached 
organic completeness. The descending fluid is a heterogeneous 
mass, holding in solution the variously constituted compounds 
which go to replenish the various repositories of nutritive and 
medicinal substances. The absorbent and assimilative powers 
of the plant are now directed to this mass, its constituents 
isolated, taken up and deposited in their appropriate recep- 
tacles. Although winter is the period when we should look 
for the highest degree of perfection in the medicinal principles 
of a living plant, such as we have described, yet we cannot say, 
with truthfulness, that the cessation of all outward manifesta- 
tions of organic activity argues pen'ectability in the various 
constituents of the plant. The labor of assimilation is still 
going on within its silent organism. The precise moment 
when this a&similative action has reached its highest point of 
culmination is very difficult to determine, even in the living 
plant. How much more so, then, in the detached portions of 
the dead specimen. If, during the life of the plant, organic 
activity has done its complete work, then may we expect that 
the death of the plant will usher in a period during which 
material changes will be effected in its constituents, terminating 
onlv by their reduction to primary forms, or entrance into new 
combinations. The laws of chemical decomposition and re- 
combination know no rest. Their action is as ceaseless as the 
footsteps of time. All created matters feel their mighty im- 
press, and yield resistless to the eternal law of mutation. 

The peculiar chemical action which goes on in the constitu- 
ents of dried plants, is productive of directly opposite results. 
In the one case it tends to perfect, or we should say rather, to 
render available certain peculiar principles. We have an 
example in the concrete juice of the Fraxinus Ornus or manna 
ash — the manna of commerce. This substance increases in 
purgative qualities by age. Some reaction of its constituents 


upon each other undoubtedly produces this result* One of the 
principal constituents of manna is mucilage, known by its 
yielding mucic acid. It is not strictly a proximate principle, 
but contains bassorin, cerasin, &c. This substance acting upon 
the nitrogenous constituents of the manna, effects their decom- 
position, brings about new combinations, and thereby increases 
its purgative power. 

The oak bark employed in tanning leather improves in 
value for a period of four or five years after it is stripped from 
the stem. So well established is this fact, that, where capital 
w r ill permit, a stock is constantly kept from two to five years 
ahead. The reason of this we will now explain. Tannic acid 
cannot properly be considered a proximate principle of vege- 
table organisms. It never exists in the living cells of the 
plant, but is the legitimate product of a peculiar putrefactive 
decomposition which takes place in the dead cells. Proximate 
principles are those which undergo progressive formation in 
the living cells of the plant during the period of organic activ- 
ity. But tannic acid is the result of a regressive chemical 
action within the dead cells. As it is found onlv in the dead 
cells of the living plant, it follows that the arresting of the life 
of the plant will, by destroying the vitality of the cells, favor 
the decomposition which results in the formation of this prin- 
ciple. We shall have occasion to revert to this subject in the 
next chapter. It is in this way that age augments the amount 
of tannic acid in the bark, and gives to it increased value. 

The Kubia Tinctorium, a root much in use by dyers, im- 
proves in value for an equal number of years. It is never 
employed until it has attained the age of two years, dating 
from the period of its collection. Here, again, certain chem- 
ical decompositions take place in the interior structure of the 
plant, which give rise to new combinations, whereby the pe- 
culiar principle for w T hich the plant is esteemed is largely" 
increased in amount. 

Apples, pears, peaches, oranges, and other fruits, undergo a 
series of ripening processes after they are detached from the 
plant that bore them. The peculiar action here involved, is 


the conversion of starch into sugar, and the development of 
the flavoring principle. Coffee so improves in flavor by age, 
that the most inferior kinds are said to rival the finest Mocha, 
after having been kept lor a period of from ten to fourteen 
years. Tobacco is also subject to the same improvement. 
Instances mi^ht be multiplied, but we deem the above suffi- 
cient for illustration. 

Thus we see, that even after the continuity of the different 
parts of the plant is broken up, the detached portions are 
silently, yet surely, undergoing important constitutional 
changes. In the cases above cited, this peculiar action tends 
towards desirable results. But we shall see that age is equally 
potent in the destruction of the perfected proximate principles 
of the dried plant. These changes, as we shall show, render 
it valueless. While the plant is endowed with organic life, it 
possesses the power of resisting the action of external disinte- 
grating influences. But, when deprived of that life, it becomes 
a prey to those active disorganising agents, air and moisture. 
Indeed, within its own substance it conceals those restless 
agencies which are instrumental in effecting the dissolution of 
vegetable organisms. 

External appearances, it will be shown, do not afford reliable 
indications of the therapeutic value of plants. Therefore, the 
presence or absence of proximate medicinal principles cannot 
be ascertained by visual scrutiny. Neither the giving off by 
the plant of its natural odor, nor the preservation of its pecu- 
liar color, can be relied upon as evidence of therapeutic worth. 
The flavoring and coloring matters, although of medicinal 
value, are distinct principles, and may exist independent of the 
more active medicinal constituents. Hence no degree of 
certainty can attach to outward signs. A quantitive analysis 
alone, by isolating its various constituents, can determine the 
fact of the presence or absence of the inherent proximate 
medicinal principles of any given plant. Though perfect when 
collected by the botanist, time may have effected the reduction 
t and dissipation of its constituents, or rendered them into new 
combinations. In the one instance they are made valueless ; 


and in the other, their character is changed, and rendered 
uncertain. On the other hand, climatic, meteoric, and other 
influences, separately or combined, may have effectually pre- 
vented organic completeness, by arresting the growth of the 
plant ere maturity. 

Winter, then, is apparently the season for collecting such a 
plant as we have described for medicinal purposes. We would 
naturally expect to find in such a plant, at this season, an 
entire completeness in its organism. The reader will perceive, 
from the facts above set forth, that the directions given by 
some botanists for collecting barks in the season when they 
will peel from the stem are erroneous. 

We hope we have now made it apparent to all how liable 
plants are to suffer from the vicissitudes of soil, climate, season, 
&c; and how liable they are to vary as to the amount of the 
various proximate principles attributed to them. Repeated 
analysis have demonstrated the fact, that specimens of the same 
plant grown in different localities will vary infinitely in the 
proportions of active principles yielded. The want of a know- 
ledge of this fact has given rise to much contrariety of sentiment 
amongst practitioners in different sections of the country, in 
regard to the remedial value of various plants. The Scutellaria 
Lateriflora has been condemned by some practitioners as inert 
and worthless, while others set a high estimate upon its value 
as a nervine tonic. It remains for organic chemistry to recon- 
cile this difference of opinion. Analysis of various samples of 
this plant grown in different sections of the eastern States, has 
proven it to be very deficient in the active principles attributed 
to it. The yield of various samples, amounting in the aggre- 
gate to over one thousand pounds, was not sufficient to pay the 
first cost of materials. On the other hand, samples of the same 
plant grown at the South and West have yielded a fair pro- 
portion of the proximate principles belonging to the plant. 
The Senecio Gracilis varies remarkably as to its yield of active 
piinciples. From the analysis of a great number of samples, 
at different times, it has been found that the yield from a given 
quantity will vary in the proportions of from one to four. 


With the Ilelonias Dioica the same variableness has been 
found- In this plant the variations have been remarked to be 
from two to five. The plants, in every instance, bore upon 
their exterior an equally promising aspect. Analysis alone 
could detect and make apparent the deficiency. Here is a 
discrepancy which can be accounted for only upon the grounds" 
we have above shadowed forth. 

The Asclepias Tuberosa, growing in the comparatively bar- 
ren and sandy soil of New Jersey, yields from one to two 
hundred per cent, more of Asclepin, than that grown in the 
rich alluvions of the West. Numerous other plants might be 
mentioned, the analyses of which have been attended with like 
results: bat we deem these sufficient to illustrate the fact. 
From this it will be seen that uniformity of therapeutic power 
can never be looked for in crude remedies. Suppose we take? 
for instance, the usual formulas of the dispensatories for the 
preparation of infusions and decoctions. A given amount, by 
weight, of some root, bark, or herb, is directed to be added to 
a stipulated quantity of water. The dose is defined, and the 
necessary requisitions are considered complete. Now let us 
look a moment at the reliability of such a preparation. Bear- 
ing in mind the facts, previously adduced, the reader will 
easily follow us to a common conclusion. Water being the 
menstruum, it follows that the active principles it is capable of 
holding in solution, can not be other than neutrals, alkaloids, 
acids, gums, mucilages, and coloring matters. Now what 
guarantee have we of the value of such infusion or decoction \ 
We have seen that plants bearing on their exterior all the 
marks of genuineness, have, on analysis, been found nearly 
destitute of any medicinal principles whatever. 

Admitting that the plant has been grown under the most 
favorable auspices, we yet shall see that the actual amount of 
active principles present will be indefinite. No two samples 
of the same plant yet analysed have given a uniform amount 
of proximate principles, no matter how favorable the 
conditions accompanying their growth. Considering the 
liability of plants, then, to be influenced in their development 

30 CliUDE OKGAJS'IC remedies. 

by the vicissitudes heretofore enumerated, it will readily be 
perceived how much more indefinite must be the remedial 
value of a plant, the circumstances of the growth of which we 
know nothing. We are informed by the dispensatory that the 
amount of a certain alkaloid (JVarcotm,) afforded by even the 
.same varities of opium, will vary from 1.30 to 9.36 per cent. 
This discrepancy amounts to over 700 per cent., and, with so 
potent a remedy, is a matter of great moment.* Even 
admitting a uniformity of constitution in the article employed, 
we yet shall see that but a short time is necessary to effect a 
complete decomposition of the therapeutic constituents. We 
are further told by the authority above quoted that certain 
decoctions and infusions, in warm weather, "speedily run into 
the putrefactive fermentation." The philosophy of this pecu- 
liar decomposition we shall explain in a future chapter. We 
refer to it at the present time only as an additional objection 
to the employment, or rather method of preparation, of crude 
medicines. The neutral principle of plants is that which is 
most liable to be decomposed by this peculiar chemical decom- 
position, and yet it is the principal constituent usually afforded 
in aqueous preparations. From either, or a combination of 
the causes we have enumerated, practitioners have, no doubt, 
been frequently disappointed in the anticipated remedial value 
of watery preparations. If we should ask, what reliance can 
be placed upon preparations so uncertain in therapeutic 

* Thfs is also true as regards the yield of morphia. Sometimes this alkaloid 
is almost entirely wanting. We are informed by an eminent physician of this 
city, that a friend of his lately returned from India, states that in a wet season, 
although the product of opium is increased, yet it is found to be almost entire- 
ly deficient of morphia. A dry, hot season seems to be most favorable to the 
production of this principle. Suit was brought in this city a few years since 
for the recovery of the value of 3000 pounds of opium, which had been pur- 
chased for the purpose of manufacturing morphine. On analysis the drug was 
found to be nearly destitute of this alkaloid. Hence, from a want of a know- 
lodge of the true causo, a charge of fraud was preferred. The Cannabis Indica 
grown upon the elevated ridges of India is extremely different from that grown 
in the vallies. Locality, as well as other circumstances of growth, seems to 
wield a potent influence in the development of medicinal plants. 


strength, it might be answered, that the physician will deter- 
mine their utility by experimental administration. True, by 
such a course, their comparative value might be ascertained, 
but are not such experiments extremely hazardous, both to the 
interests of patient and physician? In urgent cases, time is 
of the greatest moment, and its lavish expenditure in institut- 
ing a series of clinical qualitive and quantitive analyses under 
such circumstances, in order to test the therapeutic value of 
any given remedy, could scarcely be looked upon in any other 
light than criminal. In its most favorable aspect, a degree of 
recklessness would attach to it which no conscientious phy- 
sician would willingly countenance. 

Nor if we employ the remedy in substance, shall we have 
nrrived at any greater degree of exactitude. If we write a 
prescription for a pill of crude opium, how shall we, by the 
above showing, be enabled to tell anything of the proportions 
of the nineteen or twenty constituent principles attributed to 
it? As the amount of some of its most active constituents 
vary from 1.30 to 9.36 per cent, in a given quantity, it is 
apparent that great uncertainty must attend its exhibition. 
These facts admit of a wide range of application. Such of the 
medicinal plants as contain highly active constituents, for 
instance the Digitalis, and others of its class, can never be 
understandingly exhibited, either in infusion, tincture, or sub- 
stance. The same may be said of all crude organic remedies, 
but more nearly concerns those possessed of peculiar potency. 
Morphine is a positive medical agent, being of definite, uniform 
and certain power. Not so with Opium. Here the therapeu- 
tic constituents are blended with, and diffused through, a mass 
of non-medicinal substances, the number and amount of which 
can only be determined by analysis. Here it is that the scru- 
tinising powers of organic chemistry display their peculiar 
utility. Divesting the therapeutic constituents of all extraneous 
admixture, it hands them over to the physician, denned in 
amount, character, and sensible properties. This fits them 
with those characteristics which enable the practitioner to under- 
standingly and successfully employ them. 


^Another division of the influences which have a bearing 
upon the history of organic remedies, now claims our consid- 
eration ; and that is. the artificial cultivation of medicinal 
plants. In the transference of plants from their native locali- 
ties to soils prepared by the hand of man, many and impor- 
tant changes are effected in their individual constitutions. This 
is an established fact in regard to vegetables used as food,, 
which has long been recognised by botanists ; but we are not 
aware that the subject, as it relates to the changes effected in 
medicinal plants, has been so fully elucidated. The natural 
order of Crucifera, tribe Brassica, furnishes many examples of 
plants reclaimed from their wild habitudes, and rendered sub- 
servient to the purposes of food. True, all esculents must 
have been domesticated by the genius of man at some period 
of the world's history, but the greater number of them date 
the advent of 1heir initial culture so remotely, that we have 
little information respecting their primeval habits or characters. 
Of those above referred to, botanists have been enabled to note 
the changes effected by cultivation. Many plants now culti- 
vated for the table, were formerly esteemed exclusively as 
medicines. Cultivation has converted the small acrid root of 
the brassica rapa, or turnip, into a large and nutritious article 
of diet. Numerous similar illustrations might be adduced* 
but we presume our readers are already familiar with the facts* 
Now if plants can be so essentially changed in their character- 
istics that, from being bitter, acrid, and worthless as food, they 
become nutritious, palatable and wholesome, we have but to 
transfer the application of the principle to medicinal plants 
reared in the garden of the botanist, to see that our exceptions 
to the artificial cultivation of medicinal plants are well taken. 
By such a procedure they are much deteriorated in medicinal 
value, and often rendered entirely worthless. Take, for ex- 
ample, the Leontodon Taraxicum, or dandelion. That which 
is grown in natural localities possesses well defined and efficient 
remedial powers. True, much controversy has been had in 
relation to its therapeutic worth, and much been said, both 
pro and con. Much has been said and written to prove its 


inutility, and with many practitioners it has fallen into disre- 
pute. But the reason for this, as we shall show in a future 
chapter, when treating of extracts, has not always been the 
natural defects of the plant, but of the method of its preparation. 

By instituting a comparison between the dandelion of the 
shops — we mean such as has been artificially cultivated — and 
that collected from its native haunts, many important differ- 
ences will be found, not only in its external aspect, but also in 
its analytical and therapeutic peculiarities. In the cultivated 
plant the proportions of starch, grape-sugar, and ofeher non- 
medicinal constituents are largely increased; while the amount 
of proximate principles is proportionably diminished. Medi- 
cinally, the native plant is of well established utility in the 
treatment of a variety of diseases, particularly affections of the 
liver, kidneys, and respiratory system. Let any practitioner 
skeptical of its remedial value, gather the plant in the month of 
August, express the juice, and administer it in table-spoonful 
doses to such as are laboring under hepatic derangement, and 
he will fully realise the fact of its power to produce decided 
and sanative physiological results. That this is true of the 
recent plant, admits of no doubt ; but the great difficulty con- 
sists in so curing or pharmaceutical^ preparing the plant as 
to preserve its peculiar virtues. The process of kiln-drying 
medicinal plants is another most objectionable feature in the 
history of such as are artificially reared. By this process the 
volatile principles are dissipated, and certain chemical changes 
effected in other of the constituents. We need not multiply 
instances to make the fact, that material changes are effected 
in the constituents of medicinal plants, by artificial culture, 
patent to the mind of the reader. That even the structural aspect 
of plants may be altered by cultivation, is illustrated in the case 
of the Rose, in which, by culture, the stamens have been con- 
verted into petals. 

Plants also adapt their habits to the circumstances under 
which they are placed. The evergreens of the south become 
deciduous when transplanted to a northern clime. For exam- 
ple, the Magnolia Grandinora, and others. The Castor Oil 


plant, which in Africa forms woody trees, becomes an annual 
in our gardens. The Mignonette, which, in Europe, is an 
annual plant, becomes perennial in the sandy deserts of Egypt. 
Thus, on either hand, do plants conform their habitudes to the 
circumstances of their exposure. If, then, as we have seen, 
plants can so essentially change in their habits and external forms, 
is it not reasonable to suppose that they are capable of being 
materially altered in the chemistry of their organism. But we 
do not have to depend upon supposition in the latter instance 
more than in the former. We have the corroborative tests of 
analysis to sustain our inferences of the fact. 

While we wish to adhere to our advocacy of the 
fact, that cultivation materially affects the therapeutic 
constituency of plants, we do not wish to be understood 
to imply that said fact invariably militates against their 
comparative value. On the contrary, we are aware that 
cultivation has had much to do in developing and augmenting 
the medicinal as well as the nutritive value of certain plants. 
Their number, however, is comparatively few. "We might 
* mention the Poppy, Hops, and various species of Labiatse 
which yield the aromatic oils of commerce. Success in these 
instances, however, depends upon accident of adaptation. Soil, 
climate, season, exposure, all unite in conducing to this end, or 
conspire in militating against the perfect development of the 
plant. We are of opinion that very little attention has been 
given to the question of adaptation in all its essential requisites, 
and that chance alone has favored the experiments. In this 
opinion we are confirmed by the perusal of all the treatises 
upon the artificial rearing of medicinal plants to which we have 
had access. Not only is no mention made of the chemical 
qualities of the soil, exposure, length of season required for 
development, etc. ; but seldom are the chemical constituents 
of the plant defined with anything like precision. These 
omissions seem peculiarly pertinent to the question of the suc- 
cessful cultivation of medicinal plants. Attempts have been 
made, in England, to cultivate the Rhubarb for medical pur- 
poses, but popular predilection so much favored the imported 


root, that the project has been nearly or quite abandoned. The 
preference, in this instance, was based upon the accredited su- 
periority of the foreign article, while a consideration of the 
essential causes of the difference have no share in the forma- 
tion of the opinion. Clinical experiment demonstrated the 
relative value of the two, and here the question rested. The 
fact seems not to have incited a very rigid inquiry into the 

We hope that we have now established the various points 
of our argument. Inasmuch as we have demonstrated the 
fact, that plants vary infinitely in regard to the amount of act- 
ive principles yielded by different samples of the same species; 
that the vicissitudes of soil, climate, season, exj)osure, &c, all 
conspire in influencing the growth and developmejit of the 
plant — that the period of collecting, and method of curing ex- 
ercise great control over the constituency and preservation of 
its active principles — the external appearances are no indica- 
tion of reliability — that cultivation changes, and renders uncer- 
tain its essential therapeutic properties — and that by age the 
medicinal constituents of the dried plant are decomposed and 
dissipated, we hold that the exceptions at the head of this 
chapter were well taken. "We have shown that crude organic 
remedies can never be of definite, much less of uniform thera- 
peutic power. These points, setting aside all consideiato'on of 
the causes, have been amply demonstrated by analysis. That 
they are frequently inert, has been substantiated by the same 
authority. These facts alone are sufficient to prove them non- 
reliable, and, at best, of uncertain value. It follows then, that 
no matter what form we may exhibit them in, we will not 
Brrive at any degree of definiteness in regard to their remedial 
value. Be it in substance, tincture, infusion, decoction, syrup 
or extract, the same uncertainty will ever be attendant. Experi* 
ment alone can determine the relative value of each preparation ; 
but to such a proceeding, in the present state of pharmaceutical 
science, attaches a high degree of culpability. A knowledge 
of the facts set forth in this chapter being accessible to all who 
desire to learn, no excuse can be accepted from any one for 



not availing himself of the superior advantages offered by con- 
centrated medicines. 

We are far from advising that the ordinary methods for 
the preparation- of the simpler plants should be abandoned. 
On the contrary, we are a strong advocate for the employment 
of the simpler vegetable agents as auxiliaries in the treatment 
of disease. In our own practice we make frequent use of such 
agencies, in infusion, decoction, etc. But we confine ourselves 
to such incidental plants as may not yet have been prepared 
in a concentrated form and whose properties are such as not to 
render their indefinite administration hazardous. But with 
all the more potent agencies, and where efficiency and promp- 
titude of action is demanded, we have long ago dispensed with 
the employment of other than concentrated agents. 

We now come to a consideration of the chemical properties 
of vegetable constituents, and the rationale of the reactions 
whereby the proximate principles are decomposed. To this 
subject we shall devote another chapter. 

'■' i 

■ it,: 



Acids— Alkaloids — Indifferent or Neutral Substances, eto. 

No branch of human knowledge is so much indebted to the 
researches and developments of the chemist, as that of the 
science of medicine. He it is who prepares and provides the 
physician with means wherewith to do battle against the many 
" ills to which flesh is heir." He defines the laws which govern 
the form, properties, and affinities of matter, thus furnishing 
the physician with a chart to guide him safely o'er the troubled 
sea of medical practice. Even the physician himself must be- 
come a chemist — a chemist of the higher order of organic 
chemistry. His duty it is to control the chemical processes of 
life ; to harmonise irregularities and correct morbid conditions 
by means of reagents. It devolves upon him to superintend 
the formation, secretion and excretion of chemical combinations. 
It is necessary therefore, that he should be acquainted with the 
laws which govern chemical action, and with the properties of 
the reagents he employs. He must understand what particular 
circumstances and external influences will diminish, or com- 
pletely suppress the efficacy of his reagents. He must know 
whether his reagents will radically cure disease, or whether 
they will simply afford temporary relief, entailing still greater 
complications by their reaction. He must know whether they 
will relieve a lesser evil by the substitution of a greater; 


whether the substances conveyed into the system are capable 
of healthful assimilation ; or whether they will form combina- 
tions destructive to the integrity of animal organisms. Provided 
with this knowledge, he will be enabled to practice his profes- 
sion understandingly arid successfully. 

In order to a better understanding of the remedies treated 
of in this volume, we now propose to consider, in detail, the 
various proximate principles of whichthey are composed. To 
do this more comprehensively, we will first consider each of 
the principles separately, defining their sensible properties in 
the isolated form, and finally treat of them in a state of com- 

The number of single substances produced by Vegetable 
activity is very great. Many of these substances are very 
little understood, if, indeed, they are known at all. Certain 
substances are common to all plants, and constitute the mater- 
ials of vegetable formations. These, by way of distinction, we 
term nutritive. Again, there are substances which are found 
only in a certain class of plants ; while others are peculiar to 
a single plant. Upon the peculiar properties of these sub- 
stances is based their employment in medicine. Such are 
designated therapeutic principles. 

In considering the chemical properties of vegetable sub- 
stances, we will divide them into the three following classes : 

Class I. — Vegetable Acids. 

In the strong affinity displayed- by these substances for 
bases, they much resemble the inorganic acids. With few ex- 
ceptions, they are crystallizable and soluble in water. The 
greater number of them yield crystalline salts with bases. 
Nearly all vegetable acids change the color of blue litmus paper 
to red. Some of these acids are common to a large number of 
plants; others are found only in a certain genera; while some 
are confined to a single species. A part of the acids common 
to plants are the products of organic growth, while others are 
formed only after the vital activity of the plant has ceased. 
These latter are formed by the decomposition of the constitu- 
ents of the plant, under the agency of external influences, ,v he 


vegetable acids are*mostly found in the nutritive constituents 
of plants, and but few of them possess any peculiar medicinal 
value. They exist partly free, partly united with bases, and 
partly in combination with neutral substances. 

Vegetable acids are formed by the conversion of amylum 
and oil into cell-substance. By the operation of the same vital 
power, acids are again reduced and reassimilated to the primary 
form. Therefore if we rind in plants a peculiar oil, common 
only to a certain class, or an individual species, we may be 
sure to find, also, a peculiar acid ; and if the oil possess thera- 
peutic value, the acid will possess it likewise, although in a 
modified form. 

A large number of acid principles are employed in medicine 
which depend for therapeutic value upon their astringent pro- 
perties. These form a class to which we shall give the name 
of tanneous acids. These acids are not, as we have stated in 
the preceding chapter, strictly speaking, proximate principles ; 
that is, they are not formed in the living cells of the plant 
during the season of organic activity, but are the product of a 
peculiar putrefactive decomposition which takes place in the 
dead cells, whereby the cellulose is converted into tannin. As 
tannin is found only in the dead cells, and as cellulose is con- 
verted by the vital processes of organic activity into* wood and 
cork substances only, it follows, therefore, that tannin is a pro- 
duct, not of organic formative power, but of regressive chemical 

These tannin substances are not distinct principles, but are 
composed of a number of different principles combined together. 
A part of these substances, only, give acid reactions ; that is 
change blue litmus paper to red. They are known by their 
astringent taste — by giving with the salts of iron, blue, black, 
and dirty green precipitates — and by their power of combining 
with animal skin. With protein substances they form insolu- 
ble compounds. This we hold to be ' a strong reason why 
tannin cannot exist in the living cell. It would combine with 
and coagulate the contents of the cell, and render the albumin- 
ous matters, those great reagents of vegetable activity, insolu 


ble. Thus would the nutritive constituents be rendered 
unavailable, the secretions checked, progressive formation 
arrested, and the functions of organic life suspended. 

By the action of water and oxygen, tanneous acids are con- 
verted into a brown colored substance, but slightly soluble in 
water, termed humus. In this respect they resemble the 
extractive or neutral substances. 

Tanneous acids exist in great variety, and of very different 
properties. Those derived from gallnuts, oak bark, &c, are 
distinguished by the name of gallo-tannic, querci-tannic, etc. 
Another class is derived from Peruvian bark, catechu, &c. 
And still another class belongs to the indifferent or neutral 
vegetable compounds, and gives to many astringent plants 
their principal medicinal value. 

Class II. — Alkaloids, or Vegetable bases. 

These are certain organic compounds, which, on account of 
their possessing properties analagous to inorganic bases, par- 
ticularly alkalies, have received the above appellation. The 
greater number of these substances change red litmus paper 
blue. They all combine with acids, and form crystallizable 
salts, out of which they may be again separated by the action 
of a stronger base. It is from this similarity in their chemical 
reactions to the mineral alkalies, that they have received the 
name of alkaloids. The vegetable alkaloids exist both in a 
solid and liquid form. The former are mostly crystalizable, 
with few exceptions are colorless, non-volatile, and have but a 
faint odor. The latter are volatile, and have a stronger odor. 
By far the greater number of vegetable alkaloids have a bitter 
taste, and are more soluble in alcohol than in water ; while a 
few, like the Ilyosciamir.e, are more soluble in water than in 

Most vegetable alkaloids are composed of oxygen, hydro- 
gen, carbon, and nitrogen. A few, the liquid alkaloids partic- 
ularly, are composed of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen only ; 
while we occasionally find an inorganic element, as in the 
Thiosinnamine, which consists of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen 
and sulphur. 


Alkaloids do not exist free in plants, but are generally com- 
bined with acids, forming acidulous, and but slightly soluble 
salts. They are formed by the reaction of the bast-cells upon 
their abuminous contents, or the so-called milk sap of the 
plant, and are produced only in living plants. They are solely 
the products of organic activity, and their quantity is never 
increased in the dead or dried plant. Plants are generally 
richest in alkaloids during the winter months ; that is, after 
the cessation of the vegetating process, and while they are 
enjoying their hibernal sleep. 

When plants are undergoing decomposition, alkaloids are 
the last of the medicinal principles to be attacked ; but they are 
liable to be greatly modified or completely subverted in thera- 
peutic value by the products which arise from the decomposi- 
tion of the constituents of the plant. For instance, if tannic 
acid be formed in considerable quantities, it will combine with 
and completely suppress their activity as remedial agents, the 
bi-tannate of every vegetable alkaloid being entirely insoluble 
in all menstrua except stronger acids. How important this 
knowledge is to the physician, that he may avoid combining 
together incompatable principles, and thereby render nugatory 
their medicinal power. 

Some of the alkaloid principles of plants form their most 
active and valuable medicinal constituents, while others are 
possessed of but feeble properties. 

Class III. — Indifferent or Neutral PrincijDles. 

This class embraces all the remaining substances of vegeta- 
ble activity, and which are of very diverse chemical character- 
istics. A part of these are formed during the period of func- 
tional activity, and part are the result of subsequent decompo- 
sition. They are called neutral because they have not the 
power of neutralizing acids or bases, although they often 
combine with both. A larger number of these substances are 
more nearly allied to the class of acids, and are evidently of 
an electro-negative character. Amongst these may be 
enumerated a large number of resins, extractive or neutral 
principles, coloring matters, and products of decomposition. 


Others partake more of the basic character, of which we have 
examples in the ether resulting from the decomposition of 
alcohol, and the methyl-oxyd obtained from wood spirit. 
Many of these substances, as the greater portion of the fats, 
fixed oils, and ethereal compounds, partake of the character of 
salts. Such of the volatile oils as contain no oxygen, may be 
considered as simply hydrogenous compounds of hydro-car Don 
radicals. The greater number of the principal substances of 
plants are oxydes, either with or without nitrogen, but 
without any distinct chemical character, being, as before stated, 
neither basic nor acid, yet possessing the power, under some 
circumstances, of combining with both. When submitted to 
chemical processes, they yield for the most part acid and basic 

There are many substances pertaining to plants, sonic 
of which are common to all plants, others are distri- 
buted through different genera, which possess no particular 
medicinal value, and which it might be thought unneces- 
sary to notice in this connection. But their importance, in 
view of the results produced by their reaction upon the ther- 
apeutic constituents of the plant, demand that we should 
examine their history and influence more closely, before we 
enter upon a description of the properties and employment of 
the remedial agents under consideration.- We will consider 
first — 

Cellulose. — This substance is also known by the name of 
cell-substance, or cell-membrane. Its formula is C12 H20 O10. It 
is a white flexible mass, without smell or taste, insoluble in 
water, alcohol, ether, alkalies and concentrated hydrochloric 
and nitric acids. Exposed to destructive dry distillation, it 
does not soften, nor melt, but is converted into a beautiful 
colorless ^charcoal, which retains the cell form. Under the 
microscope it has the transparency and appearance of diamond. 
Under the action of concentrated sulphuric acid it is dissolved 
and converted into dextrine, and by long continued boiling in 
water acidulated with sulphuric acid, it yields, like dextrine 
crystal izable grape-sugar. A solution of caustic potassa sim- 


ply causes it to swell, without producing any further visible 
change. A solution of iodine colors cellulose of a pale yellow j 
chloriodide of zinc gives, in some cases, a blue color, as also 
will iodine and sulphuric acid, but in other cases gives only 
a pale yellow, It seems evident, therefore, from this, that 
cellulose exists under different modifications. By the progres- 
sive organic activity of the plant, it is converted into wood and 
cork substance j while, by regressive chemical action, it is 
converted into amylwm or starch. 

Xylogen. — Wood substance. — This principle is but slightly 
soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, but is easily and com- 
pletely dissolved by caustic potassa ; also, when boiled with 
chlorate of potassa and nitric acid. "When boiled in dilute 
sulphuric acid for a long time, it yields grape-sugar, in which 
respect it is similar to cellulose. Chloriodide of zinc, and 
iodine and sulphuric acid do not color it blue. Xylogen is 
found in the primary cell- wall, and in the thickening layers of 
all woody cells. It is formed by the progressive conversion 
of cellulose, and gives stiffness to the cell- wall. Its quantitive 
elementary analysis has not yet been made. 

Cuticular or Corlc-substance is somewhat similar in its 
character to the preceding. It is not soluble in sulphuric acid, 
neither is it invariably completely soluble in a solution of 
caustic potassa. It differs from xylogen in its behavior towards 
oxydising agents. "When boiled with chlorate of potassa and 
nitric acid, it is converted into a resinous substance, which is 
soluble in alcohol and ether, and burns with a strong, shining, 
but smoky flame, giving off a feeble aromatic odor, and leav- 
ing a porous coal. 

Cuticular substance is found in the walls of the older cork- 
cells, which are frequently formed entirely of this material, 
and in the so-called cuticular layers of the cells of the epider- 
mis. Cuticular substance is also the product of a progressive 
conversion of cellulose, which diminishes in quantity in 
proportion to the increase of the former, until, in the perfected 
cork formation, it has entirely disappeared. The chemical 
differences between cuticular substance and xylogen are pro- 


duced by the direct reaction of air and light upon the former, 
to which it is more exposed. Cuticular substanpe has the 
power of preventing the diffusion of fluids. It prevents 
exhalation from the surface, and the commingling of the sap 
of neighboring cells. It is therefore a substance of great 
importance in the vegetable economy. 

Protein. — Protein substances are insoluble in concentrated 
sulphuric acid, but are dissolved by caustic potassa. Iodine 
and sulphuric acid color them of a light golden yellow. By 
the action of chloriodide of zinc they are coagulated. Hydro- 
chloric acid gives, after twenty -four hours, a violet color. 
Sugar and sulphuric acid the same. Nitrate of mercury 
produces, after from five to ten minutes, a beautiful rose-colored 

Protein substances eagerly absorb soluble coloring matters. 
By taking advantage of this property, flowers may be artifi- 
cially colored by mixing soluble coloring matters with the soil 
in which they grow. In this way, flowers which are naturally 
white, may be rendered blue, red, and even black. Flowers 
naturally colored may be made to partake of all intermediate 

A part of these protein substances, mixed with other matters, 
enter into the structure of the cell-walls, and the rest form a 
portion of the contents of the cell. This latter portion we 
term protoplasma. It is a granular, slimy, nitrogenous liquid, 
and is found collected upon the inner surface of the cell-wall, 
and surrounding the nucleus of the cell. It does not mix with 
the cell contents, but in young cells is frequently found sus- 
pended in the cell-sap, and travelling in currents. Protoplasma 
has been long know under various names, such as vegetable 
mucous, vegetable glue, etc. ; but it is only by later and more 
strict investigation of its character and properties, that its 
importance in the vegetable economy has been fully established. 

It constitutes the different degrees of development, degrees 
of oxydation we may say, of protein, the radical of albuminous 
substances, either combined with sulphur alone, or with sulphur 
and phosphorus. By their chemical properties, three groups of 


protein substances may be distinguished, viz ; albumen, legu* 
mim, or cas&in, and the so-called fibrin. This term, however, 
is a misnomer, as it bears but a slight similarity to animal 
fibrin, and is never identical with it. Fibrin is the product 
of a higher organic activity, originated solely in animal cells, 
and formed by the action of the life forces upon the constituents 
of animal fluidity. 

Protein substances are found only in living cells, and as soon 
es the cell-sap is consumed, and the cell dies, these substances 
disappear, and the cell becomes filled with air. The current 
motion which we spoke of as being apparent in the protoplasma 
of the cells, is produced by a reciprocal chemical reaction 
which takes place between the protein substances and the rest 
of the cell contents. Protoplasma is of the greatest importance 
to the cells, constituting, as it were, their life agency. It 
assimilates the various substances brought into the cells, 
conduces to the formation of cell-substance, and its separation 
in the form of a membrane. The proper cell-sap is passive, 
while the protoplasma is circulating through it in never ceasing 
currents ; and while the protoplasma is of itself undergoing 
continuous material changes, it effects a metamophosis in all 
the constituents of plants. Alkaloids, and all other nitrogenous 
medicinal principles of plants, are formed by the direct decom- 
position of these protein substances. They also afford the 
, materials and stimulus for an increased production of their 
primary substances. These protein substances are readily 
decomposed by the action of heat, air, and water. This power 
of spontaneous decomposition is transferred to substances of a 
more constant and enduring composition, when brought in 
contact with them, which property renders them great promo- 
ters of fermentation and putrefaction. Protein substances 
exist in two conditions or degrees of modification, one class 
being soluble the other insoluble in water. In chemical prop- 
erties they are very similar. 

Amylum. — ( Cu H 20 Oio ) — Starch is the most common of 
all the substances concerned in vegetable activity, being found 
in all plants, although it is not everywhere present in the same 


plant at all seasons. It is principally the product of the paren- 
chymous cells, but is likewise found in the cells of the 
medullary rays, and also in some of the bast-cells, of which 
we have examples in the various species of Euphorbias. 
Amylum is produced in the plant at certain periods of its 
growth, and at other periods is again consumed, entering into 
new combinations, and forming new products. It is seldom to 
be met with in an amorphous condition, but usually occurs in 
grains of different form and size, the smallest of which mea* 
sure v C0 of a millimetre, and the largest ^ of a millimetre in 
diameter. These grains are each one composed of numerous 
layers. They are colorless, transparent, and insoluble in cold 
water, alcohol and ether. When boiled with water, or treated 
with acids, they are simply swelled up and suspended, but are 
not really dissolved. Paste consists of these starch grains 
swelled up in water. When this paste is further diluted with 
water and filtered, the starch remains upon the filter, as is 
proven by the filtrate not being colored by a solution of iodine. 
Starch grains, both solid and swelled in water, are colored by 
iodine. The color varies from a light wine-red, to a deep in- 
digo-blue, according to the amount of iodine present. In the 
production of this color the iodine has combined chemically 
with the starch, forming an iodide. Iodide of starch does not 
swell up either in sulphuric or hydrochloric acids, nor in boil- 
ing water, so long as free iodine is present, but remains 
unaltered ; but as soon as the iodine is volatilised it is decom- 

Dry starch is colored brown by iodine, but becomes instantly 
blue on the addition of water. Chloriodide of zinc colors 
starch of various shades, from violet to blue. When starch is 
swelled up in water and allowed to stand for a length of time, 
it undergoes successive chemical changes or decompositions. 
It is first converted into dextrine, then into grape-sugar, and 
finally into acetic and lactic acids. The decompositions are 
brought about by the reaction of the albuminous substances 
with which starch is always admixed. When boiled in diluted 
sulphuric acid, starch is gradually converted into dextrine • 


and when the process is farther continued, into ciystallisable 
grape-sugar. Boiled in diluted nitric acid, oxalic and mucic 
acids are produced. 

Starch is- generally converted by the processes of vegetable 
activity into dextrine and sugar. Out of these products cel- 
lulose is formed by the reaction of the protoplasma and cell- 
nucleus ; and by the further action of the protoplasma is 
separated in the form of membrane. On the other hand, 
cellulose is again reduced by the organic processes and re- 
converted into starch. It follows, as a matter of course, that 
these progressive and regressive metamorphoses must give rise 
to a number of substances, degrees of formation they might 
be termed, which, though isomeric in their composition, differ 
essentially in their physical and chemical properties. Inulin 
seems to be substituted in some plants for amylum. Its pro- 
perties and manner of origin are similar, and in reality it is 
nothing else but amylum in a certain stage of transformation. 

Dextrine. — (C w H 20 O 10 .) — This is a yellowish, or dark 
brown, lustrous, brittle substance, insoluble in alcohol and 
ether. Water dissolves it to a tasteless, frothy, viscous liquid. » 
When boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, it yields grape-sugar. 
Iodine does not color it blue. When diastase is mixed with 
a solution of dextrine and allowed to stand, grape-sugar is 
formed. Dextrine occurs in plants dissolved in the cell-sap. 
It is produced by the transformation of amylum, and consti- 
tutes the intermediate stage between starch and sugar. 
Dextrine is active in the formation of new cells. 

Sugars. — Six varieties of sugar are known in chemistry, 
four of which are crystallisable, and two uncrystallisable. Of 
the crystallisable, we have cane-sugar, mushroom-sugar, grape- 
sugar and mdlk-sugar. The uncrystallisable are the fruit 
sugars, and treacle. Milk-sugar occurs only in the milk of 

Cane-sugar has the formula, C 12 H 2& O 10 . Grape-sugar, Ci a 
-Sao Oio + 2 H 2 O. Sugar is frequently found dissolved in the 
cell-sap, being the product of a transformation of the preced- 
ng substances. Sugar is known by its having a sweet taste, 


and by being colored rose-red by sulphuric acid in the pre 
ence of protein substances. When a solution of sugar is 
mixed with caustic potassa, and a solution of copper is added, 
the liquid assumes a deep blue color. By the application of 
heat, and even at the ordinary temperature, the copper-oxyde is 
reduced, and red protoxide of copper is separated. If sugar 
dissolved in water come in contact with protein substances, or 
other agents of fermentation, it is soon decomposed. Various 
acids are originated, both by the spontaneous and chemical 
decomposition of sugar. 

Besides the kinds of sugar already enumerated, various 
substances occur in plants, which, on account of their sweet 
taste, would seem to be entitled to be classed amongst the 
sugars. Many chemists and physiological botanists have 
indeed so classified them, but in their other properties they 
so resemble the extractive or neutral substances that we deem 
it more proper to treat of them in that connection. 

Pectin. — Vegetable Gelatime. — This substance, in the moist 
state, forms a colorless, tasteless jelly. When deprived of its 
water by expression, it becomes opaque, forming a fibrous 
mass, in which may be traced the outlines of organic struc- 
tures. When thoroughly dried, it may be reduced to powder. 
Placed in water, it swells up gradually, and on standing for a 
time, the whole becomes reduced to a clear, transparent liquid, 
which, on the addition of alcohol, salts, or sugar, becomes 
gelatinous. Boiled in dilute sulphuric acid, it yields grape' 
sugar. When boiled with a solution of caustic alkali, a clear 
liquid is produced — pectinate of alkali — out of which, by the 
addition of acids, pectic acid is separated in the form of gela- 

Pectin occurs in all plants, but is found in the greatest 
quantity in juicy fruits and fleshy roots. It is the product of a 
regressive metamorphosis, and constitutes the first condition in 
the series of changes which cellulose undergoes when it is 
being reconverted by the vegetable activity into primary 
nutritive subtances. 

Gum.— (C 12 H^ O 10 .) — Gum is found in all plants, and in 


every part of their structure, dissolved in the cell-sap. It 
exudes from the ruptured bark of various trees, particularly 
of the genus Acacia, jPrunus, and Amygdalus. In the recent 
state, gum is liquid, but soon hardens on exposure to the air. 
When sugar in solution comes in contact with protein sub- 
stances, fermentation ensues, and among the products of the 
decomposition which takes place, we find a peculiar gum. 

Gum occurs in the form of an amorphous, transparent, or 
semi-transparent, bright and brittle mass, without smell, or 
taste. It is soluble in water, forming a frothy, sticky liquid, 
but is insoluble in alcohol and ether. It combines with bases, 
and when boiled with dilute sulphuric acid yields grape-sugar. 
Gum in solution is precipitated by basic acetate of lead, (3 Pb 
4- a,) and gives as a product, 2 Pb 4- C 12 H 20 O 10 . 

When a solution of gum is mixed with a solution of caustic 
potassa, and sulphate of copper is added, a blue precipitate, 
composed of gum and oxide of copper is thrown down. This 
precipitate is not changed in color by boiling. Gum, like the 
preceding substance, is also a product of vegetable metamor- 

Mucilage. — (C 12 H 20 O 10 .) — This substance, like the preced- 
ing, is also common to all plants, and occurs in a similar 
manner. It exudes from the ruptured bark of many trees and 
plants, either pure or mixed with gum. It forms the covering 
of many seeds, and is a constituent of many roots. Mucilage 
forms an amorphous, semi-transparent, tough mass, without 
smell or taste. When mixed with water it swells considerably, 
forming a sort of jelly, its particles being suspended in a par- 
tial state of solution. It is insoluble in alcohol and ether. 
When boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, it is first converted 
into gum, and finally, by continued boiling, into grape-sugar. 
Mucilage combines with bases. 

This substance was for a long time considered to be identical 
with gum, but the essential characteristics of the two are so 
dissimilar that we marvel much at their being confounded. 
Giim dissolves readily in water, while mucilage, which is com- 
posed of ardbm, lassorin, ccrasin, dec, simply swells up, 


forming a gelatinous mass. Mucilage, like the preceding arti- 
cle, is onlj a peculiar condition of metamorphosed vegetable 

There are several articles of therapeutic value recommended 
m medicine, which, from their properties of swelling up in 
water, and forming gelatinous masses, would seem to belong to 
this class. Among these are the Calendulin from the Calen- 
dula Officinalis, and the Trilliin, from the Trillium Pendu- 
lum. But their other properties, for instance their solubility 
in alcohol, would seem to entitle them to a distinct classifica- 
tion. In view of these distinctive characteristics, therefore, we 
propose for this class the name of Muciresins. 

Yiscin is a glutinous substance obtained from the berries of 
the Yiscum Album or Misletoe. It is not a particular chem- 
ical compound, being only -a product of the decomposition of 
the cellulose contained in the outer-cells of the misletoe 

Many inorganic elements enter the structure of plants, 
forming therein various chemical compounds. Amongst the 
more important of these substances, we might mention various 
earthy matters, alkalies and alkaline earths, metallic oxides, 
particularly those of iron, alumina, manganese, &c. In general 
we find the alkalies and alkaline earths combined with inor- 
ganic or organic acids, forming salts ; while the proper earths 
and metallic substances are mostly combined with inorganic 
matters, particularly with the coloring matters. The alkaline 
salts are found dissolved in the cell-sap ; while the salts of the 
alkaline earths are suspended in the form of crystals in the 
cell-sap, and amongst the cell secretions. If either the cell- 
sap or the cell secretions are extracted from the plant, these 
crystals are also extracted, still retaining their original form. 
If this extracted substance contains resins, resinoids, or oleo- 
resins, they are precipitated on the addition of water, being 
insoluble in that menstruum, and mechanically carry down at 
the same time these earthy crystals. This mechanical combin- 
ation is so strong, that a great complication of chemical pro- 
cesses would be rendered necessary to overcome this 


admixture. In fact it would be impossible to effect a separation 
without injuring, and oftentimes destroying the properties of 
the various proximate principles. Ignorance of these facts has 
given rise to unjust and malevolent charges of impurity and adul- 
teration of concentrated remedies. But malice and chemical 
ignorance are alike unavailing, and aspiring tyros may "hide 
their diminished heads" in the presence of the stern array of 
facts we now adduce. Honest and capable criticism is the 
great conservator of medical science ; but the puerile vaporings 
of the mercenary and incompetent sometimes cast a blighting 
incubus over the motives and labors of those who are honestly 
striving to advance the interests of true science. As we have 
stated in the preceding chapter, the coloring matters of plants 
are often possessed of valuable remedial properties. They are 
often combined, as above stated, with earthy and metallic sub- 
stances, from which they cannot be separated without effecting 
their decomposition. Hence it will be seen that the retention 
of the coloring principles in the concentrated remedies is based 
upon sound philosophical and chemical authority ; and instead 
of militating against their value, confirms them in the posses- 
sion of the aggregate medicinal value of the plant. 

Among the bases common to plants, potassa, soda, lime and 
magnesia predominate. Of acids, the sulphuric, phospho- 
ric, carbonic, tartaric, vinic,. oxalic, and malic occur most 
frequently. The organic acids are in general combined with 
the above mentioned bases, forming acidulous salts. Silica is 
found in the cell- walls of nearly all plants, -and oftentimes in 
considerable quantity. These inorganic constituents of plants 
are not accidental admixtures, but act as important agents in 
the processes of vegetable activity. Their particular influence 
seems to partake more of a catalytic than a chemical character. 

Fixed Oils. — These substances occur in plants suspended 
in the cell-sap, in the form of minute drops or globules of 
variable size. They are more abundant in seeds, but are found 
in lesser quantities in a great number of plants. The fixed oils 
are soluble to a greater or lesser extent in alcohol and ether, 
but are insoluble in water. They are saponified by a solution 


of caustic alkalies, and are then soluble in water. The strong 
light-refractive power of the fixed-oil drops, and the fact of 
their disappearing under the action of caustic alkalies, enables 
us to detect them, even in the smallest quantity, by means of 
the microscope. 

Fixed Oils are a mixture of margarin anl elain, the former 
being a compound of margarinic acid, (C 34 H 80 3 ,) and the 
latter of elaic acid, (G 41 Hgo 4? ) with glycerine, (0 3 H 4 2 ) 
which answers the purposes of a base. They are often color- 
less, but in general possess a distinctive color, in consequence 
of their holding in solution certain absorbed coloring matters. 
In many plants they are substituted for starch and its meta- 
morphosed conditions. They are also liable to similar trans- 
formations, of which we have an example in the germinating 
of an oily seed, in which instance the fixed oil affords the 
pioper materials for the formation of cell-substance. By 
similar transformations a great number of products are 
originated, but of many of them we know but very little. In 
general they have an acidulous, or electro-negative reaction. 
The fixed oils are very dissimilar in their composition, 
although they all conform in containing carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen. Only a smajl part of them can be considered as 
simple organic oxydes, while by far the greater number of 
them are salt-like compounds possessing different degrees of 
fusibility. The number of these salt-like compounds is very 
large, the more common and greater part of them being 
employed for technical and economical purposes, a small num- 
ber only possessing medicinal value. Each one of these 
compounds consists of a peculiar fat, having an acidulous 
reaction, (arising from the presence of sebacic acid,) neutralised 
by an indifferent organic oxyde, which oxyde cannot be sepa- 
rated without being altered in its composition. When treated 
with strong inorganic bases, these compounds are decomposed, 
the sebacic acid unites with the base, forming a sebate, and the 
indifferent organic oxyde is set free. While this decomposi- 
tion is taking place, the organic oxyde absorbs the elements 
;>f water, and appears in an altered condition. Every fixed 


•oil possessing a peculiar medicinal value, yields, by this pro- 
cess, a peculiar acid, which acid, however, does not entirely 
conform in its therapeutic reaction with the compound from 
which it is derived. The acids thus artificially produced, 
occur also in plants, being originated by the metamorphosis of 
vegetable material. 

A part of the fixed oils, when exposed to the air, absorb 
oxygen, discharge carbonic acid, and are converted into a re- 
sinous substance. Another portion of them, when similarly 
exposed, simply dry down to a soft, greasy mass. 

Wax. — Of this substance we have many varieties. They 
do not, however, form a distinct class of substances, but belong 
properly to the class of fixed oils. Like the latter, they are 
salt-like compounds, consisting of a fatty acid (cerain) united 
with an indifferent organic oxyde. Wax is never found in a 
liquid form, but always of a solid consistence, somewhat soft 
and unctious to the touch at a common temperature, but hard 
and brittle when exposed to the cold. It is but very slightly 
soluble in cold alcohol, somewhat more so in hot . alcohol, but 
readily dissolves in the fixed and volatile oils, &c. Wax 
occurs in many plants, forming in many instances a thin 
granular coating upon the epidermis. It also is found as a 
coating upon the berries of certain plants, as the Bayberry or 
Wax Myrtle, (Myrica Cerifera.) Wax possesses but feeble, 
if any, therapeutic power. Its use is mostly confined to the 
preparation of plasters, ointments, and other external appli- 

Volatile Oils. — These substances are of very frequent 
occurrence in plants, but are mostly confined to certain organs 
-or groups of cells. Where they exist in but small quantity, 
they are generally dissolved in the cell-sap ; but they are often 
found occupying the entire cell, as well as the spaces between 
•the cells. 

Volatile oils, like the preceding substances, are gradually 
•developed by progressive vegetable activity. The greater 
number of them are liquid at a common temperature. A few 
are solid, but very readily fusible. They are for the most 


part colorless. A small portion are colored, and may be either 
yellow, green, blue, red, or brown. They all possess a pene- 
trating odor, and a warm, pungent taste. When brought in 
contact with paper, a transparent stain is produced, which dis- 
appears upon the application of heat. Many liquid volatile 
oils hold solid volatile oils in solution. When allowed' to 
stand undisturbed for a period of time, or at a low temperature, 
the latter are separated in a crystalline form and precipitated. 
This precipitate is termed stearoptene. 

Volatile oils are but very slightly soluble in water, the solu- 
tion simply acquiring in a slight degree the odor and taste of 
the oil. They are readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and liquid 
fats. Only those volatile oils that contain oxygen are soluble 
in dilute alcohol. The greater the proportion of oxygen they 
contain, the greater their solubility. The boiling point of 
volatile oils is variable. The greater part of them, however, 
boil at 320° F. When' distilled alone they are partially de- 
composed. Most of the volatile oils contain oxj^gen ; a large 
number, however, are destitute of oxygen. When exposed to 
the air, they absorb oxygen, give off carbonic acid gas, and are 
finally converted into resins. Some volatile oils become acid 
ulous by the absorption of oxygen, and gradually separate 
crystals of a peculiar acid. Alkaloids convert them, in the 
presence of air, into resins,' with which they enter into com- 
bination forming resinates. A few of these oils contain 
sulphur. Volatile oils are not alone produced during the 
period of organic activity, but are frequently originated by 
fermentation, or the reaction of nitrogenous or oxydising 
substances upon indifferent vegetable materials. Many living 
plants contain no volatile oil ; but as soon as they cease to 
grow, and are subjected to fermentation, volatile oils are 
originated. We have an illustration in the volatile oil of bit- 
ter almonds. This oil does not exist ready formed in the 
almond, but is originated by the reactions which take place 
while it is undergoing decomposition. By powdering the 
kernels coarsely, mixing them with water, and allowing them 
to stand for 24 hours, a peculiar fermentation ensues. Two. 


products are originated by this fermentation, viz, volatile oil, 
and hydrocyanic acid. This is brought about by the reaction 
of einulsin, a peculiar nitrogenous substance, upon amygdalin, 
whereby the latter is decomposed, and the two above-named 
substances are produced. 

The Camphors are nothing more nor less than solid volatile 
oils, (stearoptene.) 

Many plants owe their employment in medicine to the vola- 
tile oils they afford. 

Kesin — Resins are peculiar proximate principles, possessing 
different degrees of solidity. They are mostly hard, brittle, 
and pulverulent ; sometimes soft, and, when they exist mixed 
with volatile oils, semi-liquid. The solid resins are non- 
conductors of electricity ; but, when subjected to friction, 
become electro-negative. A small number only are crystallis- 
able. The speciiic gravity of the larger number of them is 
greater than that of water, ranging from .9 to 1.2. All resins 
are fusible, some being decomposed, others not, but none can 
be volatilised without undergoing decomposition. They are 
inflammable, and burn with a bright, but smoky flame. Solid 
resins undergo no alteration when exposed to the air ; but soft 
and semi-liquid resins gradually harden, by reason of the vol- 
atile oil being converted by degrees into resin. 

The origination of resins out of volatile oils is effected in 
various ways. For instance, a certain amount of oxygen is 
absorbed from the atmosphere, and an equivalent amount of 
hydrogen is displaced, resulting in a degree of oxydation. In 
the second place, a certain quantity of oxygen is absorbed 
without displacing the elements of water, and in the third 
place, by the absorption of a larger quantity of oxygen, with 
or without displacing hydrogen, but forming and discharging 
carbonic acid gas. This last reaction results in a higher degree 
of oxydation. 

All resins contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are 
insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, volatile and 
fatty oils. They do not unite with acids, but, on the contrary, 
many of them have an acidulous reaction, which is shown by 


their changing blue litmus paper to red. They combine 
readily with bases, forming res-mates, and are freely soluble in 
a solution of caustic or carbonic alkali. Acidulous resins, 
when dissolved in alcohol, are not precipitated by the addition 
of ammonia, but those possessing no acid character are thrown 
down. Resins sometimes occur in the cells of plants, but in 
general exist in the form of secretions outside of the cell. 
They are truly nothing more nor less than oxydised volatile 
oils, and are often artificially produced by the reaction of acids, 
or a higher temperature, upon organic substances. Resins form 
an important class of remedial agents. 

Balsams are simply a mixture of resin and volatile oil. 

Oleo-Resins. — The substances designated by this appella- 
tion do not form a separate class, possessing distinct chemical 
characteristics, but are simply a mixture of resin, wax, and 
fixed oil. These compounds are mostly found in the leaves 
and steins of plants, and are generally of a greenish color. 
The wax and fatty oil, admixed with the resin, seldom have 
any particular medicinal value. The therapeutic properties 
reside chiefly in the admixed resins. 

Gum-Resins. — Gum-resins are likewise a mixture of differ- 
ent substances, which are found circulating through certain of 
the cell- vessels, particularly the bast-cells, of various plants. 
When these cells are ruptured, the gum-resin exudes out, and, 
on coming in contact with the atmosphere, hardens, forming a 
brown or yellowish gray mass. When it first exudes from the 
plant it resembles the 'milk-sap in appearance, and is of a white 
or yellowish cast. 

Gum-resins are only partly soluble in water, with which 
they simply form an emulsion ; neither are they wholly solu- 
ble in alcohol. In general they are composed of a mixture of 
different resins, gum, mucilage, volatile oil, and in some 
instances,- alkaloids. 

Resinoids. — Like the preceding, these are also a mixture of 
different vegetable constituents. They are formed by a com- 
bination of several resins possessing different degrees of electro- 
negative reaction, and of dissimilar chemical properties. A 


portion of these resins, when separated, are readily and wholly 
soluble in a solution of caustic ammonia, and a saturated 
solution may be boiled for a short time without separating the 
resin. When the solution is evaporated, a compound of 
ammonia and resin remain behind, in which the resin largely 
predominates. This portion of the resins have an acidulous 
reaction, and are strongly electro-negative. 

Another portion of these resinous constituents are also 
soluble in a solution of caustic ammonia at the ordinary tem- 
perature ; but when the solution is boiled for a quarter of an 
hour, the resin is separated free of ammonia. Although less 
electro-negative than the preceding class, they are precipitated 
from their alcoholic solution by the addition of a solution of 
acetate of copper. They are soluble, by the aid of heat, in a 
solution of carbonate of soda, carbonic acid being expelled 
during the process. Their alcoholic solution reddens blue lit- 
mus paper. 

A third class of these resins are neither soluble in a solution 
of caustic ammonia, nor in, a boiling solution of carbonate of 
soda, but are readily soluble in a solution of caustic potassa or 
caustic soda. They are not precipitated from their alcoholic 
solution by the acetate of copper ; but give a precipitate when 
treated with an alcoholic solution of the acetate of lead. Their 
alcoholic solution, when hot, reddens blue litmus paper. This 
class of resins are feebly electro-negative. 

A fourth class of these resins are insoluble even in a solu- 


tion of caustic potassa or soda, but may sometimes be dis- 
solved in a saturated alkaline solution of some other resin, 
from which they are again precipitated on the addition of more 
of the alkalie. These resins have no acidulous or electro-neg- 
ative reaction, and form a distinct class, for which we propose 
the term indifferent or neutral resins. Resinoids are insolu- 
ble in water, but are completely soluble in alcohol. They 
form a common constituent of plants, and are produced chiefly 
in those bast-cells having a milk-sap circulation. None are 
colorless, neither uniform in color, varying from light to dark 
yellow, red. brown, or green. Plants are richest in resinoids 


at the period when vegetable activity is arrested by. the ap- 
proach of winter. By the reaction of strong acids, resinoids* 
are decomposed and converted into tanneous substances. The 
greater number of them combine with tannic acid and form- 
compounds insoluble in alcohol. All resinoids possess, with- 
out exception, valuable remedial properties. 

Caoutchouc. — This substance occurs only in bast-cells 
having a milk-sap circulation, and appears in the form of small 
globules suspended in the milk-sap, giving to it an emulsion- 
like appearance. It is extensively employed for technical 
purposes, but cannot be considered as a therapeutic principle, 
seldom or never being used internally. 

Coloring Matters. — These substances are diffused through- 
out the entire structure of plants, and give to them their 
characteristic colors. They differ very much in their chemical 
properties, many of them being soluble in water, and bearing 
a strong resemblance to the neutral or extractive substances ,* 
while others are insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, and 
bear a strong similarity to the resins. Another portion are 
soluble in ether, and conform in their general properties with 
wax. Many of them combine with acids and bases-, whereby 
their original color is greatly modified, and their properties 
changed. The larger number of them combine with metallic 
oxydes, and form insoluble compounds. A few of the color- 
ing matters contain nitrogen. 

The most common of the coloring matters is chlorophyll 
It is found in all plants; and gives to them their green color.. 
Chlorophyl contains nitrogen. It generally appears in the 
form of minute grains ; but these grains are not wholly com- 
posed of chlorophyl, being a mixture of chlorophyl and 
colorless protein substances, the latter largely predominating 
in quantity. Chlorophyl is produced directly from protein 
substances by the action of sun-light. It is insoluble in water, 
but soluble in alcohol, ether, hydrochloric acid, and solutions 
of alkalies. During the fall months it undergoes a series of 
changes, being converted into a red coloring matter termed 
erythrophylj or into yellow colored substances called xantho~ 


I. The peculiar processes by which these changes are pro- 
duced are not understood. Coloring matters, in general, are 
found dissolved in the cell-^ap, or suspended in it in small 
globules. We know of but a few instances in which the cell- 
walls themselves are colored, while at the same time the cell- 
sap is colorless ; but we often find cells entirely filled up with 
coloring matters, particularly with those possessing tanneous 
properties. We also often find coloring matters existing in 
the form of secretions outside of the cells, and which, in general, 
partake of a resinous character. When the cell-sap is of a red 
color, it indicates the presence of free acid. Blue cell-sap indi- 
cates the presence of free alkalie. The coloring matters 
increase in amount, in dried plants, for a series of years. 
Many of these coloring principles possess valuable therapeutic 
properties, while others are wholly inert and worthless as 

Extractive Substances or Neutrals. — These terms are 
applied to a great number of substances which may be extract- 
ed from plants by means of water or alcohol, either cold or 
hot, and which possess very different physical and chemical 
properties. They are called neutral because they have neither 
basic nor acid properties, and possess neither positive nor 
negative electricity. Many of the neutral substances are crys* 
tallisable, others are amorphous ; some are colorless, but in 
general they possess a distinctive color, varying according to 
the source from whence they are derived. But few of the 
neutrals are tasteless. They may be either sweet, bitter, 
astringent, or sharp and caustic. When a solution of these 
neutral substances is exposed for a time to the action of the 
atmosphere, they are materially altered in their composition 
and properties. Particularly is this the case when a watery 
solution is evaporated. During the process of evaporation 
oxygen is absorbed, carbonic acid is formed and escapes in the 
form of gas, and a dark brown substance but slightly sol uble 
in water is separated. This extractive sediment is termed 
apotheme. This apothemean substance first appears upon the 
surface of the liquid in the form of a brown colored pellicle, 


and finally precipitates in the form of a powder. This sub- 
stance continues to form so long as the evaporation is continued, 
or so long as any of the neutral principle remains. Neutral sub- 
stances may be instantly converted into apotheme by the action 
of chlorine. The conversion of neutral substances into apo- 
theme is brought about by the absorption of oxygen from the 
atmosphere, which combines with a portion of the carbon of 
the neutral, forming carbonic acid, which is expelled, while at 
the same time a part, of the hydrogen and oxygen of the neu- 
tral unite and form water. For this reason the apotheme 
appears richer in carbon than the neutral from which it is 
derived. Apotheme is slightly soluble in cold alcohol, more 
so in hot, and easily and readily dissolved in a solution of car- 
bonic or caustic alkalie, out of which solutions it is again pre- 
cipitated by the addition of acids, with a portion of which it 
combines. Apotheme bears a striking resemblance to ulmic, 
humic, and japonic acids, according to the neutral from which 
it is derived. 

The neutrals agree in their general character in one respect 
only ; and that is, in being very easily and readily decomposed, 
the slightest influence of other substances, when brought in 
contact, being sufficient to produce their complete decom- 
position and destruction, and entirely change their chemical 
and therapeutic properties. In other respects they are very 
dissimilar, having no general character in common. 

A solution of some of the neutral substances is readily ab- 
sorbed by charcoal, either animal or vegetable ; while others 
are absorbed only after long continued boiling. Others are 
precipitated from their solution by the addition of a solution 
of the tri-basic acetate of lead, (3 Pb O-f-X)- Many of the 
neutrals are insoluble in absolute alcohol. Many of them are 
remarkable for their hygroscopic properties, absorbing moisture 
from the atmosphere very rapidly. 

Neutral principles occur in all plants, and form a large and 
important class of proximate medicinal principles. Many 
plants are entirely dependent upon the possession of this 


principle for remedial value and to its presence owe their 
employment in medicine. 

Humus and its metamorphosed products are not constitu- 
ents of the living cells, and have no therapeutic vaiue. They 
are products of the decomposition and putrefaction of solid 
organic matters, and are important only as belonging to the 
class of nutritive substances which the plant absorbs from the 

Having now completed our brief history of the principal 
constituents of vegetable activity, we propose to give the 
'rationale of the reactions whereby the proximate medicinal 
principles are decomposed, and their chemical composition and 
therapeutic properties either modified or entirely changed. In 
order that the reader may more readily trace the application 
of our exposition, we will first briefly recapitulate the main 
facts in relation thereto, set forth in the preceding pages. 

We have seen that acids are originated during the period of 
organic activity, and also by the decomposition of some of the 
constituents of the plant after the cessation of that period. A 
greater number of the vegetable acids pertain to the nutritive 
constituents, and are originated by the conversion of amylum 
and oils into cell-substance. These acids are reconvertible 
into amylum and oils. Tannin substances, it has been shown, 
are not products of organic growth, but are formed by a putre- 
factive conversion of cellulose. With protein substances they 
form insoluble compounds, and by the action of water and 
oxygen are converted into huminoid substances. 

Alkaloids are the products of living cells only, never increas- 
ing in amount in the dead plant, yet liable to form combinations 
whereby their medicinal value is suppressed. Thus, they com- 
bine with tannic acid, and when the latter is present in 
sufficient quantity, form bi-tannates, which are insoluble except 
/n stronger acids. 

Cellulose, xylogen, amylum, dextrine, pectin, gum, and 
mucilage all agree in yielding grape-sugar. Cellulose is con 
verted by the living cells into wood and cork substance, and 
by retrogressive chemical action into starch. Protein substan* 

*j2 constituents of plants. 

ces undergo spontaneous decomposition, and transfer this 
property to substances of a more enduring composition, thus 
greatly promoting putrefaction and decomposition. 

Starch is converted by the processes of vegetable activity 
into dextrine and grape-sugar, out of which products cellulose 
is formed by the action of protoplasma. " By the same activity 
cellulose is reconverted into starch. By the reaction of albu. 
minous substances, starch is converted, first into dextrine, then 
into grape-sugar, and finally into acetic and lactic acids. 

Sugars are liable to both spontaneous and chemical decom- 

O J. 

positions, by which various acids are originated, and which in ' 
turn react upon the therapeutic principles. 

Gum combines with bases, and is sometimes originated by 
the reaction of protein substances upon a solution of sugar. 

Mucilages also combine with bases, and sometimes with 
resins, forming a class of substances to which we have given 
the name of muci-resins. 

Fixed oils are substituted for starch in some plants, and are 
liable to similar decompositions, and give origin to a variety 
of acids. 

Volatile oils are converted by the action of the atmosphere 
into resins. By the absorption of oxygen some of them become 
acidulous, and deposit crystals of a peculiar acid. Alkalies con- 
vert them, when exposed to the air, into resins, with which they 
combine and form- resinates. Many volatile oils do not exist 
in the living plant, but are originated by the reaction of nitro- 
genous or oxydising substances upon neutral vegetable mate- 
rials, during the process of decomposition. 

Eesins are frequently acidulous, and combine with bases, 
forming resinates. They are often artificially produced by the 
reaction of acids, or of a higher temperature, upon organic 
matters, particularly volatile oils. 

Balsams, oleo-resins, and resinoids are compound substances, 
containing two or more of the previously described proximate 
principles. Eesinoids are converted by the action of strong 
acids into tanneous substances. The greater number of them 


combine with tannic acids, and form compounds insoluble in 

Neutral principles form a large class of remedial substances, 
constituting the entire medicinal value of many plants. They 
are remarkably susceptible to disorganising influences, and are 
readily and rapidly decomposed. By the evaporation of their 
watery solution they are converted into a peculiar substance 
termed apotheme. .They are remarkable for the avidity with 
which they absorb water, hence should be carefully ex- 
cluded from the air. They are the principles usually afforded 
by aqueous preparations, and the first to undergo decomposi- 
tion in pharmaceutical preparations. We shall notice them 
again in speaking of extracts. 

Those compound vegetable substances which are least com- 
plicated in their structure, that is, which contain the smallest 
number of elements, as well as the smallest number of 
equivalents, or atoms of the elements of which they are com- 
posed, are the most constant and enduring in their character, 
and longest resist decomposition. In proportion as the 
number of elements, or the number of the atoms or equiva- 
lents of the component elements is increased, do organic 
compounds manifest a disposition to undergo transformations, 
and to resolve into more simple forms. The presence of watei 
and oxygen is sufficient, at the ordinary temperature, to insti- 
tute and promote those peculiar decompositions which are 
variously termed fermentation, putrefaction, moldering, and 
rotting. Every substance which will absorb water and repel 
oxygen, or which will combine directly with organic com- 
pounds, rendering them more permanent in their composition, 
will prevent or retard decomposition. 

The processes by which the different kinds of decomposition 
above-named are effected, are various and dissimilar, accord- 
ingly as the substance is exposed to a free access of air, or is 
immersed in water, or buried in the soil. The most simple 
form of decomposition is that which organic substances con- 
taining no nitrogen undergo, when exposed to the action of 
the atmosphere. The rat ionale of the process is as follows- 


Oxygen is absorbed, combines with the hydrogen of the 
organic substance, and forms water ; while the carbon and 
oxygen of the substance unite and form carbonic acid which 
is dissipated in the form of gas. This species of decomposi- 
tion is simply a process of oxydation. Woody substances 
particularly, undergo this variety of decomposition when 
exposed to the necessary conditions. It is this species of 
decomposition which trees, cut in the early part of the season, 
when the stem is succulent with sap, so' rapidly undergo. It 
is for thi3 Tc&soia that trees cut at this period are unfit for the 
purposes of timber, as we have already stated in the preceding 
chapter. Nor are the}?- of much value as firewood, for by this 
spontaneous decomposition, a greater portion of their carbon 
and hydrogen is, so to speak, bivrned vp; that is, consumed in 
the formation of carbonic acid gas, and in this form dissipated. 

Medicinal roots, barks, etc., gathered at this season, are sub- 
ject to the same species of decomposition, and speedily become 
inert and worthless. 

Another species of decomposition to which organic sub- 
stances containing no uitrogen are subject, takes place when 
those substances are brought in contact with water, and 
partially excluded from atmospheric air. In this instance 
not only is oxygen absorbed, but also the elements of water. 
which are taken up in considerable quantities, carbonic acid 
gas is expelled, and the result is a compound possessed of very 
different chemical and physical properties. Woody fibre is 
peculiarly subject to this species of decomposition, and mani- 
fests the change by gradually losing its color, density, and 
becoming pulverulent. This phenomenon is frequently to be 
observed in the stems of old trees. In familiar language it is 
termed powder-post. 

Not even the complete exclusion of atmospheric air will pre 
vent non-nitrogenous organic substances from undergoing de 
composition, provided water be present. Of this we have an 
example in the formation of bituminous and anthracite coals. 

Organic acids, even when chemically pure, cannot be pre- 
served in the form of a watery solution, without being decom- 


posed. For example, the oxalic acid, (C 2 3) ) the most simple 
in its composition of all the organic acids, is speedily decom- 
posed when dissolved in water, no matter how effectually if. is 
excluded from the air. In this instance the water is decom- 
posed, and its elements uniting with those of the acid, various 
products are originated, as follows : a portion of the oxygen of 
the water combines with a portion of the carbon of the acid, 
and forms carbonic acid ; while a portion of the hydrogen of 
the water combines with a portion of the carbon of the acid 
forming a hydro-carbon compound, (C. H 2 ,) etc. At the same 
time a peculiar fungus is generated, belonging to the lower 
order of cryptogamic plants, known in common language by 
the name of mould. 

A solution of tartaric and other acids will undergo decom- 
position in a manner similar to that which we have just 

Those organic substances which contain nitrogen, evince a 
more ready tendency to undergo decomposition than the pre- 
ceding, provided the volume of nitrogen bears a due proportion 
to the rest of the elements ; that is, if the number of its atoms 
be neither too great nor too small. By the addition of another 
element, the affinities of a more simple substance are increased, 
and these affinities being displayed at the same time, the con- 
sequent reactions become more complex. Vegetable matters 
containing nitrogen, absorb oxygen from the atmosphere, and 
decompose the water which may be present. The hydrogen 
which is set free by the decomposition of the water, combines 
with the nitrogen of the organic matter, and forms ammonia, 
(N.H 3 ) ; while the oxygen either unites with the carbon of the 
vegetable material and forms carbonic acid (C. 2 ), or witli 
carbon and a portion of the hydrogen of the water, formim; 
some other organic acid, as, for instance, lactic acid (C 6 H 5 0-, 
+ H. O.) At the same time carbonic acid and another portion 
of the hydrogen are set free, and if the organic substance con- 
tains sulphate on phosphate salts, they will be found to yield 
traces of sulphuretted or phosphurettcd hydrogen, (H. S.) <>ir 
(P. H 3 ). When nitrogenous substances are immersed in water, 


they not only undergo spontaneous decomposition, but also 
decompose a portion of the water, forming carbonic acid, (0. 
2 ) and carburetted hydrogen (C. H 2 ), which escape in the 
form of gas ; while certain liuminoid products, poor in oxygen 
and hydrogen, and mixed with salts of oxyde of ammonia, 
remain. The unstable character of nitrogenous substances 
renders them great instigators and promoters of organic decom- 
positions ; and being capable of transfering this disposition to 
the substances with which they may come in contact, they fre- 
quently induce decomposition in organic compounds which 
would otherwise resist disintegrating influences for a great 
length of time. In consequence of this transferred property, 
the constituents of one substance frequently unite with those 
of another, when brought in contact. This blending of the 
constituents of the two substances does not always occur, how- 
ever; but the disposition of the one substance to undergo 
decomposition is attended with a consequent activity of its 
particles, which are set in motion, and these communicating 
their influence to the particles of the passive substance, over- 
come the indolence of their chemical affinity, and induce 
certain changes or transformations in its composition. The 
first species of decomposition is called putrefaction ; the second, 

When nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous vegetable sub- 
stances are commingled, and undergo putrefaction together, 
their constituents reciprocally react upon each other, effecting 
their mutual decomposition, and their elements reuniting in 
different numbers and proportions, various new products are 
formed ; as, for instance, ammonia, lactic acid, carbonic acid, 
carburetted hydrogen, butyric acid, mannite, gum, mucil- 
age; etc., and various offensive gases, fumes of which are 
emitted during the progress of the mutual reactions. This 
species of decomposition is sometimes termed mucinous fer- 

In the instance above cited, if the oxygen cannot be derived 
from the atmosphere, by reason of its exclusion, it is obtained 
by the reduction of the admixed substances; as, for instance, 


water and sulphate salts, the latter being conveited into sul- 
phurets. Thus, if sulphate of iron be present, its oxygen is 
absorbed, and it is ^converted into sulphuret of iron. The 
hydrogen which is set free by the decomposition of the water, 
frequently combines, at the moment of its liberation, with 
fragmentary portions of the admixed substances, forming 
products rich in hydrogen. This species of putrefaction takes 
place when the leaves of the indicjofera, and other plants 
yielding the blue indigo of commerce, are immersed in water. 
A kind of mucous fermentation ensues, water is decomposed, 
■carbonic acid, ammonia, and hydrogen gases are evolved, and 
the particles of coloring matter, which were blue in the leaf, 
itre held in solution, colorless. This loss of color is effected 
by the combination of hydrogen, set free by the decomposi- 
tion of water, with the blue indigo. The formula of blue 
indigo is 1ST. C J6 .H 5 2 . That of white indigo is C 16 H 5 .N. 
2 + H. It will be seen that the latter contains an excess of 
hydrogen. By the absorption of oxygen the blue color is 

The term fermentation is generally applied to the decom- 
position which sugar undergoes when exposed to the action 
of nitrogenous substances ; but upon referring to the preced- 
ing definitions and illustrations, and taking into consideration 
the great number of organic substances generated by the 
processes previously described, it will be seen that the greater 
number of organic destructive processes belong to this species 
of decomposition. 

A great many organic substances may be produced by 
fermentation artificially excited. 

.The fermentative decomposition of sugar is excited and 
promoted by the introduction into its solution of a peculiar 
cellular fungus, termed yeast. This substance consists of 
small, cell-like globules, of which it is estimated that a cubic 
inch contains eleven hundred and fifty- two millions. The 
cell-walls of these globules are isomeric in composition with 
starch, while the contents consist of a peculiar protein sub- 
stance which very readily and speedily undergoes decomposi- 


tion. The formation of this fungus is effected by the action 
of the oxygen of the atmosphere upon protein substances heldi 
in solution. During the process of fermentation, the protein, 
contents of these fungus, cells are decomposed, and acetate of 
ammonia and other products are formed, leaving the cells 
empty and exhausted. As soon as fermentation begins in the 
cells of the yeast, it is transferred to the particles of the sugar,, 
which is converted thereby into carbonic acid and alcohoL 
When fermentation is once generated in contact with the- 
atmosphere, it does not cease when the fermenting substance 
is excluded from the air, even if immersed under water. The- 
necessary oxygen is obtained by the reduction of water, and 
of sugar, while at the same time new products, rich in hydro- 
gen, are formed. If the substances undergoing fermentation 
are neutral, among tfye products will be found fusel-oil ; if the 
fermenting liquid be acidulous, ether-like compounds are 
formed. By a temperature above 80° of Farenheit, fermen- 
tation is changed into putrefaction, and sugar is then converted 
into mannite, gum, lactic acid, and butyric acid. 

It is by a similar process of fermentation that amygdalin r 
when acted upon by emulsin in the presence of water, is 
decomposed, giving rise to the formation of volatile oil, hydro- 
cyanic acid, sugar, carbonic acid, and carburetted hydrogen^ 

Amygdalin belongs to the class of crystallisable neutral 
substances. Its formula is C 40 H 27 .N. 22 . It is soluble in 
water, out of which it crystallises in large colorless prisms, 
containing six equivalents of water. Amygdalin is derived 
from the kernels of the bitter almond, peach, cherry, prune 
and other fruit stones, and from the bark of the wild cherry^ 
choke cherry, etc. 

Emulsin is a peculiar nitrogenous constituent of both th© 
sweet and bitter almond, in the former of which it exists 
independent of the presence of amygdalin. It is also found 
in the kernels of other fruits, and in many plants. It is 'solu- 
ble in water. The formula is N.C J6 H ;2 0.j. In the cotyledon, 
of the almond and other fruits, and in those other plants. 
yielding these two principles, the amygdalin and emulsin exiss 


in separate and distinct cells, hence, in that condition, cannot 
react upon each other ; but when these substances are bruised 
or reduced to powder, and mixed with water, fermentation 
and decomposition immediately ensue. Not only are the 
amygdalin and emulsin decomposed, but also a portion of the 
water, giving rise to the products above named. We shall 
have occasion to refer to this peculiar fermentative decompo- 
sition when treating of the properties and employment of 
Prunin and Cerasein. 

A similar fermentation ensues when sinapisine is submitted 
to the action of myrosyne, in the presence of water. Decom- 
position takes place, and volatile oil, sulpho-hydrocyanic acid, 
and other products are originated, 

We have now completed our brief history of the different 
varieties of decomposition to which vegetable substances are 
subject, and propose, in another chapter, to make a practical 
application of the preceding facts while discussing the subject 
■of officinal preparations. Our great aim is to awaken the 
attention of the profession to the best methods of preparing 
remedials, be they either simple or compound, so that we may 
secure their full, and what is of quite as much importance, 
their definite value. If we can show that the ordinary phar- 
maceutical preparations, such as are now recognized by the 
term officinal, are defective and not prepared in accordance 
with the requirements of science, we will have made a begin- 
ning. But if we can go further, and point out the manner in 
which these imperfections may be rectified, we feel that we 
shall be truly advancing the interests of positive medical 



Officinal Preparations — Infusions — Decoctions — Extracts, etc. — ih&m 
liability to Decomposition— of variable strength — frequently inert, etc 
— Concentrated Medicines proper — their advantages — uniform and. 
definite in strength — not liable to change, etc. 

From the earliest times many disadvantages have been recog- 
nised in the employment of crude medicines, and many and 
various processes have been devised, whereby to bring their 
remedial properties into a more definite and convenient fomv 
We have shown some of the disadvantages arising from th& 
employment of crude organic medicines in the first chapter,, 
and, as there promised, will now endeavor to demonstrate the 
correctness of the objections there named. 

We now propose to critically examine the various methods: 
of preparing organic remedies for the use of the physician,, 
and to apply the tests of organic chemistry to the preparations 
named at the head of this chapter. We shall then be enabled 
to see how far the labors of the pharmaceutist have tended to 
accomplish the desired object. And first we will examine — 

Infusions. — These*constitute the most simple form in which 

vegetable remedial substances are prepared for exhibition. 

A part, or the whole of a plant is bruised and put into some 

eonvenient vessel, boiling water is added, and the whole is- 

'allowed to stand for a time in a warm place. The hot wate$r- 


softens and swells up the tissues of the plant, and extracts a 
portion of those principles which are soluble in water, both 
medicinal and nutritive. Thus far the process seems well 
enough ; but let us look a little closer at the process, and 
examine it in all its aspects. In the first chapter we have 
demonstrated that one great objection to the employment of 
crude organic remedies, depends upon the fact that they are 
extremely variable as regards the quantitive product of active 
proximate principles. Not only does the actual amount of 
medicinal constituents vary infinitely, but frequently are the 
specimens entirely inert. "Will this discrepancy be equalised 
by the preparation of the substance in infusion? By no 
means whatever. Not only will the therapeutic deficiencies 
of the plant go unremedied, but absolutely be rendered more 
uncertain in consequence of the presence of a considerable 
amount of other active principles insoluble in water, such as 
resins, resinoids, oils, etc., which will not only be retained by 
the plant, but will also cause the retention of a considerable 
amount of such portions as would be otherwise soluble. In 
this way the full value of such of the medicinal power* as 
would otherwise be yielded to the water, is withheld. As 
plants are richer at some seasons than at others in those prin- 
ciples which are insoluble in water, it follows that the gather- 
ing' of the plant at different seasons, will exercise a great 
influence in modifying the character of the infusion. 

In the second place, when certain insoluble active principles 
are present in the plant employed, they cannot be rejected 
without seriously impairing the value of the preparation. 
When a number of therapeutic properties are attributed to a 
plant, we naturally infer that those properties respectively 
reside in separate and distinct proximate principles, and do not 
look for them to be concentrated in one single isolated 
principle. Hence the disappointment frequently experienced 
by the physician, by reason of overlooking the question of 
plurality and solubility of the active medicinal constituents 
of plants. 

Thirdly, the water not only extracts a portion of the medi- 


cinal constituents of the plant, but also a greater part of the 
nutritive or non-medicinal substances, such as grape-sugar, 
gum, mucilage, dextrine, pectin, various acids, protein sub- 
stances, tanneous principles, etc., which of themselves undergo 
spontaneous decomposition, and the accompanying fermenta- 
tion involves the certain destruction of whatever medicinal 
constituents may be present. Thus are infusions speedily 
rendered worthless, the time required varying from a few 
hours to a few days. By referring to the preceding chapter, 
the reader will be enabled to comprehend the nature of the 
reactions liable to ensue when the above named substances are 
mingled in solution. He there will find the individual char- 
acteristics of the different constituents defined. Thus if the 
plant be prized on account of its yielding tannin, and at the 
same time protein substances are afforded to the solution, they 
will combine with the tannin, forming an insoluble compound. 
Or if no protein substance be present, the tannin is shortly 
converted, by the action of water and oxygen, into humus. 
Or on the other hand, if these conditions are not present, and 
a neutral principle is held in solution independent of the pre- 
sence of other substances, it is converted, if evaporation take 
place, into apotheme. If the plant yield a soluble alkaloid, 
and at the same time tannic acid, they will combine, forming, 
if the quantity of tannic acid be considerable, a bi-tannate, 
which is insoluble in every menstruum except a stronger acid. 
Other changes are liable to take place, which the reader may 
easily determine by consulting the preceding chapter. We 
have particularised a few, in order to account for the disap- 
pointment which no doubt many physicians have experienced 
in the employment of medicinal plants when prepared in thii 
form. In consequence of the want of a knowledge of these 
facts, many really valuable plants have been condemned as 
worthless, or at least as of uncertain value. The natural 
defects of the plant, together with the unscientific metho4 of 
its preparation, have created much division of opinion, and 
brought many excellent remedies into disrepute. 

The chemical properties of the water employed in making 


infusions, exercise a greatly modifying influence. Thus, if 
the water contain earthy salts, as, for instance, carbonate of 
lime, it will precipitate a great proportion of the medicinal 
constituents, and render the infusion comparatively worthless. 
Decoctions. — When a plant is boiled in water for a time, 
the solution so formed is termed a decoction. Such prepara- 
tions generally contain more of the soluble constituents of the 
plant, particularly the nutritive, a portion of which become 
insoluble when the decoction cools, and are precipitated. These 
precipitates, in falling, mechanically carry down a considerable 
portion of the medicinal matters held in solution, and thus 
materially diminish the value of the preparation. By reason 
of their containing more constituents, their chemical affinities 
are increased, and their tendency to decomposition augmented 
in proportion. As stated in the first chapter, such prepara- 
tions speedily run into the putrefactive fermentation, particu- 
larly in warm weather. If the plant yield tannic acid, it will 
combine with protein substances, forming insoluble compounds, 
and these, as above stated, will mechanically carry down much 
of the medicinal matter present. If the plant happen to yield 
a soluble alkaloid, it will combine with the tannic acid, and 
thus be rendered inert. It will be remembered that the age 
of the plant, dating from the period at which it was gathered, 
will make a great difference in regard to the amount of tannic 
acid present, as that constituent is formed after the death of 
the cells, by a putrefactive conversion of the cellulose. Hence 
the amount of tannic acid increases with age. We have, then, to 
contend with much uncertainty when a remedy is so prepared. 
First, the uncertain amount of medicinal power residing in the 
crude material ; second, the liability of such of the medicinal 
constituents as may be extracted, to be precipitated from their 
solution ; third, the rapid decompositions which take place 
when a number of vegetable constituents are mingled togeth er 
in solution. Thus, if the plant yield starch, together with 
albuminous matters, and which are almost universally present, 
it will undergo decomposition, if the decoction be allowed to 
stand for a time, being first converted into dextrin, next into 


grape-sugar, and finally into acetic and lactic acids. If grape- 
sugar be afforded, it will also undergo decomposition, giving 
rise to the formation of various acids. These, in turn, will 
react upon other of the constituents present. If tannic acid 
be extracted, and does not combine with any other substance, 
it will be converted, after a time, by the action of the water 
and atmosphere, into humus. Thus are certain and compli- 
cated reactions involved, and the character of the preparation 
rendered uncertain and inert. The presence of any nutritive 
principle whatever, is antagonistic to the integrity of every 
pharmaceutical preparation. Complete isolation of the thera- 
peutic constituents is the only safeguard. ' 

Extracts. — Of these preparations we have several varieties, 
termed respectively, aqueous, alcoholic, hydro-alcoholic . 
inspissated, and fluid. No department of pharmacy more 
needs a thorough reformation than this. While we are far 
from impugning the motives of those who manufacture these 
preparations for the use of the profession, believing that they 
have honestly and faithfully endeavored to effect the best 
results their knowledge of organic chemistry would permit, 
we nevertheless desire to call the attention of the profession to 
the obvious defects that pertain to such preparations, and 
invite their serious attention to a consideration of the facts we 
are about to present in relation thereto. 

Aqueous Extracts. — When an infusion or decoction is 
evaporated to a syrupy or honey -like consistency, the residue is 
known by the general term of extract. It will be remembered 
that the usual and almost sole medicinal constituent yielded to 
water is a neutral principle. It will also be remembered that 
we stated, when treating of the chemical properties of neutral 
principles that when their watery solution is exposed to a free 
access of air, and evaporated, they undergo a material alteration 
in their composition. This is precisely what occurs in the 
preparation of watery extracts. The continual change of air 
to which the surface of the evaporating liquid is exposed, gives 
rise to the formation of a peculiar substance much resembling 
humus, tc which the name of apotheme has been given. This 


6ubstance, as it forms, is precipitated, and in common with the 
concentrated nutritive substances which may have been 
afforded by the plant, forms the ordinary aqueous extract. 
If the evaporating liquid is exposed to a strong heat, the neu- 
tral principle is completely decomposed, and the extract 
rendered entirely worthless for all medicinal purposes. 

This change does not take place to so great an extent when 
the extracts are prepared in vacuo / but even then they are 
rendered none the less liable to the spontaneous decomposi- 
tions which afterwards ensue, as sufficient water will always 
be present to institute and promote a destructive metamor- 
phosis. Frequently are the plants employed in making 
extracts nearly or quite destitute of any proximate active 
principles whatever, in which case we have nothing for our 
pains but a worthless mass of starch, grape-sugar, protein 
substances, gum, pectin, etc. Thus lean we upon a broken 
reed perhaps, in the time of our greatest need. Or perhaps 
the active principles that give medicinal value to the plant are 
insoluble in water, and again is such a preparation obviously 
worthless. Even admitting, for the sake of argument, that 
the watery extract may have secured the neutral principle 
unchanged, yet a very short time will suffice to render the 
preparation valueless. This result will arise from the fact of 
their admixture with those non-medicinal constituents which 
so readily and rapidly undergo decomposition, and which, as 
stated in the preceding chapter, communicate their disposition 
to substances of a more enduring texture. As neutral princi- 
ples are the first to be affected by such decomposition, it 
foJ lows that those preparations depending upon the presence 
of this principle for therapeutic value, will soonest be rendered 
worthless. All extracts become entirely inert in one year 
from the time of their preparation. Extracts of narcotic 
pknts are generally worthless after the expiration of six 
months. Some extracts are entirely decomposed at the end 
oi three weeks. Extracts that should be kept in hermetically 
closed vessels, are frequently put into earthen pots with 


loosely fitting covers, and thus exposed to the destructive 
ravages of air and moisture. 

Alcoholic Extracts. — These are prepared by digesting 
the crude materials in alcohol, of various per centages, 
until the medicinal constituents are dissolved out, and the 
solution so formed is reduced by distillation or evaporation to 
the proper consistency. Extracts so prepared are preferable 
to the preceding, inasmuch as they contain a lesser proportion 
of the non-meclicinal constituents of the plant, provided the 
alcohol employed in their preparation be not too much 
diluted. Yet even these will contain grape-sugar, tanneous 
substances, various acids, and water, quite sufficient to cause 
them to undergo decomposition in a very short time. It is 
also a common practice amongst extract makers, to boil the 
materials, after they have been exhausted with alcohol, in 
water, so long as they will yield any soluble matters, and to 
add this watery product to the alcoholic solution. In this 
way the quantity of extract is increased, but the quality is 
impaired, as the added constituents consist of gum, staroh. 
grape-sugar, pectin, dextrin, and other non-meclicinal matters, 
all active agents in promoting fermentation and decomposition. 
Even when excluded effectually from the action of the atmos- 
phere, extracts are not proof against decomposition, as water 
is always present in sufficient quantity to stimulate the chemi- 
cal affinities of the non-nitrogenous constituents, and when 
once the fermentative or putiefactive processes are commenced, 
their influence, as previously explained, is communicated to 
the more resisting constituents. The more complex such a 
preparation may be, the greater the number of its affinities, 
consequently liable to a greater number and variety of cherm- 
cal reactions. 

Hydro-alcoholic extracts are similar to the above, the only 
difference being that the plant is exhausted, or, we might 
more properly say, digested in dilute alcohol. Hence less of 
the constituents requiring strong alcohol to dissolve them are 
obtained, while the non-medicinal nutritive substances are 
chiefly extracted. Their defects are therefore self-evident. 


Inspissated Extracts. — This name is given to prepara- 
tions made by reducing the expressed juice of the fresh plant 
to the proper consistency. The plant is bruised and subjected 
to pressure, and after all the juice that is possible is obtained 
in this manner, hot water is added to xhe plant, and the press- 
ure again applied, and so on ad finem until all the properties 
are supposed to be extracted. The solutions so obtained are 
mixed, and exposed to a heat above 150° F., in order to 
coagulate the protein substances, filtered, and evaporated to 
the proper consistence. Extracts so prepared are similar to 
the alcoholic extracts, except that if the plant from which 
they are obtained contain an alkaloid principle, which 
generally occurs in a crystalline form, the extract will not 
possess it, unless the alkaloid be soluble in water, which, how- 
ever, is seldom the case. Pressure will not extract the crys- 
talline alkaloid principles of plants. 

Fluid Extracts. — These are old preparations with new 
titles. They are variously prepared, and are nothing more 
than infusions, decoctions, or tinctures, reduced to a semi-fluid 
or syrupy consistency. In some cases the plants are treated 
with water, the solution evaporated, and a quantity of alcohol 
added. At other times, the evaporated solution is mixed 
with syrup or molasses, and the required consistency thus 
obtained. Sometimes alcohol is employed as the menstruum, 
which, however, is generally evaporated off, and sugar and 
water substituted. The vapor of alcohol, or water, or both, 
is employed by others, but in either case no definite result is 
arrived at, so far as regards the medicinal strength of the 
preparations. They possess no advantages over other extracts, 
being neither definite nor uniform in therapeutic power. As 
a general thing, they contain very little of the active medi- 
cinal constituents of the plants from which they are derived, 
and frequently none at all. In this statement, we are sup- 
ported by the experience of eminent and scientific profes- 
sional men, their judgment in the matter being rendered 
only after carefully conducted and extensive trials. In a 
paper read before the New York Academy of Medicine, by a 


distinguished member of that body, an impartial history is 
given of numerous clinical and chemical analyses, and these 
preparations there proven to be variable, uncertain, and fre- 
quently inert. The reader has but to transfer the application 
of the foregoing facts to these preparations, and thereby save 
us the necessity of a recapitulation. They are open to all the 
objections and accidents of other extracts, differing only in 

Tinctures. — The ordinary tinctures of organic medicinal 
substances are fully as indefinite in remedial power, as any of 
the preparations we have been describing. As in all other 
instances, physical considerations alone are the criterion for 
their preparation. A given amount, by weight, of some crude 
substance is directed to be added to a given quantity of alco- 
hol, by measure, and this completes the process, except, in 
some instances, digesting and filtering. The alcohol employed 
is seldom of uniform strength, and frequently the alcohol 
employed in preparing tinctures from the same plant is of 
variable per centage. We have amply demonstrated the fact 
that all crude organic materials are never uniform in their 
yield of active principles, and this alone would prove the 
character of ordinary tinctures unreliable. But other consid- 
erations may be appropriately cited. If the alcohol is not of 
sufficient strength, a great proportion of the active principles 
requiring strong alcohol to dissolve them, such as resins, 
resinoids, oils, etc., will not be extracted, while at the same 
time a larger amount of the nutritive constituents are taken 
up, such as grape-sugar, etc., and the tincture thus rendered 
more susceptible of decomposition. Not even tinctures are 
proof against change and decomposition, although they suffer 
to a less extent than the previously described preparations. 
Tinctures which, when newly made, have neither alkaline nor 
acid reactions, become, after standing for a length of time, 
acidulous, as is proved by their power of reddening blue lit- 
mus paper. When tinctures are allowed to stand undisturbed 
for from three to six months, be they ever so securely stop- 
pered, they will give a brownish colored precipitate. This 


precipitate belongs, in consideration of its chemical properties, 
to the class of humoid products, which proves abundantly 
that the medicinal constituents have been undergoing decom- 
position. , Alcohol will not prevent tannic acid from undergo- 
ing decomposition, neither will it prevent the catalytic 
influence of one constituent over another. Alcohol, when 
diluted, is un excitant of decomposition, as may be seen by 
observing the process pursued in some parts of the country 
for making vinegar. 

Strups. — These are simply fluid extracts mixed with cane- 
sugar. The extracts may be either aqueous, alcoholic, or 
hydro-alcoholic. The usual proportion of sugar employed is 
two parts to one of extract. It is generally conceived, and so 
stated, that this proportion of sugar will prevent decomposition 
of both the medicinal and nutritive substances. This, however, 
is an error. Sugar simply retards, but will not prevent 
decomposition. That it will not prevent decomposition, we 
have many familiar examples in dome'stic economy. For 
instance, when certain unripe fruits are preserved in pure 
syrup of sugar, they gradually ripen, and in course of time 
become matured in flavor and other characteristic properties. 
This proves that a material metamorphosis has taken place in 
their constituents, retarded perhaps, but not prevented by the 
presence of the sugar. Walnuts gathered while yet unripe, 
and before any traces whatever of oil can be detected in them, 
and preserved in sugar, will undergo a progressive change in 
their constitution, and the characteristic oil of the nut will be 
developed. Thus we see that even sugar will not hold the 
chemic forces in abeyance. But we need not go beyond the 
dispensatories to prove that sugar will not prevent decomposi- 
tion. It is there admitted. Directions are also given, that if 
a syrup ferment, it be re-heated, and again allowed to cool. 
It is also stated that " a syrup thus recovered is less apt to 
undergo subsequent change, on account of the fermenting 
principles having been decreased or consumed." What are 
these " fermenting principles" so " decreased or consumed ?" 
ft must be borne in mind that syrups depend chiefly for their 



medicinal value upon - the presence of neutral principles. 
These principles, it must also be remembered, are extremely 
susceptible to decomposing influences. No neutral principle 
.can preserve its integrity in the presence of fermentation once 
excited. They are the first to undergo change in all ferment- 
ing solutions. Nor is much time required to effect their total - 
destruction. These are a part of the "fermenting principles'* 
which are " decreased or consumed" when syrups manifest a 
disposition to decompose. We would caution practitioners 
not to risk the lives of their patients, nor their own reputations, 
by using syrups which have fermented and been re-heated, as 
the "fermenting principles decreased or consumed" by the 
process constitute, in nine cases out of. ten, the sole remedial 
properties of the preparations. 

Sugar does possess, in a degree, the power of preventing 
direct oxydation, by reason of its property of absorbing oxygen. 
It also may retard decomposition for a time by absorbing 
water. But this will not prevent the reactions of the con- 
stituents upon each other. These reactions partake, in many 
instances, of a catalytic nature. Cane-sugar, by the absorption 
of two equivalents of water, is converted into grape-sugar, and 
its power to prevent oxydation or decomposition is thereby 
materially lessened. This conversion proves that certain 
reactions have been going forward. But while cane-sugar has 
the property of absorbing water, it must be borne in mind 
that some of the neutral principles also possess this property 
in a preeminent degree. To demonstrate this fact, we have 
but to expose a quantity of cane-sugar and an equal amount 
of certain of the neutral principles to the action of the atmos- 
ph^re, when it will be found that, while the sugar becomes 
dried, actually losing a portion of its moisture, or remains un- 
changed, -the neutral principles will absorb water and harden. 
For the purpose of experiment, Leptandrin, Cj^pripedin, 
Populin, etc., may be employed, each of which contains a 
neutral principle possessing hygroscopic properties. This 
phenomenon as readily takes place in syrups and other 
preparations, and affords an illustration of elective affinity. It 


will be seen, therefore, that sugar would be inefficient in pre- 
serving such constituents from undergoing change. This 
property of the neutral principles exercises a most important 
bearing upon the history of all crude organic remedies, and 
will explain the variable and uncertain character of many 
remedial agents. 

We have now enumerated the principal defects of the fore- 
going classes of pharmaceutical preparations. We are aware 
that the processes we have mentioned are frequently varied, 
and that other solvent menstrua are frequently employed, such 
as ether, wine, etc., but the main features of the case are not 
thereby altered. We do not entertain the idea for a moment 
that aught we have said will bring these preparations into 
entire disuse. But we hope, nevertheless, that practitioners will 
give their serious consideration to the facts we have advanced. 
We have given the chemical proofs, step by step, and we 
doubt not that the experience of all observing physicians will 
confirm the truth of our exposition. Although the facts in 
the case have long been apparent, no explanation has hitherto 
been <*iven which might serve to reconcile the various opinions 
relative to the remedial value of many plants. 

Every practitioner of medicine is well aware that there are 
times when it is difficult to decide upon the precise remedy 
indicated. Of this fact we have an illustration in every con- 
sultation held over a case of disease. When, at last, combined 
judgment has decided upon the proper remedy, greatly is the 
perplexity increased, if it be of indefinite therapeutic power. 
Be it either above or below the common standard of medicinal 
strength, mischief will equally happen. If too strong, the 
reaction may prove fatal. If it be inferior or inert, valuable 
time will be lost, and the chances of recovery lessened, if not 
destroyed. How often does the reputation of the skillful 
practitioner suffer, by reason of the dispensation of such 
defective agents as we have enumerated. His diagnosis may 
have been perfect, his judgment correct, ' his prescription 
appropriate; yet, in consequence of the dispensation of 
extracts, tinctures, syrups, etc., prepared from inferior, per- 


haps inert materials, his patient fails of receiving benefit, hia 
judgment is impugned, his prescription condemned, and his 
reputation injured. The positive character of any and every 
remedial agent is a consideration of the greatest importance to 
every practicing physician. It is a consideration that directly 
involves the question of success. No conscientious physician 
would risk his patient's health and life by the employment of 
remedies of doubtful power. Even were the practice of medi- 
cine made a purely commercial transaction, yet would the 
hope of further patronage be based upon the power to cure. 
In either view of the case, then, the positive character of 
remedial agents is a question of great moment. Health, life, 
success, reputation, hang in the balance. We feel that we 
cannot be too strenuous upon this point, and are certain that 
all right-thinking physicians will coincide with us in the 
opinion that all remedial agents should be as positive and 
definite in their character as human skill can make them. 
The substances of the inorganic materia medica have been 
defined with great precision and care, and why should not 
those of the organic ? In former years the attention of chem- 
ists has been more especially devoted to a consideration of the 
substances of the mineral kingdom, consequently greater 
progress has been made in that department of chemical science. 
It is only of late that the subject of organic chemistry has 
received that attention to which its importance justly entitles 
it, and its true bearing on the interests of practice fully appre- 
ciated. ' Within a few years, however, the attention of the 
profession has been directed to the development of this branch 
of the collateral medical sciences, and already are good results 
flowing in upon us from this fountain of scientific industry. 
Though yet but in its initial flow, still may we with reason 
anticipate that the patient industry of coming years will 
expand this little rivulet into a broad and noble stream, upon 
whose placid bosom the physician may with safety launch his 
therapeutic bark, and guided by the tide of truth, and 
impelled by the motive winds of duty and philanthrophy, 
" carry healing to all the nations." 


We now come to a consideration of 

Concentrated Medicines Proper. — In the history of all 
the more important medicinal plants, we find a record of the 
various attempts which have been made to ascertain upon 
what particular constituents they depended for therapeutic 
value. But one prevailing error has rendered the majority of 
these attempts abortive. This error consisted in conceiving 
that multiple therapeutic powers could reside in one single 
•constituent. Thus, an oil, a resin, a resinoid, or an alkaloid 
was supposed to embody the entire therapeutic constitution 
of the plant. This conception not holding good in practice, 
it followed, in many instances, that the attempt to ascertain 
this peculiar constituent was abandoned, and the plant con- 
tinued to be employed in the ordinary manner; while in 
•other instances the vending of these isolated, fragmentary 
resin, resinoid, or alkaloid preparations, represented as being 
the active constituents of plants, has brought many excellent 
remedies into disrepute. This is not to be wondered at when 
we consider that, in procuring these fractional constituents, 
the more valuable proximate medicinal principles were 
rejected as -worthless, and out of some three or four active 
principles, some one resin or resinoid only preserved. It is 
true that a number of isolated alkaloid principles are esteemed 
•of great value in medicine. Usually such principles are 
limited in the number of their therapeutic properties, possess- 
ing in general but one or two well defined powers. Thus in 
morphia we have the principal narcotic power of opium. But 
no one will say that morphia is equivalent to opium. Mor- 
phia is esteemed especially as an anodyne and soporific 
Opium is considered narcotic, sedative, stimulant, astringent, 
anti-spasmodic, febrifuge, diaphoretic, etc. Quinia is bat one 
of a number of active principles belonging to the Peruvian 
bark. It represents the anti-periodic tonic power of the bark. 
So with many other similar preparations that we might men- 
tion. Eesins are generally possessed of but limited and feeble 
powers. Eesinoids are remarkable for possessing a greater 
number of distinct therapeutic powers The reason of this we 


have explained in the preceding chapter, under the head of 
resinoids. "We have there shown that thej are compound sub* 
stances, composed of a number of different resins. We have 
enumerated and described four varieties, but some resinoids 
are more complex still. Each one of these resins has a differ- 
ent chemical character, behaves differently towards reagents, 
and possesses individual electric properties. It would be 
philosophical, therefore, to suppose each resin to be possessed 
of diffeient therapeutic properties, which is absolutely the 
ease. The resinoid principle of Podophyllin has been sepa- 
rated into five resins, and we have reason to suspect a greater 
complexity in its constitution. This will account in a 
measure for the great number of physiological results which 
that remedy is capable of producing. So we might run on . 
through the whole organic materia medica, eliciting facts all 
tending to prove that the diverse therapeutic properties of 
plants reside, not in o?ie, but in mwny principles. We have 
shown how, in the preparation of extracts, etc., the neutral 
principles of plants are altered in their composition or com- 
pletely destroyed. We have also shown that they constitute 
an important class of proximate active principles. We claim 
to have been the first to recognise their true remedial value, 
and the first to have established their identity as a class of 
distinct proximate principles. We were also the first to record 
their physical and chemical characteristics. We likewise claim 
to have established the existence of a new class of proxi- 
mate active principles, to which we have given the name of 
muci-resins. In view of all these facts, it must be evident to the 
reader that, in order to secure the full value of a medicinal 
plant, these various proximate principles should be isolated 
from all extraneous combination, and then recombined. This 
is precisely what has been done in the preparation of the con- 
centrated medicines treated of in this volume. Every plant- 
has been carefully and repeatedly analysed, and both its phys- 
ical and therapeutical constitutions definitely ascertained. 
In the prosecution of these investigations, much patient labor 
has been bestowed, and the elevation of pharmaceutical sci 


ence the ultimate object. The results have been gratifying to 
those engaged in conducting the investigations, and, we trust, 
beneficial to the interests of positive medical science. We 
axe now enabled to define the number and character of the 
proximate active principles of plants with greater accuracy 
than has hitherto been attained. In making this statement 
we design to cast no reflections upon the motives and labora 
■of others, cheerfully recognising and admitting their claims to 
whatever of advancement they have made, simply reserving 
to ourselves the credit of having detected and explained 
•many of the errors and defects of organic chemistry as at 
present conducted, and, consequently, to have made greater 
progress and improvement in this department of pharmacy 
than any other organic chemists, by their productions, have 
yet secured. There may be those engaged in this field of scien- 
tific labor who will yet outstrip us in our efforts to perfect the 
character of organic concentrated medicines. If so, we shall 
be amongst the first to recognize and rejoice at their success, 
-and to gratefully acknowledge their superior claims in having 
•advanced the interests of progressive medical science. As 
yet, however, we believe that the concentrated medicines pre- 
pared at the laboratory of B. Keith & Co. are superior to all 
others yet offered to the profession. Our reasons for this 
■opinion we will now endeavor to state. In the first place, 
they are not fragmentary preparations, composed of a single 
resin, resinoid or alkaloid principle, but combine all the active 
medicinal principles of the plants from which they are sever- 
ally derived. The only exception to this rule is when a plant 
yields an oil, in which case it will not be present in the 
powdered preparations. When this is the case, the fact is 
stated. In the concentrated tinctures the oil, if there be any, 
is included. 

To illustrate the advantages of having all the active con- 
stituents of a plant combined, we will take the article of 
Podophyllin. By reference to the article treating of the pro- 
perties and employment of this agent, it will be seen that it is 
composed of three active principles, viz, a resinoid, alkaloid, and 



neutral. Thus combined, the action of this agent is modified* 
and its operation rendered comparatively mild, while at the 
same time its therapeutic powers are increased. All other 
specimens of jPodophyllin we. have ever seen, consisted of the 
Tesinoid principle alone. This principle, like all other resin- 
oids, is insoluble in the stomach, and soluble only in the enteric 
secretions. It also possesses a degree of escharotic power, which,. 
in certain inflamed conditions of the glandular surface of the 
intestines, renders its employment objectionable, in consequence 
of its peculiar irritating properties. This action arises chiefly 
in consequence of the derangement of the functions of certain 
of the glands, whereby their secreting and absorbing powers 
are diminished or suppressed. If the secreting power be sup- 
pressed, the resinoid, not meeting with the proper solvents,, 
will remain undissolved, and act as a mechanical irritant. 
Even admitting the existence of activity on the part of the 
absorbent vessels, the resinoid must yet be in a state of solu- 
tion before it can be absorbed. If, on the other hand, the- 
secreting vessels are active and the absorbent functions sus- 
pended, the resinoid, although it pass into a state of solution,, 
will be retained and expend its influence locally, and thus add 
to the existing irritation. With the jPodophyllin combining; 
the three active principles of the plant, this local influence- 
will be found to be essentially modified. The neutral and 
alkaloid principles, which exist in a state of combination, are 
soluble in the stomach, and are generally directly absorbed, 
producing a specific effect upon the glandular system before 
the resinoid has yet had time to act. In this way the diathesis. 
of the system is changed and corrected, and the requisite con- 
ditions for the further action of the remedy are secured. It. 
is in consequence of the soluble character of the neutral and 
alkaloid principles that Podophyllin frequently manifest so 
speedy a control over the functions of the system. Many 
symptoms are allayed, and decided sanative results produced, 
ere the resinoid principle has had time to pass the pylorus, 
and be reduced to a state of solution. Another reason why 
the resinoid principle is sometimes so much of an irritant, ia 


Che fact of the presence of a minute quantity of a very acrid 
oil, which adheres to the resinoid, and which appears to be a 
protoplastic resinoid principle not yet matured. It is found 
on3y when the plant is gathered at an improper season, and 
while the development of the proximate constituents is yet 

The Zeptandrin is another remedy combining a number of 
important active principles. The Leptandrin of which we 
shall haze to treat contains three more proximate medicinal 
principles than the Leptandrin of other manufacturers, viz.: 
a resin, neutral, and alkaloid. Hence its range of application 
and therapeutic powers are proportionately increased. So with 
all the concentrated medicines of which we shall have to treat, 
with the exception of Geranin and Myricin, they being the 
two only remedies with which we are acquainted, of other 
manufacture, that contain more than one principle, and these 
consist, in each instance, of a resinoid and tannic acid. They 
are, therefore, the two only remedies that embody the total 
active value of the plants from which they are obtained. 

We think we may justly claim, therefore, that the concen- 
trated remedies described in this work are superior and more 
nearly complete than any yet offered to the profession. "We 
claim that they are the concentrated equivalents of the plants 
from which they are severally derived, uniform in strength, 
definite and positive in therapeutic power, and will preserve 
their properties unchanged for an unlimited period of time. 
Their several principles are isolated singly, deprived of all 
foreign admixture, and then recombined in the same numbers 
and proportions as they existed in the plant, unchanged in 
composition, and entirely free from the presence of any of 
those non-medicinal constituents which we have shown are 
instrumental in effecting the decomposition of ordinary phar- 
maceutical preparations. Does any one doubt that these results 
can be accomplished? Does any one doubt the existence of 
Morphine, Quinine, Emetine, Jalapin, etc.? Are they not 
well defined, positive medical agents, uniform in therapeutic 
power, and capable of being preserved for an indefinite period 


of time ? But, says the reader, these are simple alkaloid 01 
resin principles. True, but if it is possible to isolate one single 
principle, is it not possible to isolate a numoer of single prin- 
ciples residing in the same plant ? And if one is capable of 
being denned in chemical and therapeutic properties, is there 
any reason why all should not be ? But there is no need of 
argument to prove that which is self-evident. The existence 
of these various principles so isolated constitutes the bent 
evidence of the fact. 

It is not consistent with the character of this work to give a 
detailed history of the various chemical processes involved in 
the preparation of these medicines. Such an exposition 
belongs properly to a more elaborate work on general materia 
medica. We are not writing a text book for chemists, but are 
endeavoring to embody those more important facts which daily 
concern the physician in the practice of his profession. In 
years past we have sadly felt the need of such information as 
we now have the pleasure of submitting to the profession, and 
we doubt not that our humble efforts will meet with a welcome 
response from all well-wishers of the art of healing. We have 
given the physiological and chemical history of each constituent 
under its appropriate head, and shall proceed directly to an 
exposition of the therapeutic properties and physiological 
effects of the combined active constituents. It is this portion 
of our subject that more nearly concerns the practitioner, 
whose province it is to administer medicines and not to make 
them. The manipulations of the laboratory come within the 
province of the chemist, whose duty it is to provide the 
physician with the means wherewith to execute the require- 
ments of his profession. We have given a plain and truthful 
history of the active constituents of plants, and every physician 
is supposed to possess a sufficiency of chemical knowledge to 
enable him to test the correctness of our statements. There- 
fore he may easily satisfy himself as to the chemical character 
of the several preparations. But this will tell him nothing of 
their clinical value. The question with him is, are they 
reliable as remedial agents. This question is one that requires 


individual observation at the bedside in order to effect its most 
satisfactory solution. 

So far as the writer is concerned, he bases his reputation as 
a practitioner, and as an author, upon the positive character of 
these preparations. Upwards of twenty years experience in 
collecting, curing, and preparing plants for medicinal use, and 
fourteen years experience in the clinical employment of organic 
remedies, both in their crude and concentrated forms, has 
given him a familiarity with the physiological effects produced 
by vegetable substances upon the human organism which 
enables him to pronounce the concentrated preparations, when 
all the active pri aciples are combined, fully equivalent to, and 
more reliable than the plants from which they are severally 
derived, when prepared in any other form. Their curative 
action in disease is entirely analogous, and attended with 
greater certainty. Amongst the many advantages arising 
from the employment of organic remedies in this form, we 
esteem their promptitude of action a matter of the greatest 
importance. Being divested of all extraneous combination, 
they are purely medicinal ; and as such, are prepared to act 
the moment they are taken into the system. Not so with 
crude remedies. When taken into the stomach, the latter 
require to undergo a digestive analysis, in order that the 
therapeutic constituents may be separated from their combina- 
tion with those inert matters which are incapable of assimilation. 
In an enfeebled and disordered condition of the digestive 
apparatus, this taxation of its exhausted powers is a matter of 
serious moment, and its inability to perform this office will 
result in the withholding of the manifestation of any therapeu- 
tic power on the part of the substance so administered. This 
matter will either remain and act as a mechanical irritant, 01 
pass off as useless ingesta. It is in this manner that we may 
account for the frequent failures of crude remedies, when 
administered in substance, in not producing their specific 
effects upon the system. Surely it is as reasonable to suppose 
that the stomach is as incapable at times of digesting crude 
barks, roots, etc., as it is of digesting bread, meat, etc. The 


skillful hygeist is scrupulously circumspect in apptinting his 
patients diet, having reference to the digestive and assimilative 
power of his patients system ; — then why should he not observe 
the same conditions and requirements in the appointment of 
his medicines. Even if the power to perform this office exist, 
considerable time must elapse before the medicinal constituents 
can be brought into a condition to admit of their appropriation. 
And even then, a considerable amount of inert matter fre- 
quently remains, imposing further taxation of the depurating 
organs to secure its removal. This of itself constitutes a 
serious objection to the employment of prude substances in 
cases of great debility. And again, the percolating through 
the alimentary canal of particles of woody matters and ferment- 
ing non-medicinal substances, frequently creates a serious 
disturbance of the nervous system, and with patients of a 
peculiarly susceptible organism, will often provoke a trouble- 
some degree of spasmodic action. With children, this irritation 
will sometimes give rise to convulsions. We have seen the 
alvine discharges of patients who had dosed themselves, or 
been dosed with considerable, quantities of powdered roots, 
etc., much resemble a mixture of saw-dust and water, when 
under the influence of a cathartic. The retention of such 
worthless material is quite as likely to provoke or prolong a 
febrile action as any other retained matter. In gastritis, enter- 
itis, diarrhea, cholera morbus, dj^sentery, &c, the administration 
of vegetable remedies in substance, is bad practice, and can 
scarcely fail to aggravate the disease in every instance. Yet 
it is an error quite too common amongst some practitioners. 

The remedies of which we shall presently treat, are free from 
these objections. Their composition and constitution is purely 
therapeutic, and they require neither an outlay of digestive ac- 
tion to prepare them for appropriation, nor the exercise of 
the functions of depuration for the expulsion of waste material. 
They therefore ensure a promptitude of action which can never 
attach to crude medicines, and thereby effect a saving of time 
which is frequently of the utmost importance. We would 
have every practitioner test the question of their reliability for 


himself, as we desire no one to be controlled by j>ur judgement 
but respectfully ask that all will make the same impartial trial 
of their merits that we have done. Independence of action 
in this respect will give the practitioner a better conception of 
their remedial value than anything we may say concerning 
them. We simply give our own convictions, the fruits of a 
somewhat extensive clinical experience. 

To sum up the advantages claimed for concentrated medi- 
cines combining the various active principles of the several 
plants, we pronounce them far superior to any yet offered to 
the profession, inasmuch as they are concentrated equivalents 
of the plants from which they are derived, entirely divested of 
all non-medicinal combination, positive in therapeutic power, 
uniform in strength, convenient of administration, and capable 
of preserving their properties unimpaired for a series of years. 
The only way in which the preservation of the active constitu- 
ents of plants can be ensured, is to isolate them from all 
extraneous admixture, dry and reduce them to powder, and 
keep them in closely stopped bottles. It is not to be expected 
that a suspension' of natural laws will take place in favor of 
the organic substances sooner than in favor of the inorganic. 
Light, heat, air, moisture, all conspire in executing the immu- 
table laws of chemical trans-formations. The affinities of the 
atoms of matter are definite, fixed, and unchangeable. • By the 
action of light, hydrocyanic acid, one of the most virulent of 
poisons, is decomposed and rendered inert. Iodine is volatile, 
and requires to be carefully excluded from the air. Chloride 
of zinc, various preparations of potassa, etc. absorb water and 
deliquesce. Hence certain precautions are necessary to the 
preservation of inorganic remedial substances. So with 
organic substances. By exposure to the air, certain volatile 
oils absorb oxygen, and are converted into resins. Those 
neutral principles possessing hygroscopic properties absorb 
water, harden, and become altered in their properties. When 
exposed to a strong light, some of the concentrated preparations 
will change in color, and as many of the coloring matters 


possess decidedly valuable remedial powers, they are thereby 

Some objections have been held against the concentrated 
preparations on account of their not being decolorized. As 
we have shown in the second chapter, the retention of the 
coloring matters does not militate against the value of these 
preparations, but, on the contrary, confirms them in the pos- 
session of an additional therapeutic constituent. That coloring 
matters possess remedial properties, we have examples in the 
cochineal insect, and in hematoxylin derived from logwood, 
both of which are used medicinally. The coloring matters of 
plants are so intimately blended with the other active con- 
stituents that they cannot be separated without effecting their 
decomposition, and thus altering, and in many instances 
destroying their remedial properties. It will be seen, therefore, 
that .the characteristic color of the various preparations, besides 
furnishing a distinguishing mark, denotes that no violence has 
been done in isolating their several principles. 

In this connection we desire to speak of the Concentrated 
Tinctures prepared at the laboratory of B. Keith & Co. Their 
claim to superiority is based upon the same considerations as 
those of the powdered preparations, namely, their freedom from 
all inert admixture, positive character, uniformity of strength, 
and property of retaining their virtues for a great length of 
time unchanged. The process pursued in their preparation is 
the same as that observed in preparing the powders. Each 
active constituent is isolated singly, freed from all non-medicinal 
matters, and so on until the aggregate therapeutic principles* 
are all obtained, which are then recombined and redissolved, 
in exact proportions, in alcohol of uniform per centage. . This 
process ensures a certainty and uniformity in no other way 
attainable. Consequently the practitioner is as certain of the 
quantity of medicine he is administering, as he would be in 
exhibiting a definite solution of morphine, quinine, etc. Suffi- 
cient alcohol is employed to hold the various active principles 
in complete solution. When the plant contains a valuable oil 
or oleo-resinous principle, we deem this the better mode of 


preparation. With the more active plants, as the Veratrum 
Viride, Digitalis Purpurea, Hyoscyamus Niger, etc., this form 
of preparation is by many preferred. We have reason to 
believe that the tinctures operate more promptly under some 
circumstances than the powdered preparations, in consequence 
of their diffusible character. As a matter of convenience also, 
they offer some advantages, as the prescriber is saved the 
necessity of dividing them into separate doses. They also 
admit of a ready and convenient combination with each other, 
and in this way, as with the powders, their properties may be 
varied or increased. We will speak further of each under its 
appropriate head. 


Success in the employment of remedial agents depends 
upon the observance of certain conditions. This is especially 
true of the organic medicines. Remedies ever so positive in 
therapeutic power, and uniform in strength, may yet fail of 
producing any specific effects upon the system. The first con- 
dition to which we would call attention, as being unfavorable 
to the action of the concentrated remedies, is the predominance 
of acidity in the stomach and bowels. We first called the 
attention of the profession to this subject, some two years 
since, through the medium of the medical journals, and we 
are glad to find that recent writers have adopted and reiterated 
our sentiments, although they have omitted, unintentionally, 
no doubt, to give us proper credit. Many practitioners, 
doubtless, have been disappointed in not realising anticipated 
results from the employment of concentrated remedies to 
which specific and positive therapeutic powers had been 
accredited, and from which, consequently, they were led to 
expect much. Frequently after a single trial, a good remedy 
has been condemned, simply because it failed to realise all that 
was expected of it, and because the true reason of the failure 
was misunderstood. In nearly all cases of disordered action 
there is a disposition on the part of the system to originate 
acid. In chlorosis, this condition incites the patient to seek 


after absorbents and alkalies, as magnesia, chalk, slate pencils, 
etc. In many cases the food, instead of being digested, under- 
goes a fermentative decomposition, and gives rise to the forma- 
tion of various acids. Even the medicines administered, such 
as extracts, syrups, sweetened infusions, decoctions, and all 
preparations containing starch, sugar, etc., tend to aggravate 
the condition, by reason of their nutritive constituents under- 
going fermentation. These acids very speedily decompose the 
resin, resinoid, and neutral principles, and hold the alkaloids 
in solution. The latter are not decomposed, but their action 
is suspended. In case an inorganic alkali is administered, 
being a stronger base, it robs them of their acid, and they are 
again set free. It is in this way that certain plants have 
gained the reputation of possessing cumulative properties. 
Repeated doses have been administered and failed to act in 
t consequence of the acid present, which has combined with the 
alkaloid, when, by accident or spontaneous action, the acid has 
become neutralised, and the whole power of the accumulated 
remedy has been suddenly expended. Another reason we 
would assign for the apparent cumulative power of certain 
remedies, is the neglect of furnishing to the system the propel' 
amount of fluid. In certain cases and stages of disease, wheD 
the fluids are greatly expended, this consideration is one of 
great importance. The physician's first duty, when called to 
prescribe in the advanced stages of typhoid and other fevers, 
is to supply the system with a proper quantity of diluent and 
demulcent drinks: When continued fever has occasioned 
a great expenditure of the serum of the blood, and the tongue, 
fauces, and mucous membranes of the stomach and bowels 
are dry and inflamed, it is bad practice to exhibit powders, or 
other solid substances in a scanty vehicle, as a little syrup, for 
. by so doing the symptoms are aggravated and the object of 
the medicine defeated. The syrup will have but little effect in 
bringing about the necessary degree of solution, while on the 
o^her hand it will prove mischievous by reason of undergoing 
a fermentative decomposition. More acid is thereby formed, 


and the local irritation increased, while the medicine itself is 
liable to be decomposed and rendered inert. 

Among the acids most destructive in their action upon the 
organic remedies, is the lactic. Podophyllin is not hindered 
in its operation by acetic acid, but the presence of a consid- 
erable quantity of lactic acid will almost entirely suppress its 
action. This will account for its failure in many instances in 
not producing its legitimate impression upon the system. We 
have known the operation of fifteen grains of the resinoid 
principle to be immediately checked and all further manifes- 
tations of therapeutic power arrested by the administration 
of sour milk. It is all important to the successful exhibition 
of organic remedies that undue acidity of the system be first 
neutralized. Attention to this necessity will save disappoint- 
ment and loss of time, besides preventing many an excellent 
remedy from being unjustly condemned. Super-carbonate 
of soda is the most convenient antacid generally at hand, and 
may either precede or accompany the medicine. When the 
acidity is considerable, it is best to administer the soda half 
an hour before the medicine. From one half to one drachm i 
is sometimes required. In other cases from five to ten grains 
will be sufficient. Common salt, chloride of sodium, will an- 
swer when soda cannot be obtained. But when a full dose of 
Podophyllin is administered, the too free use of salt during its 
operation will sometimes have a tendency to produce hyper- 
catharsis, while the remedy is in consequence liable to be un- 
justly blamed. We have repeatedly observed this fact. 

The proper combination of concentrated remedies is a sub- 
ject of much interest to the practitioner. Multiplicity of reme- 
dial agents is to be avoided as much as possible. We have 
observed, with regret, a fondness amongst physicians for nu- 
merical combinations. In the old dispensatories formulas are 
given for pharmaceutical compounds containing as high as 
sixty ingredients. The philosophy of the composition was, 
that where so many agents were combined, one, at least, would 
reach the case. The fact seems to be overlooked now, as then, 
that organic medicines are capable of and liable to mutual re- 


actions, decompositions, and combinations. In this respect 
many of them are quite as susceptible as inorganic substances. 
Tannic acid will combine with vegetable alkaloids and ren- 
der them insoluble. It will also almost entirely suppress the 
action of alteratives, particularly those designed to influence 
the liver. The practitioner may avoid the mistake of com- 
bining incompatable remedies by making it a point to treat 
diseases with simple substances, and to never add an adjunc- 
tive remedy unless a thorough knowledge of its influence over 
the remedy already administered, or the indications of the case 
render it justifiable. The true value of the concentrated re- 
medies can never be estimated unless they are singly and 
thoroughly tested. One simple remedy will often answer a 
better purpose than half a dozen combined, although each one 
singly would be admissable and appropriate to the case. Many 
combinations may be judiciously formed, whereby the activity 
of a special therapeutic property may be augmented or modi- 
fied, and by which the number and kind of remedial powers 
may be multiplied, instances of which we shall give in the 
following pages. Some writers have recommended the ad- 
mixture of six and seven of the concentrated medicines, many 
of them incompatable and contra-indicated by the described 
features of the case. Such promiscuous combinations could 
have only been devised in the absence of practical knowledge, 
and a proclivity for plausible hypothesis. Brilliant theories 
in medicine are like the lightning's flashes; although they 
dazzle for a time, their explosion is followed by the thunders of. 
discord, and intensified darkness. We were forcibly reminded 
of some formulas we have seen recommended for combining 
concentrated remedies by a prescription which recently came 
under our observation. It read as follows. : 

Comp. Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla, 

Simple Syrup, 





Con. Com. Stillingia Alterative, 
Iodide of Potassium. 

The Compound Fluid Extract Sarsaparilla contains live in- 
gredients, viz.: sarsaparilla, liquorice, sassafras, mezereon, 
and guaiacum. The Concentrated Compound Stillingia Al- 
terative contains seven ingredients, viz., stillingia, corydalis, 
Phytolacca, iris versicolor, xanthoxylum, chimaphila, and 
ca/damon seeds. Here are twelve ingredients besides the 
syrup, alcohol, and iodide of potassium. As to the modus 
operandi of such a combination we confess our entire igno- 
rance. It may be a very scientific and eligible preparation, 
but we doubt whether its inventor could explain its precise 
therapeutic action, or how nature could ever succeed in un- 
ravelling the web of its composition. If all the therapeutic 
powers attributed to each single ingredient were to be display- 
ed at the same time, we can imagine a very lively and com- 
plex excitement of the various functions of the system. 

We would respectfully, yet earnestly, advise practitioners 
to observe simplicity as much as possible, assuring them that 
the best results will accrue from such a course. By closely 
observing the independent action of each remedy, he will be 
better enabled to judiciously effect proper combinations where 
occasion requires. Not only this, but he will also be able to 
distinguish the remedy from the auxiliary, a feature quite im- 
portant in the treatment of disease. 

Yarious suggestions have been made in regard to the man- 
ner of administering concentrated medicines. The trituration 
of the active principles with sugar is advocated by many. To 
this plan, however, we cannot yield our assent. We have al- 
ready shown the impropriety of sweetened decoctions, syrups, 
&c, and can make no distinction between the latter and tritu- 
rations with sugar. It is argued in favor of the employment 
of sugar, that it will prevent the local action of the medicine 
upon the stomach. This would seem to us to be an untenable 
position. In order to produce a local impression upon the 
stomach, the substances administered must be soluble in that 

organ. Will sugar prevent them from entering into solution? 


If so, it will, negative their action entirely, and their remedial 
influence will be lost. But such is not the case. Sugar will 
not prevent the local action of the remedy upon the stomach, 
but it will diffuse it. Again, the local action is one that is 
frequently desirable. All neutral principles are soluble in the 
stomach, and are absorbed directly by that organ. Sugar will 
not promote their solution, nor absorption. It only furnishes 
an additional, and, under the circumstances, an unnecessary 
constituent, requiring of itself to be digested and assimilated. 
If the stomach be competent, all is well. But if not, the sugar 
undergoes a fermentative decomposition, and gives rise to the 
production of acids which not only aggravate the existing dis- 
order, but attack aud decompose the accompanying active 
principles, and thereby destroy their power over the system. 

Another argument in favor of the trituration of concentrated 
medicines with sugar is, that it enables them to become more 
readily absorbed and conveyed into the circulation. This we 
also deem an erroneous view. If the remedy and the sugar 
required the same solvents, no advantage would be gained, as 
the presence of the sugar would require more labor to be per- 
formed without any prospect of equivalent benefit. The sugar 
itself is not a solvent of the active principles, hence is of no 
utility in that respect. But as the constitution of the sugar 
and the concentrated medicines vary, it follows that different 
solvents are required, and that the dissolving, absorbing, and 
circulating of the active principles is an action quite independ- 
ent, of the presence of the sugar, which not only does not pro- 
mote this action, but requires of itself to be similarly acted 
upon. Hence is a greater expenditure of digestive action 
occasioned to no purpose. We hold it a fixed and truthful 
♦principle in the practice of medicine, that the purer medicines 
are administered, and the less they are compounded with inert 
or nutritive matters, the more certain and satisfactory they are 
in their operation. Sugar is most objectionable in the treat- 
ment ol many disorders of the digestive apparatus. We have 
succeeded in curing many cases of indigestion with the same 
remedies with which others have failed. They administered 



I them in syrup, sweetened decoctions, etc., while we exhibited 
' them in their purity, without sugar or other extraneous ad- 
mixture, at the same time prohibiting the use of sugar and 
other fermentescible substances. Notwithstanding our objec- 
tions to the use of sugar, we are in favor of triturating some of the 
concentrated medicines, with a view to their proper diffusion. 
We have devised and practiced a method of trituration which 
we now have the pleasure of submitting to the profession, and 
which we can assure them will answer a better purpose than 
any yet suggested. As most of the concentrated remedies are 
soluble in water, but few articles require triturating on that 
account. But with some of the more potent remedies, such as 
Veratrin, Podophyllin, Digitalin, Sanguinarin, etc., diffusion 
is desirable in consequence of the high degree of power attain- 
ed by their concentration, and their more kindly operation 
when diffused over a larger nervous surface. Our plan is to 
triturate one agent with another. In this way is not only the 
■desired object attained, but the activity of the remedy may be 
augmented or modified at the option of the practitioner. Our 
usual agent employed in trituration is the Asclepin. No re- 
medy vrith which we are acquainted is so seldom contra-indi- 
cated as the Asclepin. In fact we do not know a single indi- 
cation in which this remedy could be used amiss. By refer- 
ing to the article on the employment of Asclepin, the reader 
may learn our reasons for so esteeming it. The Veratrin may 
be triturated with Asclepin in the proportion of one grain of 
the former to ten or more of the latter, at the option of the 
practitioner. The Asclepin will not only not counteract the 
Veratrin in any respect, but will enhance its diaphoretic pro- 
perty, an advantage instead of an objection, and an effect 
always desirable to be produced when Veratrin is indicated. 
The Podophyllin may be triturated in the same way, either 
with Asclepin or Caulophyllin, according as the diaphoretic 
or antispasmodic property may be desired. The Asclepin is 
nearly all soluble in water, and will render other of the con- 
centrated remedies capable cf being administered in that men- 
struum. So with the Cauiophyllin. We shall treat more 


fully upon this subject in the second part of this volume, 
when detailing the employment of the concentrated medicines. 

In the employment of the concentrated medicines combining 
the various active principles of the plant, combinations are not 
so frequently necessary as when single resin, resinoid, or alka- 
loid principles are used. Nearly all the remedies of which we 
shall have occasion to speak, possess several distinct and well 
marked therapeutic properties, hence are capable of fulfilling 
an equal number of indications. Veratrin is emetic, arterial 
sedative, diaphoretic, etc., and with it we may evacuate the 
stomach, reduce the force and frequency of the pulse, promote 
the cutaneous exhalations, abate febrile excitement, relieve 
local congestions, etc. Populin is diuretic, diaphoretic, febri- 
fuge, tonic, etc. "With it we may relieve and cure suppression 
and scalding of the urine, fevers, night sweats, indigestion, etc. 
Each remedy is already a natural combination in itself, and as 
such is generally better adapted to the necessities and assim- 
ilative powers of the system than any artificial combination. 

In the constitution and arrangement of the active constitu- 
ents of medicinal plants, we have a wonderful illustration of 
the wisdom and perfection of design of the Creator, in having 
so constituted and endowed the therapeutic atoms as to ensure 
perfect harmony of action when a number of distinct active 
principles are blended together. No clashing of adverse powers 
is observable when a single medicinal plant is employed. But 
when the assumptions of art have advised the indiscriminate 
commingling together of a great number of remedials, frequent- 
ly is "confusion worse confounded," certainty reduced to 
uncertainty, and action and counter-action engaged in unprofit- 
able warfare. 

Following the discovery of vegetable alkaloids in 1816, the 
medical world was thrown into a fever of a decidedly alkaloid 
type. Physicians, chemists, druggists, apothecaries and the 
whole medical crew run rr ad in the pursuit of what was sup- 
posed to be the universus of vegetable remedial powers. 
Creation was ransacked high and low, and simultaneous with 
the appearance of a purple stain upon a piece of reddened 


litmus paper, came tlie triumphant cry of eureka / But the 
ardor of the enthusiast was destined to be cooled by a suc- 
cession of disappointments. Many alkaloids were found to be 
possessed of no particular medicinal value, while many plants 
Were found destitute of any alkaloid principle whatever. 
And even where the alkaloid obtained was of value as a 
remedial agent, it failed to represent in full the therapeutic 
constitution of the plant from which it was derived. With a 
few exceptions, this class of agents have gone into disrepute. 
The medical profession have become satisfied that they do not 
fairly nor fully represent the remedial properties of the sub- 
stances from which they arc derived. 

But notwithstanding the search after alkaloids failed of its 
purpose, much good has resulted from the investigations 
necessarily carried on. Other principles were brought to light, 
the existence of which was before unknown, or at least hypo- 
thetical. Besins and resinoids became the objects of the 
chemist's search, for still laboring under the one principle 
delusion, lie sought to find in either of these the active princi- 
ple of the plant. The alkaloid mania was not cured, but 
simply transferred. If the alcoholic tincture but threw down 
a precipitate when added to water, the long sought desideratum 
was thought to be obtained. No matter how much the water 
might hold in solution, or wash awav, did but some insoluble 
matter remain, it was bottled up, vended as the active princi- 
ple of the plant, and accredited with all the therapeutic powers 
pertaining thereto. Several preparations of this character are 
now before the profession, and we Avould caution them to 
critically examine all preparations purporting to be concen- 
trated, and ascertain whether they actually combine the 
different active principles of the plant, or whether they are 
not, rather, fragmentary, resin or resinoid preparations only, 
and thus deceptive, being in truth isolatedbut not concentrated. 
And yet we have known those detached principles to receive 
the sanction of writers professing to high scientific culture, 
and assuming to be censors of the opinions and labors of 
others, and by them to be indorsed as the active principle, and 



as such pompously recorded in dispensatories, and other 
publications as among the immense discoveries of the nine- 
teenth century. Jl Kow as these preparations are in each 
instance simply an active principle, one of many, how are we 
t.o relieve these authors of the dilemma in which they have 
placed themselves. If we attribute the error to a want of 
scientific knowledge, we shall most undoubtedly be visited 
with their direst indignation. If, then, we allow them, in? 
charity, the credit of being perfect masters of the science of 
organic chemistry, how shall we relieve them of the seeming 
dishonesty which would lead them to palm off upon the pro- 
fession these fractional resin, resinoid, and other 'defective 
preparations as being the active constituents of plants, instead 
of truthfully proclaiming them to be, what they really are,. 
isolations, one of several active constituents, the rest having 
been lost, rejected, or their existence not known or suspected. 
We are inclined, however, to give them credit for honesty in one 
respect, and that is, in stating all they knew.', But at the same 
time it would have been as well not to have been too positive 
of the dishonesty of others whose researches had fortunately 
resulted more successfully, and who had brought to light the 
several active constituents of the vegetable organism ; and 
bavins: made the discoverv, and succeeded in isolatinc: the 
various principles, adopted the rational idea of re-combining 
them as they existed in the plant. To those who were 
acquainted with single resin, resinoid, or alkaloid principles 
only, this combination of a number of principles was a new 
and startling idea, and many were inclined, honestly, we hope, 
to look upon it as an adulteration. But the better sense of 
the profession, as soon as informed of the true state of the 
case, generously yielded the credit due to those whose skill 
and penetration had secured the real concentrated equivalents 
of the various plants. Here we are willing to let the matter 
rest with the profession, having been drawn into make these 
remarks in consequence of some unjust aspersions having 
been cast upon the motives of those whom we believe to be 
honestly engaged in a good and important work. We 


acknowledge that the aspersions referred to came from sources 
which it would be derogatory to our self-respect to mention 
here, and we should not have mentioned the circumstance but 
to illustrate the liability of all discoverers to be maligned by the 
ignorant and viciously inclined. 

To briefly recapitulate the most favorable conditions for the 
successful administration of concentrated medicines, we would 
advise that particular attention be paid to the neutralising 
of undue acidity, simplicity of combination, avoidance of the 
use of sugar and other fermentescible substances, and such 
general considerations in regard to diet, regimen, etc., as the 
circumstances of the case may render appropriate. 

As a majority of the concentrated medicines are soluble or 
mixable in water, we would recommend that menstruum as 
being in general the best, as well as the most available. We 
are aware that many advocate the plan of rendering medi- 
cines as palatable to the patient as possible, entertaining the 
idea that their certainty and efficiency of action are governed 
in a measure by the likes and dislikes of the patient. With 
all due deference to the opinions of others, we would record 
our experience in favor of administering medicines in their 
purity as much as possible. Our experience goes to prove 
that much less medicine will usually be needed, while the 
specific influences of the remedy will in no wise be diminished. 
Podophyllin will ne'er fail of producing its usual effects in 
consequence of being disgusting to the palate. Hyoscyamin 
will alleviate pain, and induce a quiescent condition of the 
nervous system, despite the objections of the patient to its 
nauseous taste. We have never found a medicine to fail of its 
accustomed operation in consequence of its unpleasant flavor.. 
We impress upon our patients the fact that we give medicines, 
to cure disease, and not to please the palate ; and we teach 
them to expect that any remedy possessing power to remove 
disease, must give some indication to the senses of its peculiar 
properties. We direct their minds to a consideration of the 
beneficial results to follow, and discourage all reference to its 
unpalatableness. The smallness of the dose when concen- 


trated medicines are employed, renders disguise less frequently 
necessary. Our objections to foreign admixture have already 
been set forth in the preceding pages, hence there is no need 
to recapitulate them here. Pills may be formed in many 
instances, as a matter of convenience, to secure a more eligible 
form, and to overcome the objections held against the taste of 
the various remedies. 

We shall now proceed to give a practical exposition of the 
therapeutic properties and clinical employment of such of the 
concentrated medicines as combine the different principles of 
the various plants. We wish it distinctly understood that our 
remarks apply only to such concentrated medicines as are 
prepared in accordance with the above conditions, that is, 
which combine the several active constituents of the plant. 
We do not profess to be able to give a history of all the indi- 
cations which may be successfully fulfilled with these reme- 
dies, nor to enumerate all the combinations that may bo 
judiciously and advantageously effected. We shall endeavor 
to give a truthful synopsis of the therapeutic properties 
characterising each remedy, relying upon the judgment of the 
practitioner to select such as are best adapted to the various 
necessities of the system. 

The formulas we give are such as we employ in daily 
practice ; and all refeience to their curative action is a 
simple record of our own experience, except when expressly 
stated to the contrary. When our own experimental knowl- 
edge of a remedy is limited, we shall give the experience of 
those practicing physicians whose testimony may be received 
as reliable. 

We are aware that disease is tempered by climatic and 
other influences, and that the treatment which proves success* 
ful in our own locality will require to be modified to meet the 
peculiarities of other sections. Yet the properties of the 
remedies will be the same in all climates, and the modifications 
required will be in regard to combination, quantity, time, 
repetition, and continuance. 



(Kwcttrfratefo ^Itbicines 1$xa$tx 




Before entering upon the therapeutic and clinical history 
of the Concentrated Medicines Proper, we deem it due to the 
enterprise, energy, and industry of B. Keith, M.D., that proper 
credit should be here awarded him for his successful efforts in 
providing the profession with concentrated preparations of a 
ucflnite, reliable, and uniform therapeutic character. 

Of long experience in the clinical emploj^ment of crude 
organic remedies, his attention was early attracted to an investi- 
gation into the merits of so-called concentrated medicines. 
Upon testing these preparations in practice, he found a marked 
discrepancy between the therapeutic action, of the " active prin- 
ciples," so-called, and the plants from which they were derived. 
To ascertain the cause of this discrepancy, and to provide the 
profession with true concentrated equivalents of the various 
medicinal plants, became the engrossing object of his scientific 
labors. Taking into consideration the fact that plants were 
possessed of numerous and varied therapeutic properties, he 
conceived the idea that the aggregate medicinal value of plants 
resided not in one, but in several and distinct proximate prin- 
ciples. Upon examining the ordinary preparations termed 
" concentrated," together with the methods employed for ob* 
taining them, he soon ascertained that they were fractional 
and imperfect, consisting of isolated resin, resinoid, and alka- 
loid principles, as the case might be, and representing only in 
part the therapeutic constituents of the plants from which 
they were severally derived. As many of the preparations 
represented to be "the active principle" of certain plants were 
insoluble ; ' resins" and " resinoids," and whereas the plants- 
were known to yield soluble medicinal principles to water, 
additional evidence was afforded that some one or more of 
their active constituents were overlooked and lost. Furnished 
with this evidence, his investigations took a new direction, 
and their results are now laid before the profession. The 
existence of a multiplicity of active medicinal constituents in the 
same plant was correctly demonstrated, and two new classes of 
proximate principles, the neutrals and mud-resins, discovered 
and added to the list of those already known. These princi- 


pies we have the honor of being the first to describe and in- 
troduce to the profession. To him belongs the credit of being 
the first to advance the idea of combining all the proximate 
medicinal constituents of a plant in one preparation — the first 
to make and announce to the profession correct chemical 
analysis of chemical plants, and the first to caution tkcni 
against the unreliable character of extracts, syrups, and other 
of the ordinary preparations of the day. 

While laboring faithfully during the past six years to ad- 
vance the interests of organic chemical science, he has been 
none the less diligent in the discharge of the arduous duties 
of his profession, testing in clinical practice those preparations 
which his scientific skill had succeeded in bringing to a 
state as near perfection as possible, thus becoming a guarantee 
to the profession of the character of the remedial agents fur- 
nished. All preparations offered to the profession, emanating 
from his establishment, has been thoroughly tested in prac- 
tice, unless explicitly stated to the contrary. Numerous im- 
provements have been made from time to time, and " progress" 
is the rule of action with this gentleman. 

All the preparations manufactured at his establishment are 
unlike those of any other manufacturer. The powdered prepa- 
rations, as well as the concentrated tinctures, command the 
confidence and approbation of the profession. They are defi- 
nite, reliable, and uniform in medical strength, portable, not 
liable to change, and convenient of administration. The con- 
centrated tinctures are a peculiar feature in the improvements 
•made by this gentleman in pharmaceutical science, of which 
we have already given a history. Every drop is of uniform 
therapeutic strength, and invariably represents a positive and 
definite amount of active principles. 

To this gentleman and his co-laborers in the field of organic 
chemistry, belongs the credit of being the first to discover, de- 
scribe, and introduce to the profession all but two of the con- 
centrated preparations enumerated in this work. 





T)erived from Senecio Gracilis, Nat. Ord. — Aster acem. 

Sex. Syst. — Syngenesia Superfiua. 

Common Names — Life Root, Cough Weed, Waw Weed, 
Unkum, Female Regulator, etc. 

Part Used— The Plant. 

No. of Principles, two, viz.: resinoid and neutral. 

Prqperties — Diuretic, 'diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, 
expectorant, pectoral, alterative and tonic. 

Employment — Amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, Menorrhagia, 
hysteria, gravel, strangury, chloi'osis, dropsy, dysentery, gon- 
-orrliea, coughs, colds, loss of appetite, deoility, etc* 

Senecin is an elegant and efficient remedy, and one which 
admits of a wide range of application. It is deservedly held 
in high repute in the treatment of the various affections pecu- 
liar to females. From the fact of the plant having been 
successfully employed in domestic practice for regulating 
menstrual derangements, it derived one of its common names, 
y\ that of .Female Regulator. 

Senecin, either alone or combined with other positive 
medical agents, has proved eminently successful in the treat- 
ment of amenorrhea. It is usually exhibited in doses of from 


two to five grains, three times per day. "When the obstruc- 
tion has arisen from cold, this remedy, in connection with 
warm alkaline pediluvia, is generally sufficient. If it be 
desirable to increase its diaphoretic effect, it may be advan- 
tageously combined with Asclepin. We employ the following 
formula : 

e- • 

*y Senecin, 

Asclepin aa. grs. ij. 
To be given at a dose, and repeated twice or thrice a day. 
When the affection is uncomplicated, we know of no remedy . 
more generally reliable than the above. Vlt operates kindly, 
and without excitement, and the catamenial flow is restored 
in a manner so natural that the patient is scarcely aware of 
being under the influence of medicine. Should the case 
prove obstinate, we administer a cathartic dose of Podophyllin 
at or near the usual time for the appearance of the menses, or 
whenever the system manifests a desire to restore this secre- 
tion. We seldom or never employ the Podophyllin alone, 
hence we resort to such combinations as the existing condition 
of the system may indicate. For 1>he present purpose we 
usually give 


Asclepin aa. grs. ij. 
This may be generally given at bed time ; but it is sometimes 
better to administer it as soon as any of the usual symptoms 
preceding the return of the menses are felt. 

When the affection occurs in patients of a peculiarly nervous 
constitution, we combine the Senecin with Caulophyllin, as 
follows : 


Caulophyllin, aa. 3 
Mix and divide into ten powders. Of these one may be given 
twice or thrice a day, at the option of the practitioner. By 
this combination we increase the emmenagogue property of 
the Senecin, and at the same time gain the anti-spasmodic 



effect of the Caulophyllin, which exerts a most desirable 
influence when this affection is accompanied with a convulsive 
tendency. The Viburin may be substituted for the Caulo- 
phyllin, and in some cases will answer a better purpose. If 
we require a more energetic relaxant and anti-spasmodic, we 
employ the Gelsemin. It may be substituted for either of the 
above, or may be combined to meet special indications, as in 
the following formulas. As an adjunctive, we have always 
found it valuable: 


Senecin grs. XXIV 

Gelsemin grs. IV 
Mix and divide into eight powders. One of these may be 
given once in four hours. The quantity of Gelsemin may be 
increased or diminished according to the susceptibility of the 
patient's system to its influence. The repetition of the doses 
must be governed by the same considerations. As a more 
efficient combination still, the following may be employed : 


Caulophyllin aa. grs. XY t 

Gelsemin grs. V. 
Mix and divide into ten powders. Administer same as abovo. 
These combinations will be found very useful in controlling 
all spasmodic manifestations accompanying simple uncompli- 
cated amenorrhea. But the Senecin should be employed 
alone in all cases where the above combinations are not posi- 
tively indicated. 

When complications exist or the case has become chronic, 
auxiliary remedies will be needed. These will depend, in 
each case, upon the existing necessity. If the liver be deranged 
in its functions, the prompt administration of Podophyllin or 
some other chologogue should precede all other treatment. If 
the biliary obstruction be slight, Leptandrin, Juglandin, or 
Irisin may be sufficient. If constipation be an attendant 
symptom, measures must be employed to obviate it. For this 

purpose from one fourth to one grain of Podophyllin, triturated 



with Asclepin, in the proportion of one to four, may be 
exhibited every night, or every second night. As a general 
thing we prefer to administer Podophyllin at night, and inde- 
pendent of whatever general remedies we may be employing, 
finding that it operates more kindly and pleasantly when thua 

We have derived equally happy effects from the employ- 
ment of Senecin in the treatment of dysmenorrhea. The most 
beneficial results are obtained by exhibiting it during the 
intermenstrual period. It acts as a special tonic upon the 
uterine system, invigorating the menstrual function, and 
restoring equilibrium of action. For this affection it may be 
given in doses of from two to five grains two or three times a 
day, and alternated with Helonin. Or the two may be com- 
bined, as follows : 


Senecin grs. XX. 

Helonin grs. X. 
Mix and divide into ten powders. This we have found to be 
a valuable combination. If the menstrual secretion be profuse, 
Trilliin should be substituted for the Helonin. If the secretion 
be scanty, Macrotin or Baptisin may be employed. Below 
we give our usual formulas : 


Trilliin aa. grs. XVI. 
Mix and divide into eight powders. These are to be used 
during the intermenstrual period, when the flow is immode- 

Senecin grs. XXXV. 
Macrotin grs. IV. 
Mix and divide into eight powders. Or 


Senecin grs. XX. 
Baptisin grs. X- 


Mix and divide into ten powders. Either of the above formu- 
las will answer a good purpose when the secretion is defective. 
The above prescriptions are designed to constitute the radical 
treatment, while special symptoms must be met with such 
auxiliary measures as the circumstances of the case may 

We have been equally successful with the Senecin in the 
treatment of menorrhagia. It may seem somewhat paradoxi- 
cal to the reader that we should prescribe the same remedy in 
what are generally conceived to be opposite conditions of the 
system. Thus amenorrhea and menorrhagia as supposed to 
indicate the necessity of remedies possessing dissimilar thera- 
peutic properties. Let us look for a moment at the condition 
of the two cases. In each instance there is admitted to be 
deranged action. This disturbance of the physiological con- 
dition in either case is simply a loss of equilibrium^-Jn the 
one case the functions are suppressed, and there is no secretion. 
In the other case there is a relaxed or enfeebled condition, and 
the secretion is profuse. We say secretion, but that is not the 
proper term. The act of secretion is purely a physiological 
phenomenon, accompanying, preserving, or restoring a normal 
condition. Profuse and active discharges are hardly to be 
looked upon in the light of a secretion, but rather as a sort ot 
leakage, an indiscriminate outpouring of the constituents of 
animal fluidity. Secretion is the act of separating. As applied 
to the animal economy, it means to imply the process whereby 
a separation is effected between the vital and the morbid 
materials of the organism, the retention of the former, and 
the expulsion of the latter. ,. Jt is not to be supposed that the 
system would reject any materials not yet become effete or 
useless, as such a proceeding would argue a prodigality and 
disposition to -vas'te not at all in harmony with the wisdom 
displayed in its organization. Yet we find that these profuse 
secretions, so called, are a mixture of both the healthy and 
vitiated constituents of the body, and that the escape or flow is 
followed by exhaustion, impoverishment, and debility. This 
would certainly not be the case were the morbid materials only 


separated and expelled, -) 'Perspiration induced by exercise or 
vegetable diaphoretics is neither exhausting, or debilitating ; 
but nightsweats, so called, are depleting and impoverishing in 
their effect. The latter are not the result of increased secre- 
tion, but are transudations resulting from a relaxed and 
enfeebled condition of the capillary vessels of the surface* 
The power to secrete is wanting, hence both the good and bad 
materials of the blood are allowed to run to waste through the- 
unguarded portals of the skin. So in amenorrhea and men- 
orrhagia. In both cases the power to secrete is wanting. In 
the one case it is suppressed in consequence of the interposition 
of certain obstructions. In the other case we have an illustra- 
tion of that condition which has been designated by the term 
of vis inertia, or a complete passivity of the vital forces. ISTow 
it \8 evident that in either condition it is necessary to restore 
the secreting power, simply to recall and re-establish the 
functional equilibrium of the organs. No matter in which 
direction the scale may be turned, if we can but restore and equal- 
ize the functional activity of the parts, we shall effect a cure. 
For vlxis purpose we employ the Senecin, simply because it 
possesses the power of recalling or restoring lost or healthful 
actio/t. This then explains the seeming paradox of giving the 
same remedy in dissimilar derangements of the same organ. 
We briall have occasion to refer again to this subject in treating 
of other of the concentrated medicines. The plan of seeking 
to devise a different remedy for every variation in the mani- 
festations of diseased action we deem to be erroneous, and 
calculated to confuse and render too complex the art of pre- 

Our iiimal method of employing Senecin in the treatment of 
Menorrhagia is the same as in the preceding cases. We rely 
upon it as a radical measure, while special symptoms are met 
as they arise. 

Chlorosis is another of those incidental female affections 
in which the Senecin will be found an excellent remedy. In 
view of its alterative and tonic properties, it is peculiarly 
serviceable when chlorosis occurs in a strumous diathesis. In 


these cases it may be advantageously combined with other 
alteratives, as the Ampelopsin, Alnuin, Stillingin, Chimaphi- 
lin, &c, or with more decided tonics, as Cornin, Hydrastin, 
Menispermin, etc. 

In anemic habits, the Senecin may be advantageously com- 
, bined with the different preparations of Iron. Thus in some 
forms of chlorosis and amenorrhea, we may prescribe the 
following : 


Senecin 3 ss. 

Iron by Hydrogen grs. VI. 
Mix and divide into twelve powders. Dose, one, morning and 
evening. The quantity of Iron may be increased if deemed 
necessary. If constipation be an accompanying symptom, we 
may vary the prescription thus: 


Leptandrin aa. grs. XX. 

Iron by Hydrogen grs. V. 
Form a mass with mucilage of gum arabic and divide into ten 
pills. Dose, one, twice or thrice a day. The above will be 
found excellent for prolapsus uteri, when of an asthenic 
character. When the* disturbance of the nervous system is 
considerable, and the symptoms verge on hysteria, we employ 
the Valerianate of Iron. It will answer the double purpose of 
relieving the anemic habit and allaying nervous excitability. 

Senecin 3 ss. 

Valerianate of Iron grs. X. 
Mix and divide into ten powders. Exhibit one morning and 
evening. The same will be found useful in chorea. When 
suppression occurs in females advanced in life, and when there 
are symptoms of a preternatural wasting of the tissues, we 
substitute the phosphate of Iron. 

Senecin grs. XXIV. 
Phosphate of Iron grs. VUL 



Mix and divide into eight powders. Dose same as above. 

Senecin is valuable in the treatment of dropsy, not so much 
on account of its diuretic power as on account of its alterative 
and tonic properties, by reason of its exciting the glandular 
system to healthful action. The same may be said in relation 
to its employment in the treatment of gravelly affections. 

In gonorrhea it manifests a decided sanative power. It may 
be employed alone, alternating with such other remedies as 
the features of the case may indicate, or it may be combined 
with other alteratives. 


Stillingin : aa. 3 ij. 

Mix . Dose, two to five grains three times per day. 


Senecin ; 3ss. 

Phytolacin grs. XV.. 

Mix. Dose, from two to four grains three times per day. 

Senecin 3j. 

Irisin 3 ss. 

Mix. Dose same as above. 

Senecin ! 3 j. 

Corydalin 3j. 

Mix. Dose, two to five grains. These formulas will be found 
equally serviceable in the treatment of syphilis. Other com- 
binations may be effected when indicated. Thus if scalding 
of the urine be a troublesome symptom, Populin will be 
appropriate. If chordee be present, Stillingin is contra-indi- 
cated. Lupulin is then proper. Other agents may be added 
to the formulas given at the option of the practitioner, but 
we have found the simple combinations best, and prefer to use 
the auxiliary remedies separately. 

Senecin has gained some repute in the treatment of dysen- 
tery, but our own experience of its value in that disease is 
limited. Our observation of its action in other diseases inclines 


us to the opinion that it would be mainly useful in the con- 
valescing stages as a tonic. 

In coughs, colds, and other complaints of the chest, Senecin 
is one of the most valuable remedies we possess. It is espe- 
cially serviceable in mucous coughs. Either alone, or combined 
■with Asclepin, Prunin, Hyosciamin, Lycopin, &c., it will 
seldom disappoint expectation. 


Asclepin aa. 3ss. 

Mix. Dose, two to four grains once in four hours. Service- 
able when expectoration is difficult, skin dry, and system 



Prunin aa 3ss. 

Mix. Dose same as above. Useful when expectoration is free 
and tonics are indicated. 

Senecin 3ss. 

Hyosciamin •. grs. ij. 

Mix thoroughly, and divide into sixteen powders. 01' 
these, one may be given once in from two to four hours. 
Excellent when pain is experienced in any part of the chest. 
Also, when the cough is troublesome at night. If there be 
symptoms of hemoptysis, the fol) owing will be the best com- 


Lycopin aa. ^j. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. One may be given every 
tfiree hours. 

Taking into consideration the therapeutic, properties already 
possessed by the Senecin, the practitioner may readily effect 
combinations with other agents calculated to simply augment 
each or either of the properties, or to increase thei^ number, 
or to suppress the action of one or the other. Its u "»geof 


application may thus be extended, although the remedy should 
be employed for its own peculiar merits. 


•This preparation of the Senecio is by some preferred to the 
Senecin. We are in the habit of employing it in cough mix- 
tures, and in various ways. It is convenient for the practi- 
tioner when he wishes to leave medicine with the patient, or 
when sending medicine to a patient at a distance, as the labor 
and necessity of dividing it into separate doses is thereby 
obviated. Two drops of the Con. Tine, represent one grain 
of Senecin, therefore the proper dose is easily estimated. 

In remedial value it is fully equivalent to the Senecin, and 
may be employed in all cases where that remedy is indicated. 
In the treatment of amenorrhea, the following will be foand 
valuable. The dose, and frequency of the repetition, mus-; of 
course be regulated by the requirements of the case ; we can 
only approximate it. 

Con. Tine. Senecio Gracil. 

Con. Tine. Gelseminum . . ... aa. 3 ij 

Mix. Dose from five to ten drops three times per day. 
For strangury and gravelly affections, we employ the Al- 
lowing : 

Con.. Tine. Senecio Gracil. 

Con. Tine. Eupatorium Purpu aa. 5 5S 

Mix. Dose four to eight drops, repeated once in from two *o 
four hours, according to circumstances. 


For hysteria ; painful menstruations, etc., the following will 
be found excellent : 

Con. Tine. Senecio Gracil. 

Con. Tine. Scutellaria Later aa. 3 ij. 

Con. Tine. Hyoscyamus 3j. 

Mix. Dose from five to fifteen drops, repeated once in from 
two to six hours, according to the urgency of the symptoms. 

This will be found a reliable remedy for relieving pain and 
procuring rest in the above affections. 

In the secondary stages of dysentery, after the secretive action 
of the liver has been corrected, and the inflammatory symp- 
toms have measureably subsided, the following prescription 
will be found excellent for restraining and giving tone to the 
bowels : 

Con. Tine. Senecio Gracil 3 Ij 

-fj Con. Tine. Khus Glab 3j. 

Mix, and give from four to eight drops every two to foui 
hours. If much prostration or sinking of the vital powers be 
present, the value and efficiency of the prescription will be 
materially enhanced by the addition of 3 j Con.Tinc. Xanthoxy- 
lum Frax. With this addition, it will prove an excellent 
remedy for cholera infantum, the morbid secretions having 
been first removed* 



Derived fiomAsclepias Tuberosa, Nat. Ord — Asclepiadacea*. 

Sex. Syst. — Pentandria Digynia. 

Common Names. — Pleurisy Boot, White Boot, Wind 
Boot, Colic Boot, Butterfly Weed, etc. 

Part Used— The Boot. 

No. of Principles, two, viz.: resmoid and neutral. 

Properties — Alterative, anti-spasmodic, carminative, dia 
p/ioretic, diuretic, expectorant, laxatwe and tonic. 

Employment — Fevers of every type, pneumonia, croup, 
peritonitis, pleuritis, rheumatism, colic, colds, coughs, 
hepatic derangements, constipation, hooping cough, hysteria, 
amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, and in 
inflammatory diseases of whatever type. 

No other remedy with which we are acquainted is so uni- 
versally admissible in the treatment of disease, either alone or 
in combination, as the Asclepin. In fact, we can think of no 
pathological condition that would be aggravated by its em- 
ployment. It expels wind, relieves pain, relaxes spasm, 
induces and promotes perspiration, equalises the circulation, 
harmonises the action of the nervous system, and accomplishes 
its work without excitement, neither increasing the force or 


frequency of the pulse, nor raising the temperature of the body. 
It is of especial service in the treatment of affections involving 
the serous membranes, as pleuritis, peritonitis, etc. The 
remarkable efficacy of the plant in the cure of pleurisy, for 
which purpose it has been employed for many years in 
domestic practice, has earned for it the common name of 
Pleurisy Boot. In like manner it earned the appellation of 
Wind Root and Colic Root, having been found reliable as a 
carminative and anti-spasmodic. 

In order that the full value of the Asclepin may be realized 
in the treatment of all febrile complaints, it must be exhibited 
in full doses and repeated sufficiently often to induce and 
maintain free diaphoresis. The usual dose of the Asclepin is 
from one to five grains, but when there is high febrile excite- 
ment we commence with ten grain doses, repeating every one 
or two hours until the system is brought under its fall 
influence, and then diminish to from TWO to FIVE grains every 
two hours, or sufficiently often to secure the desired effect, 
that is, to sustain the diaphoretic action. It may accompany 
any other remedies without interfering with their specific 
properties, enhancing rather than retarding the action of such 
auxiliaries as may be used in connection with it. 

Flatulent colic is quickly relieved by administering from five 
to TEN grains of Asclepin every twenty minutes until the 
spasm is relaxed and the wind expelled. Belief will be more 
prompt if the remedy is administered in warm water. Cramp 
in the stomach will generally yield to the same prescription. 
The usual manner of exhibiting Asclepin in pleuritis is the 
same as in all febrile affections. Free perspiration must be 
induced and maintained for from twelve to twenty-four hours, 
or sufficiently long to overcome the local congestion. We 
have found it to act remarkably well in combination with 

Asclepin...*.......................... 3j. 

Cypripedin 3j. 

Aquafervens $IV. 


Dose two teaspoonsfull every thirty minutes until perspiration 
is induced, then once in one or two hours as may be necessary 
to maintain the action. We have seen some very severe 
attacks of the pleurisy cured by this prescription alone. No 
depletion accompanies this treatment, and the patient is at once 
restored to his usual health. When a more active combina- 
tion is needed, as for instance when there is excessive arterial 
excitement, we give the following : 

Asclepin 3 ss. 

Aqua fervens , 3 IV. 

Con. Tine. Veratrum Yiride gtt. XXX. 

Dissolve the Asclepin in the water and add the Tine, of Vera- 
trum. Give two teaspoonsfut' every hour until the patient is 
brought under the full influence of the remedy, then repeat at 
intervals of two hours, or sufficiently often to keep the arterial 
excitement under control. If nausea arise, omit until it has 
subsided, then resume as before. Of course, we cannot name 
the precise dose, nor regulate the frequency of repetition for 
every case. The patient may require more or less than the 
dose we have advised, but all that is necessary is to give 
sufficient to produce the specific effect of the remedy, and to 
maintain the action until the disease is overcome. If nausea 
and even vomiting take place, no disadvantage will accrue, 
but, on the contrary, when the stomach is loaded with phlegm 
or other matters, will generally prove decidedly beneficial. 

In the treatment of exanthematous fevers, of whatever type, 
we invariably employ the Asclepin. No remedy with which 
we are acquainted exercises so salutary an effect in these 
cases as the Asclepin. Its employment is admissible at any 
and all stages. It excites a kindly depurative action on 
the part of the cutaneous exhalents,. and favors the devel- 
opment of the eruption. In the treatment of scarlatina it 
is of eminent service. Mild cases of scarlatina, rubeola, 
varicella, etc., are manageable with this remedy alone, and 
seldom is any auxiliary treatment necessary. When more 
active treatment is demanded, the formula given above will be 



found reliable. We seldom find any other medicines necessary 
in the treatment of scarlatina in this climate, except the occa- 
sional administration of a dose of Podophyllin. 

Asclepin is an invaluable adjunctive in the treatment of 
many chronic diseases. From the fact of its exercising a 
peculiar influence upon the serous membranes, it proves a 
valuable remedy for chronic pleuritis, in which complaint it is 
most advantageously combined with Sanguinarin. 


Asclepin 3 j. 

Sanguinarin grs. IV. 

Triturate well together, and divide into ten powders 
Exhibit one three times per day. This treatment, in connec 
tion with alterative doses of Podophyllin, will prove success 
ful in a majority of cases. In obstinate cases, counter-irrita 
tion may be resorted to in connection with the above remedies 
For this purpose the following will be found excellent : 

01. Stillingia Sylvat 3 ij. 

Spts. Yini .3 IV. 

Bathe the affected parts night and morning. Or the follow- 

#. : 

01. Stillingia 3 Ij- 

01. Lobelia 3 ss. 

Spts. Yini 5 IV. 

Apply same as above. This is excellent when it is desirable 
to produce relaxation. If a more stimulating application is 
indicated, we vary the formula, thus : 

01. Stillingia 3j. 

01. Capsicum gtt. X vel XX 

Alcohol § ij. 

This is a powerful stimulant and counter-irritant, and will be 
found eminently serviceable in arousing a proper action of the 

In all diseases accompanied with a dry skin, unequal circu- 


lation, feeble respiration, a tardy action of the renal functions, 
flatulence, constipation, or viscidity of the secretions, Asclepin 
will prove a most reliable remedy, either alone or in combina- 
tion with other agents. For the removal of hepatic obstruc- 
tions, it may be advantageously combined with either of the 
following agents: Podophyllin, Leptandrin, juglandin, Eu- 
phorbin, Irisin, Phytolacin, or Apocynin. In the treatment 
of Kheumatism, with Macrotin, Sanguinarin, Xanthoxylin, 
Phytolacin, Stillingin, or Kumin. For the cure of Chronic 
coughs, with Prunin, Cerasein, Senecin, Lupulin, or Sanguina- 
rin. For hemoptysis, with Lycopin, Trilliin, or Eupatorin, 
(Purpu.) It is true that it may be considered as simply an 
auxiliary to some of the above mentioned remedies, yet we 
know full well that their efficacy is materially enhanced by 
the modifying action of the Asclepin. The only difficulty is, 
that Asclepin is too frequently looked upon as a simple and 
inadequate remedy, which needs must be combined with some 
more potent agent, and hence it is too seldom employed alone. 
Were more confidence reposed in its therapeutic worth, it would 
be found that no one assent manifesting so little excitement 
in its operation is capable of successfully meeting so great a 
number of indications. Possessing alterative, laxative, and 
tonic properties, it is exceedingly valuable in the treatment of 
some forms of indigestion, increasing the appetite, promoting 
digestion, and removing constipationrsi In the cure of hooping 
cough, it is with us a favorite remedy. From three to five 
grains may be given four times a day. y We usually form a 
solution with warm water. If the cough is violent or spasmo- 
dic, we add from five to ten drops of the Wine Tine, of 
Lobelia to each dose, v We sometimes use the Asclepin in 
connection with Hydrocyanic Acid. 

i_ Hydrocyanic Acid gtt. X. 

Cf Water 3 IV. 

Dose one teaspoonful three times a day. At the same time 
we give the Asclepin in sufficient quantities to maintain a gen- 
tle diaphoresis. No other plan of treatment that we have evei 


seen devised has proved so uniformly successful as the above, 
cutting the disease short with remarkable certainty. 

Asclepin is one of the most valuable remedies in the ad- 
vanced stage of phthisis pulmonalis that we have ever em- 
ployed. It overcomes the viscidity of the secretions, promotes 
expectoration, abates febrile excitement, and by promoting the 
cutaneous exhalations, lessens the cough. And all this it doe3 
so kindly that the patient is surprised and delighted at the de- 
gree of comfort ensured by so mild and pleasant a remedy. 
Its action is so different from the Diaphoretics usually em- 
ployed, that its employment is always admissable, and will 
not interfere with the action of such anodynes or sedatives as 
the physician may have occasion to administer. 

In the treatment of hysteria, amenorrhea, and other dis- 
eases incident to females, the Asclepin proves a remedy of 
much utility. "We shall frequently refer to it when treating 
of other remedies, as no other agent will admit of so frequent 
and promiscuous combination. It may be thought that we 
are too sanguine in our advocacy of the virtues of the Asclepin, 
but we rely upon a verdict in favor of the truthfulness of our 
estimate from all who have had a similar experience with our- 

In the management of dysentery, the Asclepin will be found 
an indispensable auxiliary when once its real value is under- 
stood. Diaphoretics are always indicated in that disease, and 
none will be found more valuable than the Asclepiml We 
have frequently known a single dose to cure a severe diarrhea. 
When arising from cold, the cure is almost certain. In the 
treatment of cholera infantum we have found the Asclepin a 
highly useful remedy. 

As stated in the first part of this work, we employ the As- 
clepin as a substitute for sugar, etc., in triturating the more ac- 
tive concentrated medicines. Among these we may enumerate 
the Veratrin, Hyoscyamin, Digitalin, Sanguinarin, Podophyllin, 
and Grelsemin. We know of no indication in which the As- 
cieuin would be inadmissable ; neither will it interfere in 
suppressing the therapeutic action of either of these remedies. 


On the contrary, it will increase their activity, and, by render- 
ing them more diffusible, insure a more kindly operation. We 
know of no combining agent so generally appropriate, or 
which exercises a more desireable modifying influence over the 
Podophyllin than the Asclepin. The .combinations will be 
noticed in connection with each agent 



Derived from Gelseminum Sempervirens, 

Nat. Ord. — Apocynacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Pentandria Digynia. 

Common Names. — Yellow Jessamine, Wild Jessamine^ 
Woodbine, etc. 

Part Used — Bark of the Root. 

No. of Principles, three, viz., resinoid, neutral and alkaloid. 

Properties — Febrifuge, nervine, anti-spasmodic, relaxant, 
alterative, emmenagogue, parturifacient, and narcotic. 

Employment — Fevers, pneumonia, pleuritis, rheumatism, 
hysteria, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, gonorrhea, chorea, 
spermatorrhea, epilepsy, paralysis, after pains, convulsions* 
and to expel worms. 


Although comparatively a new remedy, the Grelseminum 
has rapidly gained the approbation and confidence of the pro- 
fession. We are firmly of the opinion that not one half the 
true value of the Gelseminum is understood, yet sufficient is 
already known to render it a most welcome addition to the 
Materia Medica. As the plant is possessed of most positive anil 


active therapeutic powers, it is important that its pharmaceutical 
preparations should ensure a definite and uniform standard of 
medicinal strength. Such a desideratum has been secured in 
the preparation now under consideration. The three active 
principles of the plant have been isolated and recombined, 
and form a beautiful and convenient powder. Numerous 
attempts have been made to isolate the active principles of the 
Gelseminum, so as to" secure them in a powdered form, but 
this result has only been accomplished at the laboratory of B. 
Keith & Co. The thanks of the profession are due, in this 
instance, as in many others, to the indomitable t energy and 
skill of this firm, in having so faithfully rendered us a concen- 
trated equivalent of the plant. 

Gelsemin is deservedly entitled to the appellation of posi- 
tive medical agent, being possessed of specific and positive 
therapeutic properties, uniform in strength, and capable of 
preserving its properties unimpaired for an unlimited period 
of time. 

The average* dose of the Gelsemin is HALF a grain. But 
owing to constitutional peculiarities, the dose will vary from 
one-fourth to TWO grains. Fevers and inflammatory diseases 
generally afford a spacious field for its employment. Its 
peculiar influence over the nervous and circulating systems 
justly entitles it to be called both nervine and febrifuge. A 
knowlege of the peculiar febrifuge power of this remedy, has 
ushered in a new era in the treatment of febrile diseases. 
Fevers of almost every type may be controlled in from six 
to eighteen hours. In order to reap the full utility of the 
remedy, it must be given in sufficient doses to produce its 
constitutional effects, and the patient kept fully under its 
influence until the symptoms are completely subdued. The 
effects referred to are dimriess of vision, double-sigh tedn ess, 
inability to open the eyes, and, when carried beyond this, 
complete prostration of the muscular system. But it is seldom 
necessary to carry the administration of the remedy to the 
production of the latter influence. It is sufficient in a large 
majority of cases to produce a slight dimness of vision, and to 


continue the remedy with such doses and frequency of repeti- 
tion as will maintain a uniform degree of action at this point. 
In many cases it will be expedient to reduce the dose to 
just below the production of this effect. Even when 
the remedy has been carried to the production of complete 
bodily prostration, we have never known any permanently 
injurious effects to remain. These symptoms will all puss 
off in a few hours, leaving the patient refreshed and positively 
invigorated, rather than leaving, as might be expected, any 
symptoms of exhaustion or debility. It is always best to 
explain to the patient and attendants the nature of the symp- 
toms likely to arise when this remedy is exhibited, otherwise 
unnecessary alarm may be excited, and, as is frequently the 
case, the nurse, in the absence of the physician, will adminis- 
ter stimulants, and so defeat the action of the remedy. In 
the treatment of pneumonia, it is sometimes necessary to keep 
the patient under the full influence of the Gelsemin, that is, to 
the production of dimness of vision or doubl-e-sightedness, for 
four or five days. If this be not done, the disease will pro- 
gress unconquered, and the patient be lost. Some division of 
^opinion exists as to whether the Gelsemin has a narcotic 
property. We should think that a ver}' slight experience 
would be sufficient to decide this question. "When the patient 
is brought fully under its constitutional influence, the symp- 
toms are so marked that we cannot conceive how the remedy 
should be deemed otherwise. On attempting to move about, 
the patient appears as if intoxicated, the muscles refuse to 
obey the mandates of the will, while the head is dizzy, and 
the senses confused. In some respects the symptoms much 
resemble those produced by Strammonium, and in like manner 
pass off as soon as the remedy is discontinued. At other 
times the patient appears as if under the influence of alcohol, 
and evinces a decided disinclination to motion, and a tendency 
to sleep, from which he awakes feeling invigorated and 

In some instances, in the treatment of fevers, it is best to 


precede the employment of the Gelsemin with a cathartia 
dose of fodophyllin. In general, if we find that Podophyllum 
is indicated, we administer it in combination with Gelsemin l 



Asclepin aa. grs. ij. 

Gelsemin j. 



Leptandrin aa. grs. ij. 

Gelsemin grs. j. 

With & single dose of either of the above formulas we have 
frequently arrested typhoid and other fevers in the forming 
Stages, so completely as to render farther medication unnecess- 
ary. A more powerful combination is the following : 


{ Podophyllin, 

Euphorbin aa. grs. ij. 

Gelsemin..- gr. j. 

This will prove an emeto-cathartic dose, and we have fre- 
quently arrested severe attacks of fever, rheumatism, and 
pneumonia, by exhibiting it in the forming stages. This maj 
be deemed heroic treatment, but in the section in which w» 
write, it answers our purpose, and that is just what we desire- 
of every remedy. If any fever remain after the operation of 
the above, we follow with the Gelsemin until it is controlled 
Asclepin may always be advantageously exhibited in connec- 
tion with the Gelsemin. This is particularly the case in 
pneumonia, scarlatina, and eruptive fevers generally. 

Acute rheumatism will frequently yield to the Gelsemin, 
particularly if the system has been properly regulated by the 
previous exhibition of Podophyllin. But it must be remem- 
bered that the Gelsemin is not a specific, and that many 
constitutions will not bea/ it at all, while others seem to- be 
completely fortified against its impressions altogether, exper> 


Slicing no influence from it whatever. In such cases we must 
rely upon the Veratrin. 

It is in the treatment of female disorders that we find the 
<xelsemin peculiarly serviceable. Amenorrhea will frequently 
yield to Gelsemin when administered in half grain doses 
three times a day. Hysteric convulsions are also readily 
'Controlled with it. For relieving the pains of dysmenorrhea, 
we know of no single remedy equal to it. We give from ONE 
.half to one grain every two hours. If it fails alone, we give 
the following : 


Yiburin aa. grs. XX 

Gelsemin _. grs. V 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one every two 
: hours. If the pain is very severe, repeat every hour. This 
is without exception the most efftcient remedy for the relief 
of pains accompanying menstruation with which we are 
acquainted. /When caused by functional derangement, we 
deem it a specific. We have earned the gratitude of many 
sufferers by the employment of the above. It is equaily effi- 
cacious in relieving the pains occurring after parturition. 
Neuralgia will also often yield to the same prescription. In 
connection with suitable tonics, Gelsemin will be found of 
great service in the treatment of chorea. The tonics employed 
should be of an anti-periodic character, such as Cornin, Cera 
sein, and Iron. 

Gelsemin has gained considerable repute in the treavment 
of gonorrhea. We have employed it for some three years 
past in that disease, but have never relied upon it exclusively. 
Our principal object in employing it is to overcome the ure- 
thral inflammation, and prevent chordee, and for these purposes 
we have found it reliable. It may be given alone or in com- 
bination with alteratives. We usually administer it at bed 
time, finding that the patient is more apt to enjoy a quiet 
-aight's rest thereby. From one to two grains of the Gelse* 


mi n, or from ten to twenty drops of the tincture maybe 
gi ven. While some patients are readly controlled by SIX or 
EltJHT drops, we have found some to require twenty-five 
di ops for the same purpose. We cannot say with certainty 
whether the Gelsemin possesses any specific alterative value in. 
the above disease or not, but we believe it does, and in that, 
belief we prescribe it in all the cases we are called upon to. 
treat, as an auxiliary. 

For spermatorrhea, in connection with tonics, we have 
found it of exceeding utility, In many cases it is better to. 
administer the Gelsemin alone for a few dajs } or until a. 
remission of the symptoms is induced, and then follow with, 
tonus. Of the latter, Cerasein will be found most efficient.. 
In st -me cases Lupulin, Hydrastin, or Coram will answer a 
better purpose. At other times we combine the Gelsemin 
with tonics, as follows : 

Cerasein J 3j- 

Gelsemin grs. Vj. 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders. Dose — one, three time& 
per <#ay. In some cases, double the above dose will be re-- 
quired. The formula given below we deem the most efficient; 
that can be devised : 

Cerasein 3j- 

Lupulin grs. XXIY. 

Gelsemin grs. Vj. 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders, same as the above. As 
soon as the emissions are effectually checked, we omit the Gel- 
semin and continue the Cerasein • and Lupulin for at least one 
month. When the affection arises from a badly cured gonor- 
rhea, we direct injections of Chloride of Lime to the urethra*. 

Chloride of Lime 3j. 

Water O.j. 

Inject three or four times a day. If too strong, dilute. Thi* 
treatment has cured some obstinate cases. 


We have found the Gelsemin remarkahly efficacious in 
some forms of convulsions. Not only will it control the 
spasms, but also effect, in many cases, a cure, as it is a direct 
tonic to the nervous system. The doses should be sufficiently 
large to bring the system under control, and as soon as a 
remission is fairly established, the dose should be diminished 
one-half, and continued as long as may be thought necessary. 
It is advisable, in some instances, to combine the Gelsemin 
with anti-periodics, as soon as a remission occurs, precisely as 
in the treatment of intermittent fever. Should the convul- 
sions return, omit the tonic until another remission occurs. 
Tonics, however, will sometimes aggravate the disease, in 
which case the Gelsemin will answer a better purpose alone 
We have cured several cases of epileptic convulsions by occa- 
sional^ exhibiting a dose of Podophyllin, with Gelsemin at 
night, and Cerasein during the day. We also direct that, if 
the patient be conscious of the approach of the fit, a dose of 
the Gelsemin be taken immediately, which will usually have 
the effect of preventing its recurrence. It is sometimes 
advisable to administer the Gelsemin two or three times a 
day, so as to keep the system continually under its influence. 
As soon as the disease is controlled, the doses of the Gelsemin 
may be diminished in frequency. 

Hysteric convulsions, when not arising from displacement 
of the uterus, may also be controlled with the Gelsemin. 

Some division of opinion exists in relation to the true action 
of this remedy upon the uterus. We have had considerable 
experience in the treatment of female disorders, and have used 
the preparations of Gelseminum quite extensively. For five 
years past we have employed it as a parturifacient, and with 
better satisfaction than any other remedy. We use it for the 
purpose of relieving cramps, or other spasmodic difficulties, 
vertigo, nervous irritability, wakefulness, and other symptoms 
accompanying gestation. We usually commence its employ- 
ment about five weeks before the expected time of confine- 
ment, if not sooner indicated , and exhibit from one-fourth 
to one-half grain of the Gelsemin every other night, or from 


FIVE to t«en drop of the Con. Tincture. The Gelsemin, how- 
ever, will not agree with all constitutions, and we have met 
with some two or three cases in which we could not emplo}'- it. 
Where no such idiosyncracy exists, it will compose both the 
mind and body of the patient, and carry her safely and fully 
up to the completion of the period of gestation. It seems to 
prepare the system for the parturient effort, and labor is com- 
pleted in an unusually short period of time. As soon as 
delivery is effected, and the secundines expelled,- we give the 
patient from one-fourth to one -half grain of Gelsemin, or 
five to ten drops of the Concentrated Tincture. This quiets 
all nervous excitability, favors the contraction of the uterus, 
and acts as a prophylactic of febrile excitement. It must be 
borne in mind that Gelsemin is narcotic, and hence will not 
be admissable at all times. We have met with a few cases 
of pregnancy in which the Gelsemin was indicated, but owing 
to existing idiosyncracies it could not be employed. In some 
cases it will fail to produce the desired effect, without other- 
wise manifesting any impressions upon the system, simply 
failing to act all. In other cases it will produce considerable 
cerebral excitement, with a tendency to vertigo, and without 
relieving the symptoms for which it was administered. 

Gelsemin is one of those medicines which are peculiarly 
governed in their action by the quantity administered. Thus 
in small doses it acts as a gentle stimulant and tonic to the 
nervous system, giving vigor and harmony of action ; while 
in large doses it proves a powerful relaxant, completely pros- 
trating the muscular system, and, by over stimulating the 
brain and nerves, produces irregular and disturbed nervous 
action. The opinion has been entertained by some, that the 
Gelseminum is capable of producing abortion, but our experi- 
ence with it inclines us to the contrary belief. As before 
stated, when administered in small doses, it gently stimulates 
uterine contraction, but when given in large doses it will 
arrest the progress of labor with much certainty. Still we are 
unable to say that it will not produce abortion under some 
circumstances, although we have never seen any evidence of 


its power to do so, and* we have administered it to females at 
all the different stages of utero-gestation. 

Gelsemin has proved effectual in expelling intestinal ento- 
zoa, particularly the ascaris lumhricoides and tricocephalus 
dispar. The Gelsemin may be administered in one-half or 
one grain doses two or three times a clay, as the patient wiii 
bear, for two or three days, and then followed with a brisk 
cathartic. Or it may be combined with Podophyllin, as in the 
following formula : 

. Gelsemin grs. V 

Podophyllin grs. X 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Exhibit one every night 
for three nights, then omit three nights, and repeat as before. 
If the bowels should not be sufficiently relaxed by the use of 
one of these powders daily, the quantity of Podophyllin may 
be increased, or an additional powder may be administered in 
the morning. Other formulas embracing the Gelsemin will be 
given under the head of Santonin. 

Neuralgia, when arising from functional disturbances of the 
nervous system, is successfully treated with Gelsemin. From 
one-fourth to one grain of Gelsemin, or from five to fif- 
teen drops of the Con. Tine, may be given every two hours 
until relief is obtained, and then at longer intervals until the 
affection is broken up. We frequently form combinations of 
Gelsemin with other neuropathies, as Cypripedin, Scutellarin, 
Lupuiin, Hyosciamin, etc., as may be indicated at the time. 
In many cases of neuralgia, the use of Gelsemin, or other 
remedies of its class, will prove of but temporary service 
unless accompanied with, or followed by a tonic of an ami- 
periodic character. The Gelsemin, however, possesses con- 
siderable anti-periodic power, and will prove more uniformly 
permanent in its action upon the nervous system than many 
other remedies of its class. Gelsemin may be combined with 
anti-periodics in the treatment of neuralgia, but we prefer to 
administer it alone until we have obtained a remission of the 
symptoms, and then follow with Gerasein, Cornin, Hydrastin, or 


Quinine, either alone or combined with Iron, in such doses, 
and with such frequency of repetition as the circumstances of 
the case will justify. 

It would be impossible for us to give a full and complete 
h ".story of the range of employment of the remedy under 
ronsideration. Our experience in the use of this remedy has 
not been limited, yet we feel that we have but feebly por- 
trayed its therapeutic value. It has proved reliable in our 
hands in fulfilling all the indications of disease we have men- 
tioned, yet we do not, by any means, look upon it as a specific. 
In the absence of any idiosyncracy on the part of the patient 
forbidding its employment, it is a sure and effectual remedy 
in controlling febrile excitement. It was the first remedy 
introduced to the profession by which typhoid and other 
fevers could be completely controlled and subdued in from 
twelve to eighteen hours, thus disproving the statement that 
such types of disease must "run their course." That it is 
capable of doing this, we have but to refer to the corrobora- 
tive experience of all who have understandingly employed it 
for this purpose. Giving tone and harmony ot action to the 
nervous system, it proves an invaluable remedy in the treat- 
ment of all spasmodic affections. 

The Gelsemin is a remedy not to be incautiously trifled with, 
and those adopting its use should commence with small doses 
until they learn by experience somewhat of its peculiar influ- 
ences. Avoid combinations as much as possible, and rely 
rather upon alternation. In this way the true value of the 
remedy may be leaned. The medium dose of the Gelsemin 
is half a grain. 


This preparation of the Gelseminum is equivalent in thera- 
peutic properties to the Gelsemin. It is prepared in accordance 
with the conditions of the method referred to in the first part 
of this volume, and possesses the advantage over all other 
prepared tinctures of this plant of being of uniform medicinal 

The medium dose of this tincture is ten drops. In many 
cases five drops will produce the peculiar constitutional in- 
fluences of the plant, while in other cases as many as thirty 
drops will be required. We are of opinion that the action of 
the tincture is in general more prompt than that of the Gel- 
semin, in consequence of its diffusible character. It is very 
convenient for combining with other tinctures, and for adding 
to solutions of other remedies. It also enables us to graduate 
the doses with much precision. 

The tincture may be employed for all the purposes for 
which we have recommended the Gelsemin. In the treatment 
of febrile diseases, we employ it in connection with Asclepin^ 
as follows : 


Asclepin .................... 3 ss. 

Warm water ...... § ij. 

Con. Tine. Gelseminum gtt. LX. 

Dissolve the Asclepin in the water and add the Tine. Gelse- 
minum. Dose, from one to three teaspoonfuls once in two 
hours. This is a very convenient form of preparing it for 
administration in the above mentioned diseases, particularly 
when a continued use of the remedy is necessary, and when 
the physician cannot conveniently see the patient sufficiently 
often to superintend its exhibition. 


We employ the tincture very frequently in the treatment 
of chronic diseases as a matter of convenience, as the patient 
is enabled to estimate the dose by the number of drops directed. 
In commencing the use of the tincture in chronic disease, we 
order what we consider to be rather less than a medium dose 
for the patient in hand, and direct that, if the peculiar constitu- 
tional impressions are not produced by that quantity, the dose 
be increased one drop at a time until the symptoms of dizziness 
or clouded vision are apparent, then to hold at that quantity, 
or reduce a drop or two, and thus continue. 

Combinations are very readily effected with other of the 
-concentrated tinctures when desired. Thus with Con. Tine. 
Senecio as recommended under that head for amenorrhea. In 
the treatment gf nervous affections it may be advantageously 
joined with Con. Tine. Scutellaria. 

Con. Tine. Grelseminum, 

Con. Tine. Scutellaria aa. 3 j. 

Dose, from five to fifteen drops. 

For hooping cough, asthma, etc., joined with the Wine Tine, 
of Lobelia, it will be found very beneficial. 
• £. 

Con. Tine. Gelseminum 3 ss. 

Wine. Tine. Lobelia 3j. 

Mix. Dose, five to ten drops once in three hours, or when- 
ever the cough is troublesome. 

Combined with the Con. Tine. Apocynum, we have a very 
excellent remedy for the. removal of ascaris vermicularis. 

Con. Tine. Gelseminum 3j« 

Con. Tine. Apocynum 3 ss. 

-Mix. Dose, from six to twelve drops three times per day. 
After using the remedy for three days in this manner, if the 
bowels are not sufficiently relaxed, administer a dose of Podo- 
phyllin. This will generally prove most effectual in expelling 
those vermin. 

For the removal of the ascaris lumbricoides, a useful com- 


Ltnation may be effected with the Con. Tine. Chelone Glabra 

Con. Tine. Gelserainum 3j. 

Con. Tine. Chelone 3ij. 

Mix. Dose, from, five to ten drops three times per day, for 
three days, followed by a dose of Podophyllin, or some other 
cathartic. If the first . trial should prove ineffectual, repeat 
in the same manner. 

We have found the tincture beneficial as an outward appli- 
cation in various affections. Diluted with from four to eisrht 


parts of water, we have applied it with excellent results to 
erysipelatous inflammations. The parts should be kept cov- 
ered with cloths wetted in the dilute tincture. It abates the 
local inflamation, and has a very soothing and pleasant influence. 
The same application has been found beneficial in inflammation 
of the eye, resulting from cold, as well as in purulent and other 
forms of opthalmia. Wash the eye with the dilute tincture, 
and then apply cloths wetted with it as above directed. Diluted 
in the same manner, and dropped into the ear, it will soften 
the accumulations of hardened cerumen, and relieve the ringing, 
roaring, and other disagreeable symptoms that result from 
deranged secretion. 

We have found the Tine, an excellent remedy for poisoning 
by the Rhus Ehadicans, and Rhus Toxicodendron, common 
names, poison ivy, and swamp or poison sumach. Dilute the 
tincture with from four to eight parts of water and apply as 
directed for erysipelas, keeping the parts constantly moistened 
with it. If there be any febrile excitement present, adminis- 
ter the tincture internally at the same time, in such doses, and 
with such frequency of repetition as the case will warrant. 
We have experienced the value of this remedy in our own 
person, and can recommend it as reliable. We also have the 
concurrent testimony of practitioners who have used it for the 
same purpose. 

The dilute tincture is also beneficially applied to some forms 
of rheumatic swellings, neuralgic affections, etc. We fre* 
quently combine it with other bathing preparations. 


The following is excellent : 

Soap Liniment ....... ••••••••-...'. 5 iij* 

Con. Tine. Gelseminum §j. 

Mix. Bathe the parts freely, repeating every two or three 
hours, or apply cloths wetted with the mixture, covering with 
a dry bandage to prevent too rapid evaporation. 

Many forms of skin diseases may be benefited and cured by 
the internal and external application of the tincture. For 
external application the above mixture will be found useful, 
or the tincture may be added to ointments, or mixed with 
other fluid applications. 



■* + *«B 

Derived from Macrotys Racemosa 

Nat. Ord. — Ranunculacem. 

Sex. Syst. — Polyandria Di-Pentagynia. 
. Common Names. — Black Cohosh, Deer Weed, Rattle 
Root, Black Snake Root, Squaw Root, etc. ' 

Part Used— The Root. 

No. of Principles, three, viz., resinoid, alkaloid and neutral. 

Properties — Alterative, anti-spasmodic, stimulant, diapho- 
retic, diuretic, expectorant, resolvent, nervine, emmenagogue, 
parturient, tonic and narcotic. 

Employment — Amenorrhea, leucorrhea, dysmenorrhea, hys- 
teria, chorea, chlorosis, to facilitate delivery, rheumatism, 
coughs, colds, asthma, hooping cough, phthisis, small-pox, 
croup, convulsions, epilepsy, neuralgia, scrofula, indigestion, 
prolapsus liter i, gonorrhea, gleet, spermatorrhea, intermittent 
fever, cutaneous diseases, hronchitis, laryngitis, etc. 

It may be thought that we have awarded to the Macrotin 
a too liberal range of employment : but we can assure the 
reader that we write from positive data, and with the record 


of our own and coteniporary clinical experience before iib. 
"With this assurance we shall proceed to lay before the reader 
a history of its application in disease. 

The alterative properties of this remedy are well marked, 
hence its utility in scrofula, cutaneous diseases, &c. We shall 
not assume to explain the manner of its operation in these 
cases, but confine ourselves to a history of results. We do 
not look upon it as a specific in disease, but as of great relia- 
bility in fulfilling specific indications. As with all other 
remedies possessing alterative properties, its successful em- 
ployment is based upon certain conditions. Thus, in scrofula, 
we should correctly estimate the necessities of the system, and 
determine whether those conditions are present or not. As 
the remedy imparts a healthful stimulus to the digestive and 
nutritive functions, we should see that the elements of nutrition 
are supplied, in order that, if activity be given to the functions 
of nutrition, there be something upon which the action so 
aroused may expend itself. It is worse than useless to excite 
the nutritive apparatus of the system to action unless there be 
material to appropriate. Scrofula occurs mostly in patients 
whose systems are deficient in nitrogenous matters and iron, 
hence the latter are to be supplied as articles of diet or 
materials of sustenance and reparation, while the Macrotin 
will act as a motor-excitant, promoting the assimilation and 
appropriation of the sustaining and reparative material. By 
observing these conditions, the practitioner will find in the 
Macrotin a most excellent remedy for the treatment of the 
above named diseases. It exercises a remarkable influence 
over the nervous system, giving tone and harmony of action, 
and awakening its latent energies to healthful activity. This 
peculiar stimulant property is of great service in those cold 
and passive conditions which sometimes attend the develop- 
ment of strumous diseases. In such cases it proves a valuable 
adjunctive to other alteratives and tonics. It may be given 
alone and alternated with other appropriate remedies, or com- 
bined with such alteratives or tonics as are indicated. The 
medium dose of the Macrotin is half a grain. When given 


in small doses, it gently stimulates the nervous system, relaxes 
muscular spasm, allays pain, soothes the irritability of the 
system, reduces the force and frequency of the pulse and 
equalizes the circulation, and acts as a prophylactic of cerebral 
congestion. In over-doses it produces considerable cerebral 
disturbance, with vertigo, nausea, prostration, pain and fullness 
in the head, and an indefinable sense of aching in the joints. 
In its general influence, when taken in large quantities, it sim- 
ilates the action of alcohol. An infusion of green tea or roasted 
coffee counteracts its impressions. We have never known 
any permanently injurious effects to follow the production 
of the above symptoms, yet in patients of a peculiarly suscepti- 
ble organism we would advise caution in its employment. 

In the treatment of amenorrhea, the Macrotin may be given 
in doses of from one-fourth to one grain, three times per 
day. In order to be effectual, it is generally necessary that the 
doses should be sufficiently large to produce the constitutional 
effects of the medicine in a slight degree. In many cases these 
symptoms will be limited to a slight sense of aching in the 
joints, and a peculiar electrical sensation extending throughout 
the entire system. At other times these peculiar sensations 
will be manifested only in the organs or parts diseased, as in 
the kidneys, liver, etc. In the treatment of the affection under 
consideration, the Macrotin may be alternated with such other 
medicines as the necessity of the case demands. Thus if it 
be desirable to increase its emmenagogue and tonic properties, 
it may be alternated with Senecin, Helonin, Baptisin, etc. 
The Macrotin may be exhibited for a few days, and then 
followed witli either of the above remedies, or they may be 
alternated upon the same day. To avoid complexity, combi- 
nations may be formed. Thus to increase its tonic, stimulant, 
emmenagogue properties, as follows : 

Macrotin grs. V. 

Senecin ---.-- T)j. 
Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose, one, three times per 
day. Or the following : 

10 ^- 


«^.j' Macrotin ------ grs. YI. 

Helonin grs. XYIII. 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders. Dose, same as above. 
"When laxatives are indicated, it is better to exhibit the Ma- 
crotin through the day, and the laxative at bed-time. 

In the treatment of leucorrhea the Macrotin should be 
given in doses sufficiently large to produce the constitutional 
symptoms, and warm alkaline hip baths employed every day. 
In speaking of these complaints, we mean to be understood as 
referring to simple uncomplicated affections. When complica- 
tions exist, the indications must be determined and met 
according to the individual characteristics of ean.h case. 

Dysmenorrhea is frequently relieved of its immediate pain- 
ful character by administering from one-half to one grain 
of Macrotin every two hours, and permanently cured by 
continuing the remedy, in appropriate doses, during the inter- 
menstrual period. 

The spasms of hysteria, when not arising from actual 
displacement of the uterus, are easily controlled with the 
Macrotin. If there be prolapsus, inversion, or retroversion of 
the uterus, first replace it, then administer the Macrotin, and 
having quieted the immediate irritability, continue the remedy 
until the tone of the system is restored, and thus guard against 
such accidents in future. 

The Macrotin possesses considerable anti-periodic power, 
hence will be found useful in the management of chorea. 
Exhibit in full doses, and alternate during the remissions with 
more decided tonics, such as Cornin, Cerasein, Hydrastin, 
Quinine, Iron, etc. If the Macrotin should not prove suffi- 
ciently anti-spasmodic, it may be joined with other remedies of 
its class. Among these may be enumerated Gelsemin,Viburnin, 
Cypripedin, Caulophyllin, and Yeratrin. 

In connection with Iron, Macrotin will be found valuable in 
the treatment of chlorosis. It must be borne in mind that 
Macrotin will increase the activity of those remedies with which 
ii may be combined. This it does, not by actually increasing 


sthe medicinal power of the adjunctive, but by arousing the 
impressibility of the nervous system, and by promoting its 
^absorption and diffusion. For the complaint above mentioned 
we may combine the Macrotin as follows : 


y Macrotin grs. V. 

* Iron by Hydrogen . . . grs. X. 

JVIix and divide into ten powders. Dose — one, twice a day. 
Under all circumstances the acidity of the stomach should be 
neutralised before exhibiting the Macrotin. Other preparations 
of Iron may be substituted for the above, as the Valerianate, 
Phosphate, Carbonate, etc. 

For promoting delivery, the Macrotin is deservedly held in 
high repute. It is indicated in all cases in which Ergot is 
usually employed, and we have the testimony of several emi- 
nent practitioners that it is not only equal, but preferable under 
all circumstances. When the uterine efforts are feeble and 
irregular, the Macrotin should be exhibited in doses ot half 
a grain once in two hours. It is very important to not 
administer the remedy in too large doses, otherwise the object 
in view will be defeated. This is a general error in the em- 
ployment of Ergot, overaction being quite too frequently 
produced. If the uterus be undilated, or undilatable, the use 
of the Macrotin should be preceded by the Wine Tine, of 
Lobelia. We have been assured by those who have employed 
the Macrotin, that they would never again use Ergot, being 
satisfied that the former is quite as efficient, and, at the same 
time, much more kind and safe in its operation. It is the 
opinion of some that the Macrotin is inferior as a partus 
accelerator to the Caulophyllin ; but botti are good, and as 
neither are specifics, one may answer where the other fails. 

Macrotin is highly esteemed in the treatment of. chronic 
rheumatism, in which complaint it is quite as reliable as any 
other single remedy. The patient must be brought under 
its full influence, and the remedy persevered with. In this 
■complaint it is advantageously combined with Sanguinarin, 
Xanthoxylin, Stillingin, Irisin, Phytolacin, Eumin, etc. 


Macrotin ............. ...........grs. V. 

Xanthoxylin 3 j. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose— one, three times 
per day. ' Diaphoretics are always of service in rheumatism* 
hence we employ the following combinations : 

Macrotin grs. X. 

Sanguinarin grs. V. 

Asclepin grs. XL. 

Triturate well together and divide into twenty powders. Dose- 
— same as above. Or, 

Macrotin grs. X. 

Phytolacin grs. XX. 

Asclepin. .grs. XL. 

Triturate and divide into twenty powders. Exhibit same as 
above. In this way we form combinations with other remedies 
suited to the case in hand. As a general thing the employment 
of these remedies in rheumatism should be preceded by the use 
of Podophyllin, and an occasional dose should be administered 
during the progress of the treatment. 

Macrotin possesses well marked expectorant and diaphoretic 
properties, hence is valuable in the treatment of colds, coughs^ 
incipient phthisis, etc. In these affections it may be either 
alternated or combined with Senecin, Asclepin, Prunin, San* 
guinarin, orLycopin. 

In view of its anti-spasmodic and expectorant properties, 
the Macrotin has been found highly beneficial in asthma, 
hooping cough, and croup. As an expectorant, it may be 
employed with confidence whenever such a property is indicated^ 
For asthma or hooping cough, it is excellent when joined with 
Eupatorin Purpu. or Apocynin, or Prunin, etc^j- In croup~ 
after the urgent symptoms are alHyed, it is exceedingly bene- 
ficial as an expectorant.-^- In all spasmodic affections of the 
respiratory system it is a reliable and valuable remedy. 

The Macrotin has been highly recommended in the treatment 


of small pox. Our experience of its employment in that 
disease has been somewhat limited, yet sufficient to give us a 
very high estimate of its value. We have exhibited it in a 
number of cases with obviously good effects. When adminis- 
tered during the febrile stage, it reduces the force and frequency 
of the pulse, allays cerebral excitement, equalises the circulation, 
and induces a gentle diaphoresis. We are satisfied that it will 
modify the violence of the symptoms, and deprive the disease 
of much of its malignancy. It is also of value in the treat- 
ment of other eruptive fevers. 

Epilepsy has been much benefited by the use of Macrotin. 
It will usually induce a remission of the symptoms, although 
it may not prove sufficiently anti-periodic to prevent their 
recurrence. In such an event it must be joined with more 
active tonics, or the tonics may be exhibited when a remission 
occurs. If a more active anti-spasmodic and relaxant is 
required, the following will answer an excellent purpose: 


Oelsemin ..... . ...... aa. grs. T. 

Asclepin grs. XX. 

Triturate well together, and divide into ten powders. Dose, 
-one, twice or thrice a day. As soon as a remission occurs, 
-administer Cerasein in FIVE grain doses once in four hovrs, 
;and continue until some three or four of the usual periods for 
the return of the symptoms are past. 

Macrotin has been found serviceable in the treatment of 
'neuralgia. The manner of its employment is the same as /or 
*the above. 

The Macrotin exercises a peculiar and powerfully sanative 
influence over the functions of the liver, and to this fact are 
we to look for a solution of its value in many forms of disease. 
It imparts a healthful impulse to this organ, and powerfully 
promotes its secretive power. In long standing hepatic de- 
rangements, this remedy can scarcely be excelled in efficacy. 
Hepatic torpor, indigestion, and all their concomitant symptom? 
sare most effectually obviated by the use of the Macrotin. It 


is not as prompt in its operation as many other remedies, yefe 
it does its work surely. In order to realise its full and true 
value, the patient should be kept slightly under the constitu- 
tional influences of the remedy, as in other cases, until the 
symptoms yield. In some cases it may be advisable to 
occasionally exhibit a dose of Podophyllin, Leptandrin, or 
some other laxative or cathartic, in order to quicken the action 
of the bowels when tardy, and so obviate the danger of 
accumulation. When occasion requires the exhibition of 
laxatives or cathartics, it is better to administer them indepen- 
dent of the Macrotiu. 

A tendency to prolapsus and other displacements of the? 
uterus may be benefited and cured by the use of the Macrotin.. 
It should be given in small doses, and long continued. Wev 
sometimes combine it with other agents, as follows : 

Macrotin .........................grs. V. 

Helonin . grs. XV. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose — one, three times pe^ 
day. If a laxative tonic be indicated, we substitute Hydrastis 
for the Helonin. In other cases we employ the following; 
pills, which answer an excellent purpose : 

Macrotin grs. VL 

Helonin grs. XII. 

Leptandrin --grs. XXIV. 

Mucil. Acacia. . . ... q. s. 

Make a mass and divide into twenty-four pills. Dose— one or 
two, twice or thrice a day. 

Macrotin has been found highly beneficial in the treatment, 
of gonorrhea, gleet, and spermatorrhea, as an auxiliary to other 
remedies. It is a powerful alterative, and also promotes the 
action of other alteratives. For gonorrhea or gleet, it may be 
combined with Stillingin, Irisin, Phytolacin, Eumin, Ampelop- 
sin, Corydalin, or Chimaphilin. The same will be foundi 
valuable in secondary syphilis, and in various forms of dermoids 


disease. For spermatorrhea, the Macrotin may be combined 
with Lupulin, Gelsemin, Hydrastin, or Cerasein. 

We have cured many cases of intermittent fever by first 
administering a full cathartic dose of Podophyllin, and then 
exhibiting the following powders during the intermission : 

X Macrotin .....grs. VL 

Xanthoxylin grs. XXIV 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders. Dose — one, every three 
or four hours, as the patient can bear. At other times we have 
combined the Macrotin with Cornin or Hydrastin, Xan- 
thoxylin, etc. 

Macrotin............... ............. grs. V, 

Cornin, ...................... ... 3ss. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose — same as above. 

Macrotin .-grs. V. 

Hydrastin .grs. X. 

Xanthoxylin . 3 j. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose and employment 
same as above. If the patient be troubled with a relaxed 
condition of the bowels, the Hydrastin will be inadmissable. 
In that case the Macrotin and Cornin, or Macrotin and Xan- 
thoxylin will answer a better purpose. 

Chronic bronchitis, laryngitis, etc., have been greatly relieved 
by the use of Macrotin. It may be used alone, or in connection 
with Prunin, Senecin, Asclepin, Leptandrin, etc. 

Macrotin is also valuable as an external application in many 
forms of disease. For this purpose it may be dissolved in 
strong alcohol. For ordinary use, the following will answer: 


Macrotin....... ............. ......... 3-L 

Alcohol ITV. 

This is applied in rheumatism, lumbago, neuralgia, spina 1 
irritation, indolent swellings, synovitis, indolent ulcers, rheu 


matic opthalmia, etc. For promoting absorption in synovial 
effusions, we use the preparation much stronger : 

Macrotin J I. 

Strong Alcohol § IV. 

Apply night and morning. Over this we usually apply a 
bandage wetted in cold water and well protected with dry 
flannel. VThe Macrotin is powerfully relaxant, hence as soon 
as the reduction' of the enlargement is effected, the Macrotin 
should be discontinued, and the parts bathed with a tincture 
of Hydrastin and Myricin in Alcohol : 

Hydrastin --3ij. 

Myricin §ss. 

Alcohol ^IY. 

Bathe freely. 

The tincture of Macrotin is also excellent for contracted 
joints, and all cold and indolent local indurations or enlarge- 



Derived from Ampelopsis Qumauefolid, 

Nat. Orel. — Vitaccce. 

Sex. Sjst. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Woodbine, American Ivy, Five-leafed 
Ivy, Virginian Creeper, Wild Wood Vine, etc. 

Part Used — Bark and Twigs. 

No. of Principles, three, viz., resin, resinoid, and neutral. 

Properties — Alterative, diuretic, expectorant, anti-syphil- 
itic, astringent and tonic. 

Employment — Scrofula, cutaneous diseases, hronchitis, 
hooping cough, asthma, dropsy, syphilis, diarrJiea, and rhevr 

As an alterative, the Ampelopsin may be relied upon in 
it 11 cases where remedies of that class are indicated. It does 
its work kindly, silently, yet surely. The average dose of 
this remedy is three grains, though in some cases the dose 
may be advantageously increased to ten grains. 

In the treatment of scrofula, the Ampelopsin will be found 
die of the most reliable alteratives that can be employed. It 


seems especially adapted to the cure of this complaint, and in 
connection with such other general treatment as may be 
indicated, will seldom disappoint expectation. The better plan 
is to administer it in from TWO to FIVE grain doses, two hours 
after each meal. All alteratives operate better if taken into 
the stomach in the absence of food. The Ampelopsin exercises 
a remarkable influence over the absorbent system, hence will 
be found valuable in all cases where tuberculous deposits or 
indurations are suspected. It is, for this reason, a suitable 
remedy in incipient phthisis. ' In order to demonstrate its 
utility in these as in other complaints, it should be used alone, 
such attention being paid at the same time to. the liver, bowels, 
and skin, as the circumstances of the case may indicate. If 
other medicines are indicated, they should, by preference, be 
alternated with the Ampelopsin. If the liver be inactive, or 
deranged in any manner, an occasional dose of Podophyllin 
should be administered. If the functions of the skin are tardy 
or inactive, an alkaline bath should be administered twice or 
thrice a week. For this purpose carbonate of soda, saleratus, oi 
hard wood ashes may be employed. When the latter can be 
obtained, we give it the preference. 

Hard Wood Ashes one gill. 

Boiling Water one quart. 

Infuse five minutes and strain. Apply tepid, sponging the 
entire surface, and rub well with a dry towel. If the patient 
is very feeble, from one half to one pint of common spirits 
may be added to the above. We give preference to New 
England Bum. None but those who have experienced the 
utility of the alkaline bath as an auxiliary in the treatment of 
scrofula, skin diseases, rheumatism, dropsy, etc., can properly 
appreciate its value. 

Although we are a strong advocate for employing organic 
remedies in their simple forms, alternating with others where 
change is necessary, yet we may sometimes effect combinations 
better suited to individual cases. Thus in scrofula, skin 
diseases, rheumatism, etc., if the liver be inactive and the 


bowels constipated, we may combine the Ampelopsin with 
such other of the concentrated medicines as are known to 
be good in those affections, and which will afford the desired 
chologogue and laxative properties. The following for ex- 

Ampelopsin 3j. 

Leptandrin 3 ss. 

Mucilage Gum Arabic q. s. 

iiake a mass and divide into thirty pills. Dose — from one to 
two, three times per day. This combination will be found of 
most especial service in the above mentioned diseases, and in 
bronchitis, laryngitis, hepatitis, and in all affections of the 
glandular system. 

For hooping cough and asthma, the Ampelopsin may be 
rendered more efficient by combining it with Macro tin, Asclepi^ 
or Eupatorin Purpu. 


Ampelopsin 3 ss. 

Macrotin grs. IV. 

Mix, and divide into sixteen powders. Dose — one, repeated 
every four or six hours. 


Asclepin aa. 2) j- 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose — same as above. 



Eupatorin Purpu. aa. 3 j. 

Divide into ten powders and exhibit same as above. Either 
of these formulas may be employed as may seem best adapted 
to the case in hand. 

The Ampelopsin has proved a reliable agent in the cure of 
dropsy. Although possessing considerable diuretic power 
its curative action in this disease does not seem to depend 
upon that especial property, but upon its power to excite a 
healthful action in the glandular and absorbent systems, and of 


promoting depuration. Its influence seems to be expended 
upon the entire organism, gently stimulating each function to 
the performance of its duty, without proving evacuant in 
one direction more than in another. At times, however, it 
proves actively diuretic. As a general thing it is better to 
commence the treatment of dropsy by administering a dose of 
Podophyllin or Jalapin combined with Cream of Tartar. 
Either of the following will answer : 

Podophyllin -..----.---..— ...grs. ij. 

Bitartrate of Potassa . . 3 j. 

Administer in a spoonful of water at bed time. As soon as 
the above has operated thoroughly, commence with the 
Ampelopsin, and exhibit in doses of from five to ten grains 
three times per day. The Podophyllin and Cream of Tartar 
should be repeated occasionally during the course of the 

Or Jalapin may be substituted for the Podophyllin, as 
follows : 


Jalapin ............grs. IV. 

Bitartrate of Potassa 3j. 

In some cases we find the three combined to answer a better 

Podophyllin... gr. j. 

Jalapin grs. ij. 

Bitartrate Potassa. 3 j. 

In other cases it is better to precede the employment of the 
Ampelopsin with an emetic of Lobelia. For this purpose the 
Wine Tincture answers an excellent purpose. From two tc 
four drachms of the tincture may be given every twenty 
minutes until free emesis is produced. If there be reason to 
suspect acidity of the stomach, twenty grains of the super- 
carbonate of soda should be added to each dose. Or if this 
caution has been neglected, and the Lobelia is tardy in operating, 
a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in half a tumbler of warm 


water should be immediately administered. The Ampelopsin 
may be employed as above directed, in connection with an 
occasional hydrogogue cathartic. As soon as the dropsical 
symptoms are removed, the system must be braced up with 
tonics in order to prevent a return. Cornin, Hydrastin, 
Cerasein, Fra-serin, or Eupatorin Perfo., either alone or com- 
bined with Iron, will answer a good purpose. 
""'Ampel opsin has considerable reputation in the cure of 
syphilis. It is employed in the same manner as other altera- 
tives. jLWhen thought advisable, it may be combined with 
Stillingin, Irisin, Phytolacin, or Corydalin. As with other 
alteratives, we deem it better, as a general thing, to use the 
Ampelopsin alone, and alternate with other remedies. Its use 
must be persevered in for a length of time, in order to reap its 
full utility. 

The Ampelopsin possesses slightly astringent properties, 
aDd has been found serviceable in certain forms of diarrhea. 
In these complaints, it may be advantageously combined with 
Leptandrin, Euphorbin, or Juglandin, when the affection pro* 
ceeds from a deranged action of the liver. 

Ampelopsin 3j. 

Leptandrin . . . . . grs. X. 

Form a mass with mucilage of gum arabic, and divide into 
ten pills. Administer one every two hours until the alvine 
evacuations assume a healthy appearance. 


Ampelopsin 3ss. 

Euphorbin grs. VI. 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders. Dose, same as above. 


Juglandin aa. grs. XV. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Exhibit in the same 


If the affection has arisen from cold, the Ampelopsin should 
be combined with Asclepin. In colliquative diarrhea it should 
be combined with more powerful astringents, as Geranin, 
Khusin, Myricin, Hamamelin, or Trilliin. Thus its range of 
application may be varied by judiciously combining it with 
such other agents as may be required to meet special symp- 





Derived from Geranium Maculatum. 

Nat. Ord. — Geraniacem. 

Sex. Syst. — Monodelphia Decandria. 

Common Names. — CranesbiU, Purple Crowfoot, Alutn 
Hoot, Spotted Geranium, etc. 

Part used. — The Root. 

No. of Principles, two, via., resmoid and tannin. 

Properties — Astringent, styptic, and anti-septic. 

Employment. — Dysentery, Diarrhea, hemoptysis, hema- 
turia, passive hemorrhages, apthous sore mouth, leucorrhea, 
gleet, diabetes, and all affections of the mucous surfaces. 

Geranin is justly considered one of the most valuable of 
the vegetable astringents. In its action, it differs somewhat 
from astringents generally, in promoting, instead of suppress- 
ing the secretive power of the mucous surfaces, and leaving 
them moi3t and invigorated in their functions. This remedy 
has been largely employed in the treatment of dysentery, and 
with more general success than any other astringent Its use 


is admissible in all the different stages, although success will 
be more certain if the bowels are first relieved of their morbid 
contents, and the functions of the liver corrected by the use of 
Podophyllin, Leptandrin, etc. The medium dose of the Ger- 
anin is three grains. The doses may be repeated every hour, 
or once in two, four or six hours according to the urgency of 
the symptoms. "When the discharges from the bowels are pro- 
fuse, the skin hot, dry, and constricted, and the tongue and 
fauces red, parched and inflamed, the Geranin will answer an 
admirable purpose in combination with Asclepin. 

Geranin . — ......... -3 j. 

Asclepin grs. X. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. One of these may be ad- 
ministered every hour. In a short time after commencing the 
use of the medicine the mucous surfaces will resume their 
secretive action and become moist, and a gentle moisture ap- 
pear upon the skin, while the dejections from the bowels will 
become less frequent and more healthy in appearance. The 
dose we have named will not be sufficient in some cases, and 
must be increased to the production of the desired effect. In 
all forms of bowel complaints attended with spasmodic pains, 
and when astringents are indicated, the Geranin is advantage- 
ously combined with Caulophyllin. 


Caulophyllin ..........--.--.aa. 3j. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose— one, to be repeated 
every hour or two, as may be necessary. This combination 
will be found excellent for relieving the griping pains so com- 
mon in these complaints. In diarrhea and dysentery of a 
bilious character, a more suitable and efficient combination 
may be effected with the Dioscorein. 

Geranin ---3j. 

Dioscorein grs. X. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose — same as above; 



This prescription is peculiarly useful in cholera morbus and 
cholera infantum. In the sinking stages of dysentery and 
similar affections, the Geranin should be combined with stim- 
ulants and tonics. The following we have employed quite 
extensively, and with excellent results. 


Xanthoxylin- aa. 3j. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Exhibit as above directed. 
This is excellent in the advanced stages of cholera infantum. 
When tonics are indicated, Cornin, Cerasein, and Fraserin 
will be found reliable. 

In the advanced stages of all diarrheal complaints, and in 
all cases where there is a tendency to putrescency of the rluids, 
the Geranin, when indicated, should invariably be combined 
with Baptisin. 


Geranin 3 ss. 

Baptisin grs. XY. 

Mix, and divide into fifteen powders. Give one every two 
hours. In some cases, it will be necessary to double the quan 
tity of Geranin. No remedy with which we are acquainted 
is more to be relied upon for correcting the putrefactive 
tendency than this. In typhoid and other fevers, inflammation 
of the bowels, etc., this combination will be found exceedingly 

Geranin has been found serviceable in checking hemor- 
rhages from the lungs, stomach, bowels, kidneys, and uterus. 
The usual dose in such cases is five grains, although as much 
as ten grains is sometimes given. The doses are repeated 
every hour until the hemorrhage is arrested, and -then at 
longer intervals. In passive hemorrhages this remedy has 
proved itself of great utility. In hemorrhage of the bowels, 
it is sometimes more efficient when administered by enema. 
From one-half to ONE drachm may be so administered at a 
time, and repeated when occasion requires. It may be added 
to mucilage of slippery elm, starch water, etc. "We have 


known some cases of dysentery to yield readily to this treat- 
ment when remedies by the stomach had failed. 

Leucorrhea, gleet, and other affections of the mucous sur- 
faces have been benefited and cured by the use of the Geranin. 
It is both administered internally and applied externally. For 
external use it is sometimes made into a tincture and then 
added to water. At other times it is simply added to warm 
water, in which, however, it is only partly soluble. 

Geranin, in connection with suitable diet and tonics, is of great 
service in the treatment of diabetes. From TWO to FIVE grains 
may be given three times per day. The bowels should be 
kept open by the use of small doses of Podophyllin, Leptandrin, 
or Juglandin. 

The diarrhea occurring in the latter stage of phthisis 
pulmonalis is more readily controlled by the Geranin than any 
other remedy with which we are acquainted. 

The vomiting in cholera has been checked with Geranin 
when other means failed. 

Externally, the Geranin is employed in a variety of affections. 
The apthous sore mouths of infants is frequently cured by a 
wash made by adding half a drachm of Geranin to four ounces 
of warm water. The same is found serviceable in some forms 
of opthalmia, otorrhea, sore nipples, eruptions of the skin, 
chafes, etc. An ointment serviceable in the treatment of piles 
is made as follows: 

Geranin ... . .. . .... 3 j. 

Lard 5j. 

Mix. The following is still better : 

Geranin.................. 3j. 

Hydrastin..... .. .... 3ss. 

Lard 3j. 

Mix. Anoint the parts freely several times a day. The 
game has been found useful in scaly eruptions of the skin. 
Dissolved in alcohol, in the proportion of half a drachm to 


the ounce, it is an excellent application for toughening the 
■skin when rendered irritable by shaving. 

The Geranin will be found one of the best and most relia- 
ble astringents in the range of the Materia Medica, but will 
fail, like all other remedies, when the indications for its 
•employment are mistaken. Thus we would never think of 
giving it in dysentery and kindred complaints untill the morbid 
material of the stomach and bowels had first been removed by 
suitable remedies, and the action of the liver corrected. And 
if this be done, the neccessity for astringents will be materially 
lessened. It is bad practice to treat bowel complaints in their 
primary stages with astringents, and which cannot be to severely 
reprehended. Assist nature to expel the morbid material 
which is the direct cause of the inordinate evacuations, then 
tone up the various functions that have been weakened by 
excess of action. 

. n 



Derived from Populus Tremuloides. 

Nat. Ord. — Salicacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Dioecia Octandria. 

Common Names. — Upland Poplar, White Poplar, Quak- 
ing Aspen, etc. 

Part Used — The Park. 

No. of Principles, two, viz., resinoid and neutral.. 

Properties — Alterative, tonic, diuretic, stomachic, depura- 
live, vermifuge, and diaphoretic. 

Employment — Indigestion, flatulence, worms, hysteria, 
jaundice, fevers, cutaneous diseases, scalding and suppression 
of urine, night sweats, etc. 

We shall not, perhaps, have occasion to speak of any remedy 
more reliable than the Popnlin in fulfilling certain indications. 
"We have used it long and extensively, and always with the 
most gratifying results. As a remedy for indigestion accom- 
panied with flatulence and acidity, we know of no single agent 
more to be relied upon than this. The average dose of the 



Populin in these cases is three grains three times per day. 
It will have a better effect if taken immediately after eating. 
"We have found by experience that all medicines calculated to 
promote digestion and present acidity and flatulence answer a 
much better purpose when administered at the time their 
action is needed. It is presumed that the therapeutic properties 
of such remedies are, in a measure, expended locally. Hence 
it is proper to administer them at those periods when such 
local excitement is necessary. Alteratives, on the contrary, 
■operate better when taken into the stomach in the absence of 
food, as they are then enabled to be digested, absorbed and 
conveyed to their destination by the undivided forces of the 

The dose of the Populin will vary from two to six grains 
according to the impressibility of the patient's system, or the 
■effect desired to be produced. In small and oft repeated 
'doses it powerfully promotes diaphoresis. In large doses it 
proves more actively diuretic. Hence, in the treatment of 
fevers, it should be given in small quantities and often; while 
in suppression, retention, and scalding of the urine, the doses 
should be larger, and exhibited at longer intervals. 

For the removal of flatulence it is more of a radical than 
an immediate remedy, overcoming the disposition by its powers 
as a corrective. It will be found one of the most certain 
remedies for this purpose that has ever yet been discovered. 

For removal of worms it should be given in from three 
to five grain doses three times per day for a few days, and be 
followed by a cathartic. 

In hysteria it is mainly useful as a tonic after the urgent 
-symptoms are quelled. For this purpose it will be found of 
singular utility, as it will be tolerated by the stomach when 
other tonics are rejected, and tranquilise the sympathetic 
disturbance arising from uterine excitement. It is, for this 
reason, an excellent remedy for the dyspeptic symptoms 
accompanying pregnancy. 

In jaundice the Populin is of eminent service. It possesses 
athe properties of an alternative to a marked extent, which is 


display <«d by its power to correct the secretive action of the skin 
and kidneys. It is of great importance that these emunctories 
should be restored to a normal condition in the treatment of 
•jaundice, as they constitute the main channels of depuration.. 
To render the Populin more effectual, it should be alternated 
with alterative doses of Podophyllin, Leptandrin or Jug- 

Populin is one of the most reliable remedies for the relief 
of night sweats that it has ever been our good fortune to 
become acquainted with. We refer its curative action in this, 
instance to its power of restoring and giving vigor to the? 
secreting vessels of the skin. This property we have referred 
to in speaking of the Senecin. For the cure of the above- 
complaint, when not arising from hepatic congestion, fifteen 
to twenty grains of Populin should be administered daily.. 
We usually employ it in solution. 

Populin - - • - - - - 3j. 
Warm "Water - - - - - §iij. 
Mix. The Populin is not entirely soluble in water, yet 
sufficiently so for all practical purposes. It should be stirred 
up wh»m taken. One tablespoonful of the above solution, 
should be given once in two hours. 

Suppression and retention of urine are readily relieved 
with the Populin, for which purpose it may be used in such 
doses, %nd with such frequency of repetition as the case 
demands. All the directions we deem necessary are, to give 
it in so .ution, and in sufficient quantities to produce the desired 

Yahiable as we deem the Populin in the treatment of the- 
affections previously named, it has one other property which wn 
consider of paramount importance to all the rest, and that is, its 
property of relieving painful micturation, and heat and scalding 
of urine. Did it possess no other curative value, we should 
esteem it an indispensible constituent of our materia medica. 
hA value in this respect is most apparent when the symptoms 
f-U we named occur during pregnancy. The relief it affords ia 


most gratifying to both patient and practitioner. Our method 
of employing it is in solution, in connection with tincture of 
Gum Myrrh, as follows : 

Populin 3 j. 

Tine. Myrrh 3 ij« 

Warm Water 3 IV. 

Of this mixture one tablespoonful may be given once every 
two to four hours, and continued until the symptoms are 
entirely relieved. In order to allay the irritation of the 
meatus urinarius and labia, we employ the following : 

Pul. Gum Myrrh Jss 

Boiling Water 

Infuse and strain. Wash the parts freely with this infusion, 
or a cloth wetted with it may be inserted between the labia, 
and in contact with the meatus. This treatment will seldom 
or never disappoint the practitioner. ^ We look upon it as the 
most certain prescription that can be made. We can recollect 
of no instance of failure. It is perfectly safe in all stages of 

Many combinations may be effected with the Populin, some 
of which we are in the habit of dispensing daily. We give 
below our favorite formulas : 



Xanthoxylin aa. 3 ss. 

Mucil. Acacia q. s. 

Form a mass and divide into twenty pills. Or what will 
answer equally as well, if not better, the following : 

Populin 3j. 

Con. Tine. Xanthoxylum ;.q. s. 

Form a mass and divide into twenty pills. These pills are 
serviceable in debility, indigestion, loss of appetite, flatulence, 
acidity of the stomach, etc. We direct one to be taken 
immediately after each meal. The stimulant properties of the 


Xanthoxylin increase the efficacy of the Populiu in cases 
where great coldness and inactivity of the system exist. 

In cases of hepatic torpor and constipation, we employ the 
annexed formula : 


Leptandrin aa. 3 j. 

Con. Tine. Xanthoxylum q. s. 

Form a mass and divide into thirtjr pills. Use in the same 
manner as above directed. These we find excellent for 
promoting the secretions of the liver and obviating constipation. 
When the difficulty has been of long standing, Phytolacin 
may be substituted for the Leptandrin. 

From the description we have given of the properties and 
employment of the Populin, the practitioner will be enabled 
to effect many valuable combinations not necessary for us to 
notice here. In consequence of the hygroscopic property of 
the neutral principle of the Populin, it is necessary to make it 
into pills or reduce it to solution when consecutive doses are 
prescribed. If preferred it may be dissolved in alcohol, in 
which it is soluble in equal proportions. 

We would earnestly call the attention of practitioners to the 
Populin, assuring them that they will find it a reliable remedy 
in fulfilling the indications we have named. It has proved so 
useful in our hands that we are anxious that all should avail 
themselves of its valuable remedial properties in the treatment 
of disease. We trust to the discriminating intelligence of the 
profession to decide that we have not over-rated its medicinal 
worth. A fair trial of its merits will confirm the opinion that 
it is truly a positive medical agent. 


Derived from Cypripediurn Pubescens. 

Nat. Ord. — Orchidacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Gynandria Dicmdria. 

Common Names. — Wild Ladies Slipper, Yellow Umbel, 
Nerve Root, American Valerian, Moccasin Flower, etc. 

Part used. — The Hoot. 

No. of Principles, two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties — Anti-spasmodic, nervvne, tonic, and narcotic/ 
also, diaphoretic. 

Employment. — Hysteria, cJwrea, nervous headache, neu- 
ralgia, hypochondria, nervous irritability, fevers, debility, 

The Cypripedin fully represents the therapeutic properties 
of the plant. It is frequently employed as a substitute for 
the imported valerian, but it will not be found identical with 
it. As a nervine and anti-spasmodic, the plant has long 
been used in domestic practice, and with the most beneficial 
results. Its concentrated equivalent, Cypripedin, possesses the 
properties above attributed to it in an eminent degree. "When 


opium and its preparations will not agree, the Cypripedin may 
be relied upon with much confidence. As a substitute for 
Paregoric, Godfrey's Cordial, etc., it is most advantageously 
employed in alleviating the disorders of children requiring the 
use of an anodyne. It possesses, however, some narcotic 
power, and many times will be found quite as inadmissible as 
opium. Cypripedin is much used in the treatment of fevers^ 
pleurisy, rheumatism, etc., on account of its anodyne, diaphor- 
etic, and febrifuge properties, It allays pain, abates delirium,, 
promotes perspiration, and procures sleep. It may be given 
alone in doses of from two to four grains, or combined with 
such other remedies as are being prescribed. In febrile diseases 
it is employed mostly in combination with Asclepin. The 
neutral principle of the Cypripedin has a strong affinity for 
water, and is, therefore, liable to absorb moisture and harden 
when exposed to the air. For this reason it is necessary to 
reduce it to solution, or form it into pills, when more than a 
single dose is to be left with the patient. We employ it mostly 
in solution. 

Cypripedin 3 j. 

Asclepin 3 ij. 

Warm Water 5 IV. 

Dose — from two to four teaspoonfuls once in two hours. Aa 
stated under the head of Asclepin, we have seen severe attacks 
of pleurisy cured with this formula alone. 

This formula will be found useful in all febrile diseases 
attended with nervous irritability. Rheumatism, gout, neural- 
gia, hysteria, and all spasmodic affections afford indications for 
its use. In the treatment of scarlatina and other exanthematous 
fevers, the combination above given will answer an excellent 
purpose for producing diaphoresis and quieting nervous excite- 
ment. Nervous headache is also relieved by administering 
two teaspoonfuls of the solution every twenty minutes until 
the violence of the symptoms is abated, then once every hour 
until complete relief is obtained. A better combination for 
this purpose may be made as follows : 


Cypripedin grs. X. 


Scutellarin aa. 3j 

Mix, and divide into ten powers. Dose — one, every twenty 
or thirty minutes, in warm water. As soon as the symptoms 
begin to abate, xhe medicine may be given at longer intervals. 

Cypripedin may be joined with Caulophyllin, Lupulin, 
Viburin, Scutellarin, or other nervines and anti-spasmodics, 
in the treatment of chorea, hysteria, hypochondria, nervous 
debility, etc. In many cases it is desirable to combine it with 
tonics, in which case it may be joined with Cornin, Cerasein, 
Hydrastin, Euonymin, Fraserin, or Cerasein, accordingly as 
the properties possessed by either are indicated. All anti- 
spasmodics are tonics, yet their anti spasmodic power is 
hightened, or rather confirmed, by joining them with pure 
tonics. For this reason the Cypripedin, when employed in 
nervous affections attended with marked periodicity, should be 
joined with suitable tonics. 

As an adjunctive to other remedies, it has been found highly 
serviceable in dyspepsia, and other affections of the stomach 
and bowels. It qualifies the action of Cathartics, and abates 
the tendency to delirium in fevers. Its properties are so well 
defined, and its uses so generally understood, that we deem it. 
unnecessary to dwell longer upon the manner of its employment. 

The practitioner will find it a valuable adjunctive in a great 
variety of cases, inasmuch as its more prominent properties 
are so frequently indicated. The large class of diseases to 
which females are subject afford numerous opportunities for 
its employment. Although in general agreeing well with the 
patient, it must be borne in mind that it possesses a degree of 
narcotic power, and will, therefore, be sometimes found quite 
as incompatible as opium or any of its preparations. The 
average dose of the Cypripedin is three grains, yet in some 
cases half a grain will be sufficient, while in others ten grains 
will be required. 


■» > ^ 

Derived from ChimapMla Umbellata. 

Nat. Ord. — Ericaceae. 

Sex. Syst. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Prince's Pme, Pipsissewa, Wintergrcen. 
Ground Holly, etc. 

Part used. — The Plant. 

No. of Principles, three, viz., resin, resinoid, and neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, tonic, diuretic, and astringent. 

Employment. — Scrofula, rheumatism, dropsy, gonorrhea 
strangury, gravel, debility, etc. 

This elegant remedy is now presented for the first time to 
the profession. The well known efficacy of the plant as an 
alterative has long rendered it desirable that it should be 
prepared for medicinal use in a convenient and reliable form. 
This has been accomplished in the article under consideration. 
The active principles of the plant, three in number, are here 
presented, condensed, definite, uniform, and reliable. The 
average dose of the Chimaphilin is three grains. Of course 
the quantity must be varied to suit the peculiarities of the 
case in hand. In the treatment of scrofula it will be advisable 
to administer it in doses of from two tx. /ive grains three times 
per day, continuing its use for two or three weeks, and then 


alternating with some other alterative. Of the latter Anrpe- 
lopsin, Corydalin, Irisin, Phytolacin, or Stillingin may be 
selected, as may be best suited to the case. We set a high 
estimate upon the alterative power of this remedy, an opinion 
based upon experience. Its operation is not attended with any 
special excitement, nor is one function apparently stimulated 
more than another, except it be, in some instances, the kidneys. 
The whole system seems to be embraced in its influence, 
manifested by a simultaneous improvement of the various 
functions of digestion, nutrition, and depuration. 

Chronic rheumatism has been frequently relieved and cured 
by this remedy. As a general thing, larger doses are required 
than in the preceding case. From five to ten grains may be 
given three times per day. At the same time the bowels should 
be kept in a soluble condition by the use of Podophyllin, 
Leptandrin, Juglandin, Euonymin, etc. In this case, as in 
the former, the Chimaphilin should be alternated with other 
alteratives, as more satisfactory results will be obtained, as a 
general thing, by alternation than by combination. Yet there 
are circumstances and conditions when combinations will meet 
the indications with greater certainty and promptitude. For 
instance, in the treatment of rheumatism, ulcers, and other 
diseases attended with a cold, languid condition of the system, 
viscidity of the secretions, etc., joined with stimulants, such as 
the Xanthoxylin, Sanguinarin, or Phytolacin, it will be 
rendered much more active. Either of the following formula* 
may be employed, and will be found excellent : 

Chimaphilin - 3ss. 

Xanthoxylin - - - - - - 3j. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. 

Chimaphilin - - - • - 3j» 

Sanguinarin ----- grs.iij. 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders. 



Chimaphilin • - - • • - 2)ij- 

Phytolacin grs. X 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. One of either of the above 
powders may be given twice or thrice a day, as circumstances 

This remedy ha*s been of much utility in the treatment of 
dropsy, particularly ascites. It seems to act in this complaint 
much in the same manner as the Ampelopsin, by general and 
not by specific therapeutic impression. Its value is more 
apparent in cases originating from or accompanied with an 
impaired action of the digestive and nutritive system, and 
debility. In these cases it operates by promoting the appetite, 
digestion, and assimilation, and gently stimulating absorption 
and depuration. In the treatment of dropsy, it may be 
advantageously combined with other of the concentrated 
medicines suited to the features of the case. Thus, in dropsy 
of the abdomen, and general anasarca, we should combine it 
with the Ampelopsin. 


Ampelopsin - - - - aa. 3 ss. 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders. Dose — one, every four 
+ o six hours. If more of the stimulant property were needed, 
we should add a portion of Sanguinarin to the above. The 
formula would then stand thus : 


Ampelopsin - - - - - aa.3ij. 

Sanguinarin ----- grs. X. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Use in the same 

In hydrothorax, or dropsy of the chest, we should combine 
it with Digitalin. 

Chimaphilin - • - - - 3ij. 
Digitalin - - - - grs. ij. 


Triturate thoroughly together and divide into ten powders. 
One of these may be given every five hours, until a perceptible 
impression is made upon the system in some way, either 
upon the pulse, kidneys, or respiration, and then at longer 
intervals, and continued until the symptoms are removed, or 
there is obvious disagreement of the remedy. In administering 
this prescription particular care should be taken to neutralise 
undue acidity of the stomach. As a general thing, it will be 
better to combine a few grains of super-carbonate of soda with 
•each dose. 

Other diuretics, as the Eupatorin Purpu., Lupulin, Populin, 
Senecin, etc., may be joined with Chimaphilin at the option of the 
practitioner. For strangury and gravel, we prefer the Populin. 

Chimaphilin 3ss. 

Populin 3j. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one every two 
jhours until relief is obtained, then every four or six hours 
till a cure is effected. The same formula will be found excellent 
for loss of appetite, indigestion, debility, etc. In these cases 
one powder may be given twice or thrice a day. Whenever 
laxatives or cathartics are needed, they should be alternated 
with the Chimaphilin. 

Chimaphilin is very valuable in the treatment of gonorrhea, 
syphilis, and mercurial diseases. It must be used freely and 
persevered in for a length of time, occasionally alternating 
with other tonics and alteratives. When deemed appropriate 
it may be joined with Corydalin, Senecin, Irisin, Stillingin, 
Phytolacin, Rumin, etc., with either of which it is not only 
admirably suited to the cure of the above affections, but also 
skin diseases, ulcers, scrofula, and all complaints arising from 
or accompanied with a vitiated condition of the blood and 
fluids. As an alterative, and as a remedy in rheumatism, 
gouty and gravelly affections, chronic cough, and dropsical 
diseases, it may at all times be relied upon with confidence a* 
an auxiliary, if not as a radical remedy. 



Derived from Dioscorea Villosa. 

Nat. Ord. — Dioscoreaceoe. 

Sex. Syst. — Dicecia Hexandria. 

Common Names. — Wild Yam, Colic Root, etc. 

No. of Principles, three, viz., resin, neutral and muci-resvrh. 

Properties. — Anti-spasmodic, expectorant, and diaphwetic. 

Employment. — Bilious colic, cholera morbus, nausea 
attending pregnancy, spasms, coughs, hepatic disorders, after- 
pains, flatulence, dysmenorrhea, and in all cases where an anti- 
spasmodic is required. 

The wonderful efficacy of this remedy in the cure of bilious 
colic renders it an indispensable agent to every practitioner 
of the healing art. In this complaint it is as near a specific 
as any remedy can well be. The relief it affords is both 
prompt and certain. But its entire value does not relate to 
this disease alone, as it has been found exceedingly valuable 
in the complaints above enumerated. 

The Dioscorea has been in use, in the crude state, for some 
considerable time, but we have the pleasure of being the 
first to record a history of its true concentrated equivalent, 
Dioscorein, for the benefit of the profession at large. True, a 


preparation called Dioscorein has been offered them, under the 
designation of a resinoid, and represented as being the active 
principle of the plant. By referring to the head of this 
article, the reader will perceive that the therapeutic properties 
of the plant reside not in one, but in three distinct proximate 
principles, viz., a resin, neutral, mid muci-resin. The character- 
istics of these several principles have been described in the 
first part of this volume. With the exception of the above 
named resinoid Dioscorein mentioned by some authors, the 
only other method recommended for employing the Dioscorea 
is in the form of a decoction. In this form it has been suc- 
cessfully employed in bilious colic, cholera morbus, etc., 
proving thereby that it yielded at least sufficient of its proper- 
ties to water to prove actively medicinal. The reader will 
please remember that resinoids are soluble only in strong 
alcohol, hence, if the active properties of the plant had resided 
in a resinoid, the water would have failed in extracting it, and 
the decoction would be, consequently, useless. But now that 
we have set the matter in its proper light, there will be no 
difficulty in perceiving that water may extract a soluble neu- 
tral and muci-resin, and a partially soluble resin. We have 
deemed it necessary to enter thus into detail, in order that the 
reader might perceive the justice of our charge of inaccuracy 
against the representation of a resinoid being the active prin- 
ciple of the plant. We labor for the cause of truth and 
accuracy in medical science, and we desire that all we write 
or say shall be capable of demonstration, her' e our digression. 
The usual dose of the Dioscorein in the treatment of bilious 
colic is four grains, repeated, every thirty minutes until com- 
plete relief is obtained. The relief afforded is as prompt as it 
is certain. In gome cases we deem it better to combine the 
Dioscorein with Asclepin as follows : 

Dioscorein 3 j. 

Asclepin 3ss. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. Give one every twenty oi 
thirty minutes until .the symptoms are fully abated. We have 


known a single dose of the above to afford entire relief in 
twenty xnmutes, rendering farther medication unnecessary. In 
many, however, it will be necessary, in order to effect a radi- 
cal cu;e, to follow with a full dose of Podophyllin, which, in 
cases !ike this, should be combined with Caulophyllin. The 
above formula is not only reliable in the treatment of bilious 
colic, but also in flatulent colic, borborygmus, spasms, etc. 

In the treatment of cholera morbus, the Dioscorein should 
be given in doses of from one to two grains every twenty 
minutes until the symptoms are abated. In this case, as in all 
others, the acidity of the stomach must be neutralised, other- 
wise the medicine may be of no effect. This may be done by 
combining a few grains of soda with each dose. In our 
experience of the management of cholera morbus, as well as 
of vomiting from other causes, we have found that small doses 
frequently repeated will oftentimes control the symptoms 
when large doses fail. Hence we deem it expedient in some 
cases, to give from one-fourth to one-half a grain of the 
Dioscorein at a dose, and repeat every five or ten minutes. 
The stomach will frequently tolerate and retain very small 
doses when larger ones are rejected. 

We have found the Dioscorein valuable in the treatment of 
hepatic disorders, particularly when accompanied with irrita- 
bility of the stomach, and spasm. We generally employ it as 
an adjunctive to chologogues, as the Leptandrin, Juglandin, 
etc. Either of the following formulas will be found of excel- 
lent service in the treatment of both acute and chronic disor- 
ders of the liver. 

Dioscorein 3 j. 

Leptandrin 3 ij. . 

Mucil. Acacia q. s. 

Make a mass, and divide into twenty pills. From one to twc 
of these may be given twice a day. 

Dioscorein 3j. 

Juglandin 3j. 


Mix, and divide into twenty powders. One of these may be 
given every four or six hours. The latter will be found 
excellent in those cases of indigestion accompanied with 
-acidity, flatulence, and spasmodic pains. When the symptoms 
-are aggravated by eating, one of the above powders should be 
given immediately after each meal. If preferred the powder 
may be formed into pills with mucilage of gum arabic. 

We have found the Dioscorein excellent for allaying the 
intestinal irritation sometimes produced by Podophyllin.- We 
•employ either of the following formulas, accordingly as we 
"wish to secure a diaphoretic or stimulant property. 

Dioscorein grs. X. 

Asclepin 3j. 

^Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one every two or 
■three hours. 

Dioscorein grs. X. 

Xanthoxylin 3j. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. Dose — same as above 
Both of these formulas will be found excellent in diarrhea, 
dysentery, cholera infantum, etc., at the proper stages. 

With Caulophyllin, Yiburnin, Scutellarin, Cypripedin, oj 
Lupulin, the Dioscorein is advantageously employed in thn 
treatment of female affections, as hysteria, dysmenorrhea, 
•after-pains, etc. It is an excellent remedy in all spasmodic 
affections, either as a radical or an auxiliary agent. It may 
be combined with one or more of the above, as may be best 
suited to the case. At other times it will require to be 
combined with tonics, as the Cornin, Cerasein, Fraserin, 
Ilydrastin, Eupatorin Perfo., etc. 

Dioscorein has been spoken of as a remedy for the nausea 
accompanying pregnancy, but we have no personal knowledge 
of its efficacy in that affection. Judging from its action in 
other cases, however, we do not hesitate to recommend it for 


that purpose, confident that if it fails to alleviate, no harm car* 
arise from its administration. 

As an expectorant, the Dioscorein has obtained some repute 
in the care of asthma, hooping cough, and bronchitis. For 
asthmatic affections it may be joined with Apocynin, Sangui- 
narin, Eupatorin Purpu., or Hyoscyamin. For hooping cough, 
with Macrotin, Asclepin, or Wine Tincture of Lobelia. For 
bronchitis, with Ampelopsin, Stillingin, Leptandrin, or Prunin. 

In conclusion we would reiterate the fact that Dioscorein is 
eminently anti-spasmodic and diaphoretic, and that its power 
of relieving spasms relates more particularly to the stomach 
and bowels, in the disorders of which it has become to be 
looked upon by many as nearly a specific. We speak of our 
own knowledge when we state it to be the most reliable remedy 
yet discovered for bilious and flatulent colic, and intestinal 
spasm and irritation generally. It is a safe and harmless 
remedy, but in over doses will produce vomiting. 



Derived from Chelone Glabra. 

Nat. Ord. — Scrophulariaceo3. 

Sex. Syst. — Didynamia Angiosperma. 

Common Names. — Balnwny, Snake Head, Turtlehlo&m^ 
Turtlehead, Salt Rlieum Weed, etc. 

Part used. — The Herb. 

No. of Principles, two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Laxative, tonic, and anthelmintic. 

Employment. — Dyspepsia, jaundice, constipation, debility 
'and vjorms. 

Chelonin is of especial value in the treatment of hepatic 
-disorders, and forms a very appropriate adjunctive to othet 
remedies. In the cure of jaundice, it is of eminent service. 
It seems to stimulate the secretive power of the liver in a 
peculiar manner, at the same time giving tone and regularity 
of action. As a tonic, its influence seems to be expended 
mainly upon the digestive apparatus, increasing the appetite, 
promoting digestion and assimilation, and so conducing to an 
improved condition of the blood, both in quality and volume. 
Being somewhat laxative, it generally obviates constipation. 
When not sufficiently so, it may be combined or alternated 


with other laxatives, as the Leptandrin, Hydrastin, Euonymm,, 
etc. The average dose of the Chelonin is three grains, yet 
profitably increased to five or ten in some cases. In dyspep- 
sia accompanied with hepatic torpor, the Chelonin will be 
found a. most useful agent. The doses may be repeated three 
or four times a day, as thought necessary. The same is time 
in relation to jaundice. In the treatment of the latter com- 
plaint, a dose of Podophyllin and Leptandrin should be 
administered once or twice a week. 

Combined with Juglandin, the Chelonin will b i rendered 
more efficient in those cases of indigestion accomp aiied with?, 
acidity and flatulence. 

■Chelonin : J)j. 

Juglandin £ jss. 

Mix, ftnd divide into ten powders. Dose — one, three times; 
per day. Or with Populin : 


Populin aa. 3 j- 

Form a mass with mucilage of gum arabic, and divide into 
thirty pills. Give one immediately after each meal. The 
same formula will be found excellent for the removal of 
wormri. Two pills may be given three times a day, for three 
days, and then followed by a cathartic, dose of Podophyllin 
and ijeptandrin. If the first trial should prove ineffectual,, 
repeat in the same manner. 

We have succeeded in removing larsje numbers of the asca- 
ms vermicularis with the following formula, administered by 
wav of enema, blood warm : 

Chelonin 3 ss. 

"Wine Tine. Lobelia 3 ss. 

Warm water 5 IV. 

Mix, and administer at once, with a common syringe, anct 
repeat in two hours, if the first dose does not dislodge the 
vermin. This enema may be repeated every day for a week fe 


or sv_ V>ng as it continues to bring away any worms. We 
rememoer several cases permanently relieved by this treat- 

For the removal of the ascaris lumbricoides, and tricoce- 
pJialus dispar, the Chelonin may be combined with Gelsemin. 

Chelonin 3ij. 

Gelsemin grs. V. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one three times per 
day for two or three days, then administer a cathartic. 

The Chelonin will be found of excellent service in the con- 
valescing stages of fevers and other acute diseases. It is 
particularly useful in dysentery after the inflammatory symp- 
toms have subsided, in which complaints it may be combined 
with astringents, as the Geranin, Myricin, Bhusin, etc., or with 
diaphoretics, as the Asclepin ; or with other tonics, as the 
Fraserin, Cornin, Cerasein, Populin, according to the particu- 
lar requirements of the case. It is of especial benefit in all 
cases where the system has undergone depletion by hemor. 
rhage or colliquitive discharges. "When astringents and tohic3 
are indicated, the following is eT^cellent : 

Chelonin T)ij. 

Geranin 3j. 

Mix and divide into twenty powders. Give one every four 
hours. When tonics and diaphoretics are needed, we employ 
the annexed formula : 

Chelonin grs. X. 

Asclepin 3 j. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one every two hours- 
To enhance the tonic power of the Chelonin in the cases last 
cited, we prefer the Fraserin : 

Chelonin .., 3 j. 

Frasesin _ 3ss. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one every four or sis 


hours. If it be desirable to increase the tonic and laxative 
power of the Chelonin, we prefer the Hydrastin : 

Chelonin 3 ss. 

Hydrastin grs. XV. 

Mix, and divide into fifteen powders. Give one every four 
hours. But it must be borne in mind that the Hydrastin will 
not be admissable in any case where there is acute or subacute 
gastritis or enteritis, nor in any case of inflammation of the 
intestinal glands 


Derived from Belcmias Dioica. 

Nat. Ord. — Melancthacece. 

Sex. Syst. — TIexandria Trigynia. 

Common Names. — False Unicom, Drooping St*r\eovt y 
Helonias, Devils Bit, etc. 

Part used. — The Boot. 

No. of Principles, one, viz., a neutral. 

Properties — Alterative, tonic, diuretic, vermifuge and em- 

Employment. — Prolapsus uteri, amenorr/iea, dysmenorrhea, 
leucorrhea, to prevent miscarriage, dyspepsia, worms, etc. 

No agent of the materia medica better deserves the nar»ie 
of uterine tonic than the Helonin. The remarkable success 
attending its administration in the diseases peculiar to femtJes 
has rendered it an indispensable remedy to those acquainted 
with its peculiar virtues. Like the the Senecin, it is aJike 
appropriate in the treatment of diseases apparently calling for 
dissimilar properties, as, for instance, amenorrhea and mt nor- 
rbagia. By referring to our remarks under die head of Sen -scin, 


the reader will there find an explanation of our views upon 
this subject, and thus save us the necessity of a recapitulation.. 
Its alterative and tonic influence will account, in a measure, for 
its utility in those complaints. In the treatment of amenor- 
rhea, it will be found most beneficial in those cases arising from, 
or accompanied with a disordered condition of the digestive- 
apparatus, and an anemic habit. It invigorates the appetite, 
promotes digestion and depuration, and so improves the 
quality and increases the volume of the blood. In this way 
the foundation for a cure is laid by improving the tone of the 
entire system. Aside from this, it has an especial influence- 
over the organs of generation, independent of its general con- 
stitutional influence. For this reason it has proved of eminent 
value in the cure of prolapsus uteri, tendency to miscarriage,, 
and atony of the generative organs. Sterility and impotence 
have also been relieved and cured by this remedy. In conse- 
quence of the peculiar value of Helonin in tne treatment of the 
above named affections, certain writers have classed it as an 
aphrodisiac, and stated that its continued use induces an abnor- 
mal desire for sexual indulgence. Such a statement could only 
have been made in the absence of actual knowledge, and as the 
legitimate fruit of a prurient imagination. We have probably 
used the Helonin quite as extensively as any other practitioner, 
and we must confess to a want of sufficient penetration to 
discover any such results from its employment. The only 
aphrodisiac we recognize, is the natural proclivity of a sensual 
mind. That the Helonin is a special tonic to the organs 
of reproduction we are well aware, bat only to a normal and 
healthful extent. Did its action extend further than this, it 
would be a disease-producing and not a disease-curing remedy.. 
When a medicine so acts upon a diseased organ as to restore 
it to a physiological condition, we very naturally conclude that 
said organ will manifest the fact of its restoration by the resump- 
tion of its functional activity. This is precisely the case when 
the Helonin is employed. If administered for the cure of indi- 
gestion, the appetite improves, the food is digested, absorbed 


and assimilated, and thus is the curative action of the remedy 
manifested. If, on the other hand, the case be one of amenor- 
rhea, sterility, menorrhagia, or impotency, secretion is restored, 
tone imparted, and the healthful flow of returning stimulus is 
manifested by the usual physical signs. The sexual appetite 
is the sequent and not the antecedent of the restoration of the 
ability of the organs to perform the functions assigned them by 
nature. Too much confidence must not be placed in the state- 
ments of writers who are deficient in clinical experience, and 
who write only from report, or who assume to know too much,, 
and who, therefore, become ridiculous as well as untruthful. 

The Helonin being composed entirely of a neutral principle, 
is, therefore, mostly soluble in water, in which vehicle it is 
best administered. For the same reason, as a tonic, it will be 
tolerated by the stomach when other tonics are rejected. y - 
Containing no resinoid principle, it is completely soluble in 
the stomach, and is, therefore, an appropriate tonic in the 
convalescing stages of dysentery and other intestinal diseases. 
Its operation is entirely devoid of irritation. 

The average dose of the Helonin is three grains, which 
dose may be repeated three times per day. In the treatment 
of prolapsus uteri, the organ should first be replaced and quiet 
enjoined upon the patient, if necessary in the recumbent 
position, and the Helonin then administered in doses of from 
TWO to four grains three times per day. The cure may be 
facilitated by placing a plaster of galbanum, or some other 
stimulant, upon the sacral region, and the use of the following 
vaginal enema : 

*• • / 

Hycrastin 3 ss. -4— 

Myricin 3j. 

Boiling Water O.j. 

Infuse and strain. Inject two ounces with a female syringe 
two or three times a day. If the affection be accompanied 
with inflammation and slight Ulceration of either the os uteri 02 
vaginal walls, wo prefer the following :. 



Chloride of Lime 3 j. 

Cold Water O.ij. 

Put the lime in a bottle, add the water, shake well, stand it 
aside to settle, and use the clear solution in the same manner 
as the above. If a more stimulating injection seems necessary, 
add two ounces of the chloride to a quart of water. If the 
liver is inactive and the bowels inclined to constipation, we 
combine the Helonin with Leptandrin : 


Helonin 3ij. 

Leptandrin . . . . . 3j. 

Form a mass with Mucilage of Gum Arabic and divide into 
twenty pills. Give one three times per day. Or the Leptan- 
drin may be alternated with the Helonin, two or three grains 
of which may be administered at bed time. The same plan 
of treatment will be found equally useful in the treatment of 
some forms of leucorrhea, particularly those cases accompanied 
with or arising from prolapsed uterus, debility, etc. 

Either alone, or combined with other appropriate remedies, 
the Helonin will be found reliable in the radical cure of 
amenorrhea. In simple uncomplicated amenorrhea, it is best" 
joined with Senecin : 


Senecin aa. £j. 

Mix, divide into ten powders, and give one three times per 
day. The same formula will serve an excellent purpose for 
the cure of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, in which com- 
plaints it should be administered regularly during the 
intermenstrual period. Upon the approach of the menstrual 
molimen its use should be discontinued, and the patient placed 
under the influence of Caulophyllin, Gelsemin, Yiburnin 01 
other anti-spasmodics in dysmenorrhea, and Trilliin, Oil of 
Erigeron, Lycopin, Geranin or Myricin in menorrhagia. When 
the period has passed, the remedy should be again resumed. 
tn anemic habits the Helonin is advantageously joined 


with Iron. If hysteric symptoms are present, with the 

Ilelonin J>ij. 

Valerianate of Iron 3j. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Dose, — one three 
times per day. In defective menstruation we employ the 
following, which we prefer to any other combination we have 
ever emploj'ed : 

Ilelonin 3 ij. 

Iron by Hydrogen grs. XVI. 

Mix, and divide into sixteen powders. Give one morning 
and evening. If the patient be advanced in years, and 
irritability of the stomach does not contra-indicate, the Phos- 
phate of Iron may be substituted. 

Ilelonin has been found serviceable in correcting a tendency 
to miscarriage, which it effects by virtue of its properties as a 
special uterine as well as a general tonic. In those cases the 
doses, frequency of repetition, and continuance must be such 
as the judgment of the practitioner may indicate. 

In the treatment of the various forms of dropsy, the Helonin 
has proved of remarkable utility. It operates in a general, 
manner, and is, seemingly, a powerful resolvent. It restores 
the appetite, improves digestion, promotes absorption and 
depuration, and imparts a healthful impetus to the whole 
economy. The only manner in which it proves visibly 
evacuant, is, in some cases, as a diuretic, except when given 
in over doses, in which case it proves emetic. In the treatment 
of dropsy, it may be combined with Ampelopsin, or Apocynin, 
or Digitalin, or Sanguinarin, etc. For general anasarca, with 
Ampelopsin : 

Helonin __ 3ss. 

Ampelopsin 3j. 

Mix, and divide into fifteen powders, Give one every four 
x hours. 


Twice a week give the following cathartic : 

Podophyllin grs. ij. 

Cream of Tartar 3j. 

Mix. Administer in a little water at bed time. For dropsy 
of the abdomen, it may be appropriately joined with Apocynin. 

Helonin 3 ss. 

Apocynin grs. X. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one three times per 
day. For hydrothorax, hydrops uteri, and ovarian dropsy, it 
may be combined with Digitalin. 

Helonin 3 ss. 

Digitalin grs, ij. 

Triturate well together and divide into ten powders. Give 
one, two or three times a day. Be particular to neutralise 
undue acidity of the stomach previous to the administration 
of this remedy, and employ a fluid menstruum in exhibiting 
it. In dropsy of the ovaries the following Liniment will be 
found a valuable auxiliary : 


Con. Tine. Digitalis 3 ij. 

Tincture of Squills, 

Alcohol 2 aa. § ij. 

Mix. Bathe the parts freely two or three times a day, or 
apply a cloth wetted with the liniment. This application 
powerfully promotes absorption. 

When great languor, coldness and debility exists, the 
Ilelonin is beneficially joined with Sanguinarin. 


Helonin 2) ij. 

Sanguinarin grs. X. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Give one three times 
per day. To render the prescription more stimulating, Xan- 
thoxylin may be added, as follows : 



Xanthoxylin aa. 3 ij. 

Sanguinarin grs. vij. 

jMlx, and divide into twenty powders. Dose, same as above. 
.In this way combinations may be effected to suit the pecu- 
liarities of the case in hand. 

For the removal of worms, the Helonin may be given in 
four grain doses morning and evening, for two or three days, 
followed by a cathartic. After the worms are expelled, the 
Helonin should be continued in TWO grain doses for a time, 
in order to strengthen the stomach and bowels, and so obviate 
the condition giving rise to the generation of the vermin. 

As a general tonic, in the convalescing stages of fevers, 
dysentery, and other acute diseases, dyspepsia, etc., the Helonin 
may at all times be relied upon with much confidence. As a 
general thing, it should be employed alone when it is desirable 
to realise its specific influences, yet appropriate combinations 
may be effected when the practitioner deems it advisable. We 
have found it useful when joined with Cornin in certain forms 
of dyspepsia, and with Cerasein in passive hemorrhage and 
menorrhagia. "With Fraserin, it will be appropriate when 
the system has been exhausted by colliquitive discharges. 

As a tonic in debility of the uterus and appendages, we 
know of no organic remedy deserving of greater confidence. 
We have used 'it long and extensively, and with the happiest 
results. We sometimes join it with Caulophyllin in amenor- 
rhea, and with Baptisin in defective menstruation, and when 
tonics and antiseptics are indicated, as in typhoid, typhus, 
and other fevers, dysentery, scarlatina maligna, etc. The dose 
will vary in different cases, and under different circumstances. 
We have given the auantity we usually employ in our 



Derived from Leptandra Virginica. 

Nat. Ord. — Salicacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Didynamia Gyirmosperma. 

Common Names. — Culverts Root, Culver s Physic, Black 
Hoot, Tall Speedwell, etc. 

Part Used — The Hoot. 

No. of Principles, four, viz., resin, resinoid, alkaloid and 

Properties — Alterative, deobstruent, chologogue, laxative 
and tonic. 

Employment — Severs of every type, dysentery, diarrhea, 
cholera infantum, dyspepsia, jaundice, piles, laryngitis, 
bronchitis, etc. 

No one of the concentrated medicines has been so much 
misunderstood as the Leptandrin. The reason for this resides in 
the fact that the profession had had but little clinical experience 
in the use of the plant from which this remedy is derived. 
Previous to the time of the concentration of the active principles 


of the Leptandra, little knowledge was to be gained from the 
various works on materia medica in relation to the therapeiltio 
properties of this plant. The same stereotyped statement 
was copied into the various publications treating upon thera- 
peutics, the authors seeming to possess little positive knowledge 
of its virtues, relying rather upon the traditionary reports 
handed down by the elder botanists. The plant was said, by 
them, to be possessed of active cathartic properties, and was 
highly recommended in the treatment of typhoid fever, as it 
was said to be capable of producing "copious, dark, tar like 
dejections from the bowels," and so break up the disease. As 
soon as the concentrated preparation, Leptandrin, was brought 
to the notice of the profession, many practitioners commenced 
employing it in their practice, a large number of whom never 
had any experience in the use of the plant. Relying upon the 
truthfulness of the statements they had read concerning the 
Leptandra, they very naturally supposed that the Leptandrin, 
being the concentrated equivalent of the plant, was, as there 
represented, a cathartic of considerable power. Failing to 
realise such a result from the employment of the Leptandrin, 
many were disposed to condemn the remedy as being improperly 
prepared and worthless. Taking advantage of this circum- 
stance, some two or three ignorant and malicious scribblers made 
themselves not only notorious but ridiculous by attempting to 
impeach the character of those engaged in the manufacture of 
the Leptandrin, charging them with fraud and adulteration.. 
But their transparent hypocrisy served but illy to mask the 
real motives of their canting pretensions. Professing to regard 
solely the interests of the profession, and to be actuated by a 
desire to have the profession furnished with pure and reliable 
remedies, they unwittingly displayed the "cloven foot" of 
ignorance and personal malice, demonstrating the fact, by their 
disgraceful failure, that they had but " stolen the livery of 
Heaven to serve the devil in." We highly approve and honor 
capable and honest criticism, believing it to be the great 
conservator of medical science ; but we equally deprecate the 
unworthy «*ttw»pts of incompetent meddlers with subjects. 



they cannot comprehend, and which they essay only to give 
vent to the cankering venom so prone to generate in base and 
ignoble minds. All attempts at imposture in pharmaceutical 
preparations should be denounced by the unanimous voice of 
the profession; but even-handed justice demands that such 
denunciation should follow, and not precede conviction. 

In the early history of the Leptandrin, a " resinous substance n 
was supposed to embody the active properties of the plant, 
which idea is still indulged by some manufacturers, consequently 
the preparations they offer to the profession under the appella- 
tion of Leptandrin consists mostly of the resinoid principle of 
the plant, to the exclusion of three other important principles, 
namely, a resin, neutral, and alkaloid. The article of Lep- 
tandrin now under consideration consists of four distinct 
principles, namely, a resin, resinoid, alkaloid, and neutral. 
With the assistance of the explanations given in the first part 
of this volume, any competent chemist may ascertain the truth 
of our statement by analysis. When this fact was first 
announced to the profession, accompanied with proof in the 
form of the article in question, ignorant and interested persona 
endeavored to cast suspicion upon the character of the 
preparation by denying the fact of multiplicity of principles, 
accounting for the obvious difference in its composition, when 
compared with the " resinous " Leptandrin, by the charge of 
adulteration and foreign admixture. But unfortunately for the 
success of charlatans, the science of organic chemistry is suffi- 
ciently definite in its manipulations to enable the honest searcher, 
after truth to test the accuracy of all pretensions submitted to 
its ordeal. Through this ordeal the Leptandrin under con- 
sideration has passed again and again, and yet will pass, and 
thus the claims of truth be vindicated. We desire no one to 
take our ipse dixit, but, if dissatisfied, to boldly, manfully, 
and independently investigate all matters where contrariety of 
sentiment is held or expressed. Of such of our readers as are 
not conversant with the circumstances that have led us into 
this digression, we humbly beg pardon for taxing their patience 
with the foregoing preamble; but to those who recognise the 



application of our remarks, we deem no apology due. If a 
portion of those engaged in the isolation of the active proximate 
principles of plants should find themselves less competent 
•and sucessful than others engaged in the same pursuit, let 
them not seek to divert attention from their own errors and 
blunders by detraction and defamation, but let them labor 
rather to correct their own mistakes and defects, and deserve 
confidence and support by bringing their preparations up to 
the standard required by the present advanced condition of 
organic chemical science. 

The writer was accustomed, over twenty years ago, to gather 
and prepare the Leptandra for medicinal use in his father's 
.practice. Many opportunities were then offered for observing 
its action upon the system. Since that time we have employed 
the crude powdered root in practice and upon our own person, 
■and have never deemed it more than laxative. It required to 
be given in repeated doses, at intervals of two hours, in order 
to obtain an action of the bowels. Its operation would 
frequently be attended with considerable nausea, griping, 
•drowsiness, and general relaxation of the system. In con- 
sequence of the above mentioned symptom of drowsiness 
having been observed during its operation, some writers have 
supposed it to be narcotic ; but such we do not deem it. We 
&re of the opinion that the symptom arose from the slowness 
with which the medicine operated, in consequence of the 
•digestive action required to eliminate the active principles 
from their combination with woody and other inert matters* 
and partially in consequence of the gradual secretion of morbid 
matters into the intestinal canal. Be the cause what it might, 
we never deemed the Leptandra cathartic, although we do 
not doubt that some practitioners have been deceived into so 
•supposing it in consequence of having administered the remedy 
■at that very moment when nature was ripe for a spontaneous 
•dejection of accumulated fecal material. 

Leptandrin is, in our opinion, the most valuable remedy of 
its class. It is eminently chologogue, resolvent, laxative and 
tonic. It is slow, but mild, certain, and radical in its opera- 


tioiti. No remedy with which we are acquainted is more to be 
relied upon in chronic affections of the mucous surfaces. Its 
value in this respect is peculiarly apparent in chronic dysen- 
tery and diarrhea, and other diseases of the bowels. When 
false membranous formations have occurred in the small 
intestines, produced by the gradual exudation of plastic lymph, 
the Leptandrin may be relied upon for their removal, with 
great confidence. The dose of the Leptandrin in such cases 
will be from two to four grains twice or thrice a day, accord- 
ing to the solubility of the bowels. In order to reap its full 
utility, the remedy must be persevered in for a considerable 
Jength of time. Although the Leptandrin may be relied upon 
alone, we may sometimes effect combinations calculated to 
accomplish the same object, which, although they may present 
no apparent advantages, experience has demonstrated to be 
reliable. The following is with us a favorite formula : 


Juglandin...' aa. 3j» 

Form a mass with mucilage of gum arabic, and divide into 
thirty pills. Dose — one, two or three times per day. In the 
treatment of the complaints above mentioned, we have derived 
the most beneficial results from the employment of the above 
prescription. We have also used it with great success in the 
cure of constipation and piles. We recently treated a case of the 
latter complaint, accompanied with frequent hemorrhage from 
the rectum, of twelve years standing. A short time after 
commencing the use of the above remedy, the patient dis- 
charged considerable quantities of false membrane in shreds 
and patches, and a number of pieces several inches in length, 
forming complete tubes. The evacuation of this matter was 
attended with an amelioration of all the symptoms, and at the 
present time the patient declares himself well. The bowels 
are regular, appetite good, the hemorrhage has ceased, and the 
distressing pain so long experienced beneath the sacrum 
entirely gone. We might mention numerous other cases, but 
it will be of more interest to practitioners to know how to 


cure their own cases, than to read of those that have been 

Leptandrin has obtained a well merited celebrity in the 
treatment of typhoid and other fevers. Its employment is 
admissible when more irritating remedies would be objection- 
able. In typhoid fever, and in dysentery, its action seems to 
be peculiar and specific. It not only regulates the functions of 
the liver, but also corrects and restores the secreting power 
throughout the whole extent of the alimentary canal. Not only 
does the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels come 
under its especial control, but the entire organism acknowledges 
its sanative power. The whole glandular system, including 
the skin, partakes of its healthful impress. When the patient 
is fairly brought under the constitutional influence of the 
Leptandrin, the skin, which was before hot, dry, and constricted, 
becomes soft, moist and flexible ; expectoration becomes easy, 
the arterial excitement is lessened, and the patient, before 
restless, wakeful and delirious, becomes calm, rational, . and 
inclined to sleep. Such are the general constitutional influence? 
of the Leptandrin when administered in acute diseases. In 
the treatment of typhoid fevers, when chologogues and laxatives 
are indicated, the Leptandrin should be administered in average 
doses of three grains, every two hours, until sufficient action 
is produced. One great advantage possessed by the Leptandrin 
is its tonic power. It never debilitates, but, on the contrary, 
invigorates while it deterges. The evacuations produced by 
Leptandrin always give evidence of a sanative influence hav- 
ing been exercised over the secretive functions. In mild cases 
of dysentery, diarrhea, and cholera infantum, a few grains of 
.Leptandrin will, if administered early, bring about well assimi- 
lated fecal discharges in a few hours. In the treatment of all 
febrile complaints, the Leptandrin is judiciously combined 
with Asclepin, as follows : 


Asclepin aa. grs. ij. 

Mix, and administer at one dose. Repeat once in two hours 


until the alvine discharges assume a healthy appearances. 
These directions apply equally in case of typhoid fever, dys- 
entery, diarrhea, cholera infantum, or other intestinal disorders,. 
Of course, it is expected that practitioners will vary the- 
combination, dose, repetition and continuance according to the 
necessities of the case. 

Leptandrin is one of the best adjunctives to the Podophyllin 
in all cases when the latter remedy is indicated. We seldom 
treat either typhoid fever or dysentery, in this locality,, 
without a combination of the two. The following is our usual, 
formula for typhoid fever : 

Leptandrin grs. iij. 

Asclepin grs. ij. 

Podophyllin grs. j. 

Mix, and give at a single dose. We generally repeat this.- 
powder once in twenty-four hours until the secretions of the- 
liver and bowels are corrected. In the treatment of dysentery- 
we employ the following : 

9- ....... , ; 

Leptandrin grs. VI. 

Podophyllin grs. ij. 

Asclepin .grs IV. ~4— 

Mix and divide into four powders. Give one every two hours,, 
and continue until the discharges from the bowels assume a 
healthier appearance. «lWe sometimes substitute Caulophyllin 
foT the Asclepin, and we find it excellent for controling the- 
spasmodic pains accompanying this complaint. After the- 
acute symptoms of the disease have subsided, and the bowels; 
continue relaxed, the Leptandrin may be combined with 
Geranin, Myricin, Ehusin, or other astringents. In this man-- 
ner the action of each may be modified, and the discharge* 
restrained without producing constipation. As a general! 
thing, however, we prefer to alternate the Leptandrin withs 
astringents, and this plan, we think, will give the practitioner 
the greatest amount of satisfaction. In all intestinal disorders; 
connected with, or originating from a deranged action of th& 


liver, the Leptandrin is one of the most efficient remedies 
known; / But we would here state, as the result of experience, 
that when the patient is laboring under obstinate constipation 
of the bowels, and a cold, inactive condition of the system 
generally, the use of the Leptandrin should be preceded by a 
full cathartic dose of Podophyllin, as by so doing, greater 
promptitude of relief will be ensured. And when the Leptandrin 
is used as a resolvent and detergent, an occasional dose of 
Podophyllin or some other cathartic should be administered, 
otherwise the bowels are liable to become loaded with accumula- 
tions of morbid secretions, which if retained, give rise to 
serious constitutional disturbance. Not only this, but if the 
bowels move under the influence of the Leptandrin, its operation 
is generally slow, and the acrid secretions passing off tardily, 
give rise to a great amount of irritation which, by the above 
observance, may be avoided. When the Leptandrin is 
exhibited in small and repeated doses as an alterative, its 
laxative power becomes considerably modified, hence the 
necessity . of occasionally alternating with a more decided 

In the treatment of dyspepsia dependent upon hepatic 
derangement, the Leptandrin will be found one of the most 
reliable auxiliaries? The same is true in relation to jaundice. 
It acts in a general and not in a specific manner. It soothes 
irritability, removes obstructions, promotes secretion and 
depuration, and imparts tone and vigor of action to the vari- 
ous functions.*/ We have already spoken of its value in the 
treatment of piles, in which complaint, either with or without 
hemorrhage, we deem it invaluable. \ In this affection we 
generally use it in connection with Hydrastin. They may be 
combined, or used alternately. If desirable to avoid com- 
plexity of prescription, we give the following pill: 

Leptandrin 3 j» 

Hydrastin 3 SS « 

Form a mass with mucilage of gum arabic and divide into 
thirty pills. Dose — from one to two, three times per day. At 


the same time, if there be hemorrhage or ulceration of the 
rectum present, we employ the following enema : 

Hydrastin 3j. 

Boiling water _ 0. j. 

Administer two ounces of the above infusion three or four 
times per day. Use cold or tepid, as best accords with the 
feelings of the patient. 

As a general thing we prefer to administer from ONE to 
TWO grains of Hydrastin three times per day, and from two 
to four grains of Leptandrin at bed time. At the same time 
employ the above enema. Or the combinations of Leptandrin 
and Juglandin, previously mentioned, may be employed in 
connection with Hydrastin. One or two of the pills may be 
given at bed time, and TWO grains of Hydrastin morning and 
•evening. This treatment, if persevered in, will seldom fail of 
effecting a cure. It is not only necessary to continue the 
medicine until the immediate symptoms are relieved, but for 
a considerable time afterwards, in order to strengthen the 
system against a return. For the latter purpose, the Leptan- 
drin will answer an equally good purpose alone. 

Leptandrin has been found very serviceable in the removal 
of worms. It is usually given in doses of from TWO to FIVE 
grains twice a day, or in sufficient quantity to keep the bow- 
els somewhat relaxed. It may be advantageously combined 
with other vermifuge remedies, as Chelonin, Gelsemin, 
Helonin, Populin, etc. Although sometimes instrumental in 
expelling worms, its greatest value resides in its power of 
correcting the action, and giving tone to the bowels after the 
worms are removed, and so obviating the condition favorable 
to their generation. For the latter purpose, it may be com- 
bined with tonics. 

Leptandrin is an admirable auxiliary remedy in the treatment 
of bronchitis, laryngitis, and other affections of the respiratory 
organs. It is a safe and certain resolvent, acting in an especial 
manner upon tne mucous membranes, hence is of service in all 
affections of ti^je surfaces. In chronic inflammation of the 


bladder, leucorrhea, chronic diarrhea, and dysentery, etc., the 
practitioner will find it a serviceable and reliable remedy. 
In the treatment of diseases of the skin, no better general 
remedy can be brought to bear. 

A great and important fact, in connection with the Leptandrin 
is, that while it promotes and corrects the secreting power of 
the liver, resolves, deterges, and promotes depuration, it does 
not debilitate. On the contrary, it is decidedly tonic, giving 
tone and vigor of action to the entire secretive apparatus of 
the system. Hence it is always a safe remedy in debility, and 
in the treatment of the diseases incident to delicate females 
and infants. For constipation during pregnancy, or for the 
cure of diarrhea and dysentery, under the same circumstances, 
and for the intestinal disorders of infants, it is always safe and 

The neutral principle of the Leptandrin is eminently hygro- 
scopic, absorbing moisture from the atmosphere with great 
readiness, and hardening into a solid mass. For this reason 
it is inconvenient of dispensation in the form of powder. 
Where great exactitude is required, it should be formed into 
pills, or dissolved in alcohol. In the treatment of chronic 
disease, used either alone or in combination, we frequently 
deliver it to the patient in bulk, in a well corked vial, direct- 
ing the proper dose by weight or measure, as by means of a 
three or five cent piece. Unlike some of the more potent 
remedies, a slight deviation from the exact quantity will 
entail no serious consequences. The Leptandrin is neither 
soluble nor mixable in water, another good reason for form- 
ing it into pills. It will mix well with mucilages, as of 
slippery elm, gum arabic, etc. Average dose, three grains. 



^* »* » 

Derived from Digitalis Purpurea. * 

Nat. Ord. — Sercphulariacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Didynamia Angiosperma. 

Common Name. — Foxglove. 

Part Used — The Leaves. 

No. of Principles, four, viz., resinoid, alkaloid and two 

Properties — Narcotic, arterial sedative, alterative, resold 
ent, diuretic, antiseptic, etc. 

Employment — Dropsies, pneumonia, both acute and 
chronic, hemoptysis, neuralgia, mania, epilepsy, pertussis,, 
asthma, rlieumatism, disease of the heart, both functional 
and organic, croup, nervous affections of almost every type r 
to prevent abortion, glandular diseases, fever and inflamma- 
tions generally. Also in scrofulous affections, chronic exan- 


thema, local cedema, ulcers, tumors, diseases of the bones and 
joints, etc. 


The deiiciencics of crude organic remedies and so-called 
officinal preparations have never been more seriously felt, than 
in the employment of the Digitalis and other plants possessing 
a high concentration of therapeutic power. The variable 
amount of active principles residing in the plant has hitherto 
rendered the employment of the Digitalis somewhat hazardous, 
as the discrepancies of the plant have attached to all its 
pharmaceutical preparations. Not only has the amount of the 
medicinal principles present been extremely indefinite, but 
also the number, as the therapeutic properties of the Digitalis 
reside, not in one distinct principle, but in four, each one of 
which represents a more or less distinct medicinal power, and 
these four, when combined, embody the entire therapeutic value 
of the plant. Those properties which exercise a peculiar 
sedative or depressing power over the arterial system, reside 
chiefly in the resin and oleo- resin; while the neutral and 
alkaloid principles expend their influence more particularly 
upon the absorbent vessels. These facts not having been 
understood heretofore, will account for the many failures and 
bad results attendant upon the employment of the Digitalis, 
both in the use of the plant in substance, or of the various 
pharmaceutical preparations hitherto employed. The plant 
being uncertain and variable in the actual amount of proximate 
active principles present, it follows, as a matter of course, that 
ordinary tinctures, infusions, etc., must, of necessity, partake 
of the uncertain character of the plant. No process short of 
isolation and recombination of the various active principles 
could render the therapeutic powers of the plant uniform, 
definite, or certain. The Digital in of which we now propose to 
treat, is so prepared. 

When Digitalin is administered in small and repeated doses 
to a healthy person, the following symptoms will be developed 
in the course of from twenty-four to forty-eight hours: — in a 
majority of cases the secretion of urine will be augmented, and 
in all cases the secretions of the mucous membranes will be 
increased ; digestion is soon more or less impaired, accompanied 
^rith nausea, pain in the stomach, loss of appetite, and colicky 


pains in the bowels. The effects of the Digitalin are next 
displayed upon the arterial and nervous systems, the frequency 
of the pulse is greatly diminished, often being reduced to one 
half the usual number of beats per minute, and generally 
becoming small, soft, and feeble. The latter effect, however, 
only appears after the Digitalin has been exhibited for two or 
three days consecutively, and usually continues for several 
days after the use of the Digitalin has been abandoned. In 
many cases, however, the effect of the Digitalin upon the arterial 
System is quite the contrary, increasing instead of diminishing 
the frequency of the pulse, and giving rise to local congestions, 
hemorrhage of the lungs, etc. It is only in cases of debility* 
that the depressing power of the Digitalin is uniformly and 
surely manifested upon the arterial system. 

When administered in larger doses, the Digitalin first 
stimulates the arterial system, and gives rise to vomiting, 
diarrhea, obscured vision, sparklings before the eyes, dilation of 
the pupil, vertigo, stupor, violent headache, and congestion, etc. 
But these evidences of irritation do not continue long, soon 
giving place to symptoms of great depression and paralytic 
debility. The pulse sinks rapidly, becoming small and un- 
frequent, followed by great lassitude, faintness, drowsiness, 
etc., which state frequently continues for several days. 

When given in very large doses, the Digitalin acts upon 
the stomach and intestines much like a caustic poison, producing 
a severe burning sensation in the throat and stomach, salivation, 
thirst, spasm of the glottis, painful retching and vomiting of 
greenish mattei, diarrhea, delirium, and convulsions. These 
symptoms are soon succeeded by insensibility, general paralysis, 
accompanied with a small, feeble, unfrequent, and often 
intermittent pulse. This condition, even after the exhibition 
of moderate doses of the Digitalin, frequently ends in a fatal 
apoplexy. Upon dissection, when death has ensued, we find 
the mucous surfaces of the stomach and bowels inflamed and 
broken down, but seldom is the vascular structure of the 
head, or the venous system generally, in a congested condition. 
The lungs usually present a normal appearance. ' 


It h s been seen that the Digitalin possesses two primary 
and distinct therapeutic powers, which expend their influences 
in different directions. The first exercises a remarkable influ- 
ence over the heart and arterial system, depressing and 
retarding their functional activity, while the second property 
is expended upon the absorbent and venous systems, and upon, 
the lymphatic vessels and glandular structure generally, stim*. 
ulating them to increased activity. This is the case even 
when applied externally; as, for instance, when applied to. 
tumors and enlarged glands. 

Digitalin depresses and retards the activity of the positive 
vital forces engaged in the processes of organic formation 
and reproduction / while it stimulates and quickens the 
activity of the negative forces. This fact will be apparent 
when it is considered that the arterial system superintends the 
conveying of the plastic formative materials of the blood to 
their proper destinations; while, on the other hand, the venous 
and lymphatic systems perform the duty of conveying away x 
not only the superfluous materials and effete matters given off 
during the processes of organic formation, but also have to 
re-dissolve and absorb what has been already formed, particu- 
larly when morbidly active, all of which processes are 
necessary to the institution and completion of the phenomena 
of reproduction. 

A difference of opinion exists as to whether Digitalin acts 
primarily upon the heart and arterial system in the production 
of the phenomenon of sedation, or whether this result is the 
consequence of counter stimulation, and therefore secondary. 
For our own part, we incline to the former opinion, drawing 
our conclusions from observations made at the bedside, the 
only proper place to decide the precise therapeutic operation 
of remedial agents. We find that the Digitalin, in most cases 
of an abnormally increased activity of the heart and arteries, 
relaxes the tone of the arterial vessels, and depresses the action 
of the heart, diminishes the force and frequency of the pulse, 
and renders it soft, small, and infrequent. We find, further, 
that the Digitalin is a most excellent remedy for the relief an4 


cure of those sequela which remain when inflammatory 
affections have been subjected to the antiphlogistic treatment, 
manifested by a morbid activity of the whole arterial system, 
or by some of its single branches. At the same time, its influ- 
ence over the absorbent vessels promotes the resolution of 
local inflammations and congestions. Digitalin is, in general, 
a powerful relaxant and sedative remedy for the relief of a 
morbidly increased activity of the arterial system, yet, in 
certain conditions, it will prove a powerful stimulant to the 
same organs. 

No less important is the therapeutic effect produced by 
Digitalin upon the absorbent system. Its influence is evi- 
dently that of a stimulating tonic, and its impressions are not 
confined to the absorbent vessels, but extend to the veins, glands, 
mucous, fibrous, and serous membranes, and to the epidermis. 

Digitalin is eminently resolvent and alterative, overcoming 
viscidity of the secretions, and quickening the activity of the 
entire absorbent system. It excites, in an especial manner, 
the absorption of serous effusions, and promotes their depura- 
tion through the natural channels. From the fact of its 
influence in increasing the secretive action of the kidneys, it 
is termed a diuretic. The diuretic effect of Digitalin, how- 
ever, is not primary, like that of oil of turpentine, cantharides, 
etc., which operate by direct irritation and stimulation of the 
urinary organs, but is manifested only in proportion to the 
degree of absorption excited. Even when Digitalin is given 
in excess, we do not observe those symptoms of local irrita- 
tion of the urinary apparatus which attend the administration 
of the above-named specific diuretics. 

In diseases requiring large doses, or the continued use of 
Digitalin, it will be necessary to counteract the disturbance it 
usually creates in the functions of digestion and nutrition, as 
well as the narcotic properties above referred to, and which 
often render its use objectionable, by the use of suitable reme- 
dies. Of the narcotic properties of the Digitalin, we can 
seldom make any specific use. Thus much of its therapeutic 


Employment. — Among the indications in which Digitalin 
is employed, we may first mention those conditions characterised 
by a morbidly increased activity of the arterial system, eithti 
throughout its whole extent, or of some of its numerous 
branches. This condition is manifested more by a quickened 
pulsation than by an increase of tone. This abnormal excite- 
ment of the arterial system may arise from two distinct and 
separate exciting causes; in the first place, from a super- 
abundance of the materials of excitement in the blood; and, 
in the second place, from an exalted or morbid irritability of 
the heart and arterial vessels. It is in either of the above 
•conditions that Digitalin is most successfully employed. 

But in many cases it will be found that both causes are 
•operating at the same time, in which event it becomes necessary 
to combine the Digitalin with other remedies. Under these 
•circumstances the Yeratrin is particularly indicated. 

The morbid irritability inherent to the heart and arterial 
system may be produced or aggravated by the continued incite- 
ment of reflex action originating from an abnormal condition 
of the heart itself, of the arteries, lungs, etc.; as organic 
disease of the heart, ossification of .the aorta, tuberculous 
deposits in the lungs, or organic disease of some other import- 
ant corresponding organ. In these cases the Digitalin will be 
found a valuable palliative. 

On account of the peculiar influence it exercises over the 
absorbent system, Digitalin is beneficially employed in the 
treatment of those diseases arising from or dependent upon 
inactivity of the lymphatic vessels and glands, serous mem- 
branes, and veins, and when it is necessary to stimulate the 
absorbent functions to increased activity in order to depurate 
through the urinary canals fluids already secreted or exudated. 
But when the inactivity is the result of vital exhaustion and 
•debility of the absorbent system, Digitalin is contra-indicated, 
and its employment will be attended with bad results. Digi- 
talin may awaken and incite to action the latent or sleeping 
forces of the system, but it is incapable of mf using vitality or 
■recruiting exhaustion. 


In acute fevers, Digitalin is generally an uncertain and 
critical remedy, quite frequently producing contrary effects 
from those desired. It bad better, therefore, be avoided in 
such cases, unless it is clearly and distinctly indicated. 

The morbid irritability of the heart and arterial system 
mentioned above, is often apparent in intermittent and remit- 
tent fevers, manifested by an increased action of the pulse, 
while the temperature of the surface and the rest of the 
febrile symptoms are not present in a corresponding degree. 
This exalted sensibility supports and perpetuates the febrile 
condition, and gives rise to various disturbances of the circula- 
tion, such as congestions, etc. Under such circumstances a 
judicious use of the Digitalin will be attended with beneficial 

In rheumatic fevers, the Digitalin will not only diminish 
the fever, but also moderate the profuse symptomatic sweats 
which attend the disease, and which arise from excessive capil- 
lary congestion. 

In acute exanthematous fevers, Digitalin is of great value, 
partly because of the great irritability of the arterial system, 
and partly because of the great tendency in these complaints 
to exudation, concretions, etc., and the liability to malignant 
sequela, which the depurative power of the Digitalin is 
calculated to obviate. 

In lingering hectic and pneumonic fevers, the Digitalin is 
of much advantage, either when the fever is supported by a 
morbid irritability of the arterial system, or by a remote 
irritation originating from organic affections, tuberculous 
deposits in the lungs, etc. 

Inflammations are successfully treated with Digitalin, in which 
affections it proves highly beneficial, both on account of its 
peculiar sedative influence over, the arterial system, and its 
power of stimulating the absorbent vessels to action. In 
hypersthenic inflammations, arising from an exalted condition 
of the blood, other remedies will of course be needed to remove 
the cause of the disease, such as Podophyllin, Asclepin, and 
Veratrin, after which the Digitalin may be used as a palliative 


to quiet the irritable condition of the arterial vessels. But in 
vegetative inflammations, and such as are disposed to terminate 
in exudations or effusions, particularly when located in the 
serous membranes, as the pleura and peritoneum, or in the 
glandular structure, as the lungs, liver, etc., the Digitalin may 
be employed alone. 

Digitalin is sometimes employed in acute dropsies of the 
cavities of the brain, but should never be given in sufficient 
doses to produce its narcotic effect. If used at all, small doses 
only should be employed. 

In croup, Digitalin acts too slowly to be a certain and effective 
remedy, but is useful in the convalescing stages to prevent a 

; Digitalin is of excellent service in the treatment of puerperal JL 
fever, when the exudative inflammation of the peritoneum is 
distinctly manifest. In this affection the tincture may be 
applied locally with advantage, in connection with the internal 
use of the Digitalin. 

Phlegmasia dolens and erysipelas are successfully treated 
with Digitalin in connection with Podophyllin. Digitalin 
may also be employed in some forms of hemorrhage, particu- 
larly those cases which are supposed to arise from a morbid 
irritability of the arterial system or some of its branches, and 
when organic diseases of the heart, lungs, or other organs 
exist, whereby the freedom of the circulation is interrupted. 
In hemoptysis and incipient phthisis pulmonalis, and for the 
suppression of colliquitive hemorrhoidal discharges, the Digi- 
talin has been employed with much benefit. >CAs a remedy for — 
threatened abortion, arising from sanguineous congestion of 
the uterus, Digitalin, combined with Hyoscyamin and alternated 
with stimulants, such as camphor, etc., has been found of great 

In organic and other abnormal affections of the heart and 
larger arteries, . ir e have, in Digitalin, even in the most severe 
and malignant cases, an excellent palliative remedy. But in 
hyper-inflammation of these organs Digitalin may prove hurtful 
instead of beneficial, unless its employment be preceded by the 


judicious administration of Podophyllin. Digitalin relieves 
the asthmatic and syncoptic symptoms which are always 
connected with organic disease of the heart, and removes the 
chronic inflammation existing in the diseased parts, particularly 
of the serous membranes with which the interior of the] heart 
and larger arteries is lined. It likewise promotes absorption 
and so lessens the tendency to exudation and effusion, particu- 
larly those dropsical effusions which so frequently occur as the 
sequents of organic disease. In these cases the Digitalin 
should be given in small and repeated doses. 

In dilatation and aneurism of the heart, the Digitalin 
requires to be given in larger doses and alternated with tonics, 
as Iron, etc. In carditis polyposia, palpitation caused by 
morbid irritability, and pulsations felt in the abdomen, Digitalin 
is employed with much success. Also for the relief of angina 
pectoris or sternocardia. 

Digitalin is extensively employed in the treatment of dropsical 
affections. This remedy is particularly indicated in those cases 
where exhalation is in excess of absorption, produced by 
erethism of the arterial system or of its extreme exhaling 
branches ; as, for instance, acute dropsies following acute 
exanthema, as measles, scarlatina, which are mostly of an 
erethismal character, and the acute dropsies produced by sudden 
colds, particularly anasarca. 

Digitalin is also of great value in the treatment of chronic 
dropsies, such as originate from a torpid or inactive condition 
of the absorbent and lymphatic systems and veins ; as, for 
instance, chronic hydrocephalus, chronic hydrothorax, chronic 
ascites, etc. When there is great exhaustion and vital debility, 
Digitalin is contra-indicated. If employed at all, it must be in 
connection with stimulants and tonics. ' 

— i In the asthenic form of dropsies common to aged persons, 
' Digitalin may be combined with Hydrastin, Cerasein, etc., in 
conjunction with which it will be found serviceable in hydro- 

No other remedy has been more frequently employed in the 
treatment of phthisis pulmonalis than the Digitalin, yet it fa 


by no means a specific. It is of great value as a palliative in 
tuberculous disease of the lungs, as it abates vascular excite- * 
ment, stimulates absorption, and lessens the secretions of the I 
bronchial mucous membranes. It is supposed to be capable, 
•in some cases, of preventing tuberculous deposits. 

Digitalin is of service in controlling the pneumonic symptoms 
•accompanying phthisis pulmonalis. It arrests hemorrhage, 
abates the febrile symptoms, and removes the pulmonary and 
pectoral congestions. In these cases it should be given in 
small doses two or three times per day, occasionally omitting 
its use for a few days, and then resuming again. It may be 
combined, as circumstances require, with Hyoscyamin, tonics, 
and alteratives. 

Digitalin is also successlully employed in the treatment of 
^chronic pneumonitis and catarrhal complications, characterised 
by a continued sthenic irritability of the mucous membranes, 
and a tendency to exudations and effusions. Also in those 
chronic rheumatic affections of the lungs and pleura which so 
frequently terminate in hydro thorax. In these affections it is 
advantageously joined with Asclepin, Veratrin, Podophyllin, 
Hyoscyamin, etc. In phthisis laryngea and trachealis, arising 
from a strumous diathesis, the Digitalin may be given in small, 
repeated doses, combined with Asclepin, Prunin, or Rhusin, 
-and alternately with Podophyllin, Phytolacin, etc. 

We have in Digitalin an excellent remedy for scrofulous 
•affections, particularly in persons of a full, plethoric habit, 
wherein excess 01 nutrition and repletion argue a torpid or 
inactive condition of the lymphatic system. It is also useful 
in the treatment of chronic scrofulous inflammations of the 
mucous membranes, strumous opthalmia, and in lingering 
scrofulous inflammations of the mesenteric glands* Digitalin 
has also been recommended in bronchocele. 

The employment of Digitalin in nervous diseases cannot be 
recommended upon rational principles. It is sometimes 
employed in convulsive affections of the pectoral organs, as 
sternocardia, asthma, hooping cough, etc., and in convulsions, 
epilepsy, mania, hypochondria, paralysis, vertigo, amaurosis, 



etc. ; but so long as we have better and safer nervines, the 
employment of the Digitalin should be limited so long as 
other complications do not positively indicate its use. 

Digitalin is contra-indicated in violent and excessive san- 
guineous inflammations, vascular repletion, orgasm of the blood, 
extreme sensibility of the nervous system, great debility of 
the digestive apparatus, and true vital debility or atrophy. 

Externally, Digitalin is employed in the treatment ot 
scrofulous ulcers and tumors, local effusions of water, scrofulous 
diseases of the bones and joints, chronic exanthemas, psoriasis, 
etc. It may be dissolved in alcohol or made into an ointment 
with lard. 

The average dose of the Digitalin is one fifth of one 
grain. In some cases it may be profitably increased to ONE 
HALF of ONE grain. But we profess only to approximate the 
quantity requisite in ordinary cases. We would advise the 
practitioner to always commence with small doses, and after a 
suitable time to increase, if occasion requires. Great caution 
should be exercised in its administration, and its exhibition 
never entrusted to unskillful hands. Above all things be 
sure to neutralise undue acidity of the stomach previous to its 
administration, and to render it as diffusible as possible by the 
free use of diluents. By so doing the danger of cumulative 
action may be avoided. 




Properties and employment same as above. The strength 
of the Con. Tine., as compared with the Digitalin, is as eight 
to ONE ; that is, eight drops of the tincture represent ONE 
grain of The Digitalin. The ■ dose will therefore vary from 
one to FOUR drops, in order to bear a relative proportion to 
the Digitalin. The tincture may always be relied upon as of 
definite strength, as it is prepared strictly in accordance with 
the principles recorded in the first part of this volume. 

The tincture is convenient for external application, for which 
purpose it should be diluted with from four to eight parts of 
alcohol. It is of service as a topical remedy in local cedema, 
tumors, enlarged glands, etc. In the treatment of ovarian 
dropsy and ascites, we employ it in combination with tincture 
of Squills, as follows : 

Con. Tine. Digitalis 3ij. 

Tine. Squills, 

Alcohol aa. 5 TV. 

Mix. Bathe the parts freely three times per day, or apply 
-cloths wetted with the liniment. 

For internal use, when indicated, it may be combined 
with the Con. Tine. Veratrum Yiride. When astringents are 
indicated, with Con. Tine. Rhus Glabra. When stimulants 
are needed, with Con. Tine. Xanthoxylum Frax. As a general 
thing, however, it will be best to alternate the Tine. Digitalis 
with tonics, stimulants, and alteratives, when such auxiliaries 
are indicated. When Asclepin is indicated, it should be 
reduced to solution, and the Tine. Digitalis added to each dose 
as occasion requires. The conditions requiring the employment 
of either of the above named adjunctives have been pointed 
out in the preceding pages. The history there detailed of the 
properties and employment of the Digitalin is a faithful record 
of personal experience in its employment through a series of 
^ears, wherein both its advantages and disadvantages are fulljr 



Derived from Rhus Glabrum. 

Nat. Ord. — Anacardiacem. 

Sex. Syst. — Pentandria Trigynia. 

Common Names. — Sumach, Upland Sumach, etc. 

Part used. — Bark of the Root. 

No. of Principles, two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties — Tonic, astringent and antiseptic. 

Employment. — Diarrhea, dysentery, apthous and merer** 
rial sore mouth, diabetes, leucorrhea, gonorrhea, hectic fever, 
and scrofula. 

Ehusin may justly be classed amongst tlie most valuable 
of the astringent tonics. It exercises a peculiar sanative 
influence over mucous membranes, and is invaluable in the 
treatment of many forms of disease affecting those surfaces. 
Being powerfully anti-septic, it is particularly useful in all 
cases manifesting a tendency to putrescency. 

In diarrhea and dysentery, after the morbid accumulations, 
have been removed by appropriate remedies, and the sthenic 
symptoms are measurably controlled, the Ehusin will be 
found of essential service in restraining and toning the action 
of the bowels. For this purpose it may be given in doses of' 


two grains, once in two hours. When desired, it may be 
joined with other astringents, as the Geranin, Myricin, Lycopin, 
etc. ; or with diaphoretics, as the Asclepin ; or with stimulants, 
as the Xanthoxylin ; or with tonics, as the Cornin, Cerasein, 
Fraserin, Eupatorin Perfo.; or with laxatives, as the Leptandrin, 
Euonymin, Juglandin ; or with alteratives, as the Alnuin, Cory- 
dalin, Irisin, Stillingin, Phytolacin, Menispermin, Chimaphilin, 
etc. By judiciously selecting the adjunctive, combinations may 
be effected suited to the cure ot the various diseases mentioned 
at the head of this article. Thus in diarrhea and dysentery, 
we combine it with Geranin, as follows : 



Geranin aa. 3j. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Give one every one to 
three hours, according to the urgency of the symptoms. If 
there is still a slight febrile condition remaining, we join it 
with Asclepin : 


Asclepin aa.grs. XV. 

Mix, and dividtf^nto ten powders. Dose — same as above. 
For hemorrhage of the lungs, stomach, or bowels, we combine 
it with Lycopin : 



Lycopin aa. 3j. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Dose— one, every 
twenty or thirty minutes, until the hemorrhage is restrained, 
then at intervals of from one to three hours, and continued 
until the symptoms are fully abated. The same formula will 
be found of exceeding utility in the cure of diabetes. In this 
complaint the remedy may be administered three times per 
day. The dose will also require to be increased, in some cases, 
to double the quantity. When the system has been exhausted 
by profuse colliquitive' discharges, and a relaxed condition of 
the bowels remains, Fraserin will be the best adjunctive: 


UIj usi n grs. XV. 

Fraseri n errs. XXX. 

Mix, and divide into fifteen powders. Give one every four or 
six hours, as occasion requires. In the treatment of leucorrhea, 
if constipation be present, the Khusin may be given in TWO 
grain doses three times per day, and from TWO to FOUR grains 
of Leptandrin at bed time. Or they may be combined and 
formed into pills, as follows, although we prefer alternation : 


Rhusin 3j. 

Leptandrin Bij. 

Form a mass with mucilage of gum arabic, and divide into 
twenty pills. Dose— one, three times per day. Should they 
not prove sufficiently laxative, a dose of Podophyllin should 
be occasionally given at bed time. For gonorrhea, combi- 
nations may be effected wi wh other of the vegetable alteratives, 
which, as we shall have occasion to so frequently mention 
them, it will not now be necessary to speak. We will say, 
however, that the Ehusin will be found a remedy of great 
utility in that complaint. t 

But the remedial value of the Rhusin is kpst displayed in 
the treatment of apthous and mecurial affections of the 
mucous surfaces. The various forms of stomatitis afford a 
wide range for its employment. It should be given in doses of 
TWO grains every four or six hours, and the mouth and fauces 
frequently gargled with a solution of the same. For the lattei 
purpose, one drachm may be added to half a pint of boiling 
water. We know of no more useful agent in the treatment 
of the distressing sequela that sometimes follow the use of 
mercurials. In case the lower portion of the alimentary 
canal be involved, the Rhusin may be administered by enema 
with advantage. 

Rhusin 3j« 

Boiling Water Oj. 


Of this infusion, from two to four ounces may be adminis* 
tered, tepid, every two to four hours. The same will be found 
exceedingly efficacious in some cases of dysentery and rectal 
hemorrhage. Some practitioners, in the above complaints, 
combine the Rhusin and Myricin in equal proportions. 

Rhusin has been employed with advantage in hectic fever, 
in which complaint it may be sometimes beneficially joined 
with Digitalin, as mentioned under that head. In scrofula 
also, particularly those cases involving the mucous surfaces, 
the Rhusin has been found valuable. In such cases it should 
be alternated with alteratives and tonics. In the diarrhea of 
typhoid fever, and in all cases where a putrescent tendency is 
manifest, the Rhusin will be found a reliable and appropriate 
remedy. When astringent, tonic, anti-septic, and stimulant 
properties are indicated, a combination of Rhusin with 
Xanthoxylin will be found equal if not superior to any other. | 
The latter two remedies act admirably together, and indications ' 
for their employment will be met with in diarrhea, dysentery, 
cholera infantum, typhoid fever, scarlatina maligna, etc. In 
ulcerations of the stomach and bowels, the Rhusin should not 
be omitted. Average dose, TWO grains. 



Properties and uses same as the preceding. Average dose* 
three drops. Convenient for combining with other of the 
concentrated tinctures, when auxiliary properties are indicated^ 
For example : 

Con. Tine. Khus Glab. 
Con. Tine. Digitalis Purpu. 

Con. Tine. Khus Glab. 
Con. Tine. Senecio GraciL 

Con. Tine. Khus Glab. 

Con. Tine. Xanthoxylum Frax. 

(Jon. Tine. Ehus Glab. 

Con. Tine. Smilax Sarsa. 
The average doses being given under the proper heads, the 
proportions may be easily regulated. 


m-* -♦►••< 

Derived from Baptisia Tinctoria. 

Nat. Ord. — Fabacew. 

Sex. Syst. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Wild Indigo, Horsefly Weed ^ etc. 

No. of Principles, two, viz., resin and neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, emetic, Laxative, stimulant, an- 
menagogue, tonic, and antiseptic. 

Employment. — Amenorrhea and defective menstruation^, 
erysipelas, hepatic disorders, whenever an alterative is indi- 
cated, and in scarlatina and typhoid fevers, and in all diseases 
that have a putrescent tendency. 

Bapiisin is possessed of more energetic emmenagogne pro- 
perties than the plant has generally been accredited with. 
We have employed it with gratifying success in the treatment 
of amenorrhea and defective menstruation. Also in cases of 
vicarious menstruation, in combination with Podophyllin, 
with signal success. The average dose of the Bap ti sin is two 
grains. The dose may be repeated twice or thrice a day as 
circumstances require. In too large doses it will produce 
nausea, emesis, and catharsis. In the treatment of amenorrhea 


■and defective menstruation, the Baptism should be given in 
doses of from ONE tu three grains three times per day, and a 
dose of Podophyllin and Leptandrin administered once or 
twice a week at bed time. In the treatment of vicarious 
menstruation, particularly those cases accompanied with 
periodical diarrhea, we have found the following combination 
-entirely successful, when administered during the intermenstrual 
period : 


Baptisin 3 j. 

Podophyllin grs. X. 

Caulophyllin grs. XV. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Exhibit one every night, 
or every other night, according to the condition of the bowels. 
The quantity of Podophyllin should be sufficient to produce a 
mild cathartic effect at first, and afterwards the quantity may 
be reduced so as just to secure its alterative and laxative 
effect. When necessary, it may be alternated with tonics, as 
Helonin and Iron, or Cerasein. 

In erysipelas the alterative and antiseptic properties of the 
Baptisin make it a remedy of great value. It may be adminis- 
tered, internally, in doses of from one to two grains once in 
four hours, and if there be ulcerations or sloughings, the parts 
should be covered with dry Baptisin, over which, if there be 
much pain, heat or inflammation, place the cold water bandage. 
This we have frequently employed and found effectual. The 
application of the Baptisin may be repeated two or three times 
a day, and the bandage re-wetted as often as it becomes dry 
or much heated. The same treatment will be found of essential 
service in other forms of acute as well as of chronic exanthema. 

Baptisin is a sure and powerful alterative, and may be 
employed with confidence in all affections of the glandular 
system. In hepatic derangements it will be found a valuable 
auxiliary, and in a great many cases may be depended upon 
alone. In scrofula and cutaneous disorders, few remedies are 
more beneficial. In these cases it should be given in small 
doses, and its use persisted in for a length of time. It should 


be alternated with occasional doses of Podophyllin and Lep- 
tandrin, and also with other alteratives. In consequence of 
the stimulant properties of the Baptism, it is valuable in all 
cold and indolent conditions of the system, such as usually 
accompany scrofula, white swelling, hip disease, scaly eruptions 
of the skin, etc. Many valuable combinations may be effected 
with other of the concentrated agents, as the circumstances of 
the case may indicate. In the treatment of ulcerative inflam- 
mations of the stomach and bowels, and chronic diarrhea, and 
dysentery, its use should never be omitted. We consider its, 
tonic and antiseptic properties as of paramount value, and as, 
specially indicated in all cases of internal ulcerative inflam- 
mations, putrescency, gangrene, etc. In the various forms of 
stomatitis, mercurial sore mouth, putrid sore throat, scarlatina 
maligna, typhoid fever, dysentery, and inflammation of the. 
bowels, we have, in the Baptisin, one of the most powerful, 
and, at the same time, safest antiseptic remedies in the range 
of the Materia Medica. If astringent properties are indicated 
in connection with the Baptisin, we have Geranin, Myricin, 
Khusin, Lycopin, Trilliin, etc. If diaphoretics are needed, 
Asclepin, Veratrin, etc. If more stimulating properties are 
required, Xanthoxylin. Of alteratives we have, as adjunctives, 
Alnuin, Chimaphilin, Rumin, Irisin, Phytolacin, Stillingin, 
Smilacin, etc. To increase its laxative property, Euonymin, 
Hydrastin, Menispermin, Apocynin, Leptandrin, Podophyllin, 
etc. Combined with Caulophyllin, we have found it very 
serviceable in certain forms of dyspepsia, particularly those 
cases accompanied with irritability of the stomach, acid eructa- 
tions, griping pains and looseness of the bowels, with frequent, 
small and offensive stools. In a majority of cases it is better 
to precede the administration of the Baptisin and Caulophyllin 
with a cathartic dose of Podophyllin and Leptandrin, in whicl* 
the latter should largely predominate. 

With Leptandrin the Baptisin will be found excellent ia 
chronic affections of the liver, accompanied with constipation. 
We combine as follows: 


Baptisin ........ 3 j. 

Leptandrin 3ij. 

Form a mass with mucilage of gum arabic, and divide into 
twenty pills. Give from one to two, morning and evening. 
The same will be found excellent in chronic diarrhea, and 
''ysentery, and ulcerations of the bowels. If a milder cholo- 
gogue and laxative is required, substitute the Juglandin for 
the Leptandrin. 

When astringents are indicated, we prefer the Ehusin. 
particularly in typhoid fever, mercurial ulcerations, etc. 


Baptisin grs. X. 

Rhusin .grs. XX. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Give one, every one 
or two hours, according to the urgency of the symptoms. 

In the treatment of virulent leucorrhea, the Baptisin will 
be found one of the most effective agents, to be used both 
internally and locally. For internal use we generally combine 
it with other remedies, as the Hydrastin, Helonin, Phytolacin, 
etc. Locally, the following: 

Baptisin . 3 ij. 

Boiling Water Oj. 

Infuse the Baptisin in the water, and inject with a prope* 
syringe three or four times a day. It may be used tepid or 
cold, as preferred. We frequently vary the prescription by 
combining the Baptisin with other agents ; as follows : 


Hydrastin ...aa. 3j. 

Boiling Water Oj. 



Myricin aa. 3j. 

Boiling Water. -Oj. , 



Baptisin 3j» 

Pul. Gum Myrrh 3 ij. 

Boiling Water Oj. 

Infuse and strain. The latter is excellent in ulcerations of the 
vagina, os uteri, and congestions and inflammations of the uterus 
and vagina generally, and for the relief of the irritation pro- 
duced by acrid menstrual discharges. 

In the treatment of apthous sore mouth and similar ulcera- 
tive affections, the Baptisin should be used as a gargle, of the 
strength of from one to two drachms to the pint of boiling 
water. In these cases it is better joined with Bhusin, ONE 
•drachm of each to the pint. In severe cases double the 
quantity may be employed. 

In combination with Dioscorein, the Baptisin will be found 
of great service in the treatment of a variety of intestinal 
•affections, such as are accompanied with spasmodic pains, 
flatulence, and acrid fcecal discharges. It has also been found 
beneficial in pneumonia and chronic rheumatism. It excites 
the secretions of the glandular system generally, and of the 
liver and uterus particularly. In over doses it produces con- 
siderable prostration of the whole system, from which, however, 
the patient quickly recovers when the remedy is omitted. It 
should not be used during the period of utero-gestation, as it is 
•capable of producing abortion, for which purpose we have 
known it to be used by quacks and empirics. The danger to 
the general health is very great when used in sufficient quan- 
tities to produce this result. 

Externally, the Baptisin admits of a wide and beneficial 
Tange of application. Its peculiar antiseptic property renders 
it a valuable local remedy for erysipelatous and other ulcers, 
strumous and syphilitic opthalmia, otorrhea, ulcerated sore 
mouth and throat, chancres, ulcerations of the cervix uteri, 
sore nipples, mammary and other abscesses, inflamed tumors, 
and in all affections having a gangrenous tendency. To open 
cilcers, the dry powder may be applied, as in erysipelas, 


scrofulous ulcers, ulceration of the cervix uteri, etc. For 
ophthalmia, otorrhea, etc., it made be made into decoction, from 
one to four drachms being added to a pint of boiling water. 
The same will answer for injections into mammary and other 
abscesses, and for the relief of fetid vaginal discharges. As 
a local application to tumors and inflamed glands, it may be 
applied by means of a suitable poultice, as of elm or flax-seed, 
the surface of which may be sprinkled over with the Baptisin. 
In the same manner it may be applied to open ulcers. For 
the treatment of scaly eruptions of the skin, it may be dis- 
solved in alcohol, one drachm to four ounces, or made into 
an ointment with lard, one drachm to the ounce. As a safe 
and reliable antiseptic, it is worthy the entire confidence of 
the profession. 

.?* m 



Ixorived from Podophyllum Peltatum. 

Nat. Orel. — Berberidacece. 

Sex. Sjst. — Polyandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Mandrake, May Apple, Wild Lemon 

Part Used — The Root. 

No. of Principles, three, viz., retinoid, alkaloid and new 

Properties — Emetic, cathartic, chologogue, resolvent, altera- 
tive, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, vermifuge, revellent y 

Employment — Fevers and inflammations of almost every 

type, all disorders of the liver, spleen, and other viscera, croup, 

pneumonia, rheumatism, both acute and chronic, scrofula, 

indigestion, venerial diseases, jaundice, piles, constipation, 

dropsy, gravel, inflammation of the bladder, suppression and 

retention of the urine, eruptions of the skin, amenorrhea, 

leucorrhea, optlialmia, otorrhea, and, in short, whenever an 

al native is required. 


In essaying to treat upon the properties and employment of 
this truly invaluable remedy, our mind misgives us upon two 
points ; first, as to whether we shall be able to adequately 
express our knowledge and convictions of its utility; and, 
secondly, if enabled to do so, whether our statements will 
receive that credence to which they are entitled, or be passed 
over with that indifference which too frequently characterizes 
minds immured in their own self-sufficiency. Nevertheless, 
we shall endeavor to fully, fairly, and truthfully detail such 
positive knowledge as may be in our possession, drawn from 
the private resources of personal clinical experience, and from 
the public acknowledgements of writers held in high estimation 
by the profession, relying upon the capability of the remedy 
to accomplish all that we shall claim for it. Were mankind 
as ready and willing to investigate, comprehend, appreciate, 
and acknowledge, as they are to doubt, disbelieve, condemn, 
and repudiate, there would be more truth and harmony in the 
affairs of life. Education, habit, custom, begetting as they do 
a reprehensible confidence in, and slothful dependence upon 
the sayings, doings, doctrines, and practices of former ages, 
form a sad bar to the progress of innocuous medication. We 
are among those who believe that a benign and all- wise Creator 
has endowed the earth with inexhaustible resources of means 
wherewith to meet all the necessities of its children ; and those 
of a kind ever conservative to the integrity and duration of 
the objects upon which they are employed. It is in this light 
that we look upon the Podophyllin and kindred remedies, 
holding the sentiment that all remedial agents should be always 
conservative, and never destructive in their influences. A better 
knowledge of such means is being opened up by the progres- 
sive enlightenment of the human mind, and the profession are 
beginning to understand and appreciate the nearer compatibility 
of organic medicines with the functions of organic life. 

The Podophyllum Peltatum has been long and favorably 
known, in the crude state, as an efficient remedy in disorders 
of the liver. Much error, however, pertains to many written 
histories of the plant. Many writers have likened its properties 


to those of Jalap, deeming the two nearly or quite analogous. 
No greater misconception could possibly be made in relation 
to the remedial properties of the plant. Jalap is simply an 
irritating hydrogogue cathartic. Its history is told in a single 
line. Not so with the article under consideration, as we shall 
have occasion to show. 

In relation to the character and number of the proximate 
principles upon which the plant depends for therapeutic value, 
fimch ignorance has prevailed, and still prevails, even among 
many manufacturers engaged in preparing concentrated organic 
remedies for the use of the profession. One offers us an 
alkaloid Podophyllin, another a retinoid Podophyllin, and so 
on ; but none give us a true account of the chemical consti- 
tuents of the plant, in fact give us no explanation at all, 
except that they have obtained a precipitate which they have 
dried down to a powder, and which they guess is the active 
principle of the Podophyllum, and as such they represent it 
to the profession. We have before explained, and deem it 
not out of place to reiterate, that the therapeutic properties of 
the Podophyllum Peltatum reside, not in one, but in three 
distinct and separate proximate principles, each one of which 
represents its individual share of the aggregate remedial virtues 
of the plant. These three principles are termed resinoid, 
alkaloid, and neutral. The resinoid represents the emetic, 
cathartic, and chologogue properties chiefly. It is composed, as 
heretofore stated, of a number of distinct resins, each one 
possessing a different degree of electro-negative reaction. We 
have separated the resinoid of the Podophyllum into five 
different 'resins, and have reason to believe that a still greater 
complexity exists. It possesses a degree of escharotic poAver, 
and when applied externally to fungous growths, will dissolve 
them down. It produces, however, too much inflammation to 
render it a desirable escharotic. ^Combined with sulphate of 
zinc and Ilydrastin, it has been found valuable as an appli- 
cation to cancerous growths. As a counter-irritant, dissolved 
in alcohol, is is one of the most active and efficient that we 
have evrr employed. » It produces a rapid pustulation, which 


appears first in the form of minute vesicles filled with a serous 
fluid, which speedily changes to a whitish or yellowish pus. 
The superficial inflammation is at the same time quite severe. 
The pustules, as a general thing, are slow in healing. We 
emplojr it in chronic and obstinate cases of local neuralgic 
pains, spinal irritation, chronic hepatitis, pleuritis and synovitis, 
morbus coxarius, etc. 

In the alkaloid and neutral principles we have the diuretic, 
diaphoretic, alterative and laxative properties of the plant in 
an eminent degree. They also possess a considerable degree 
of chologogue power, and seldom prove emetic. These two last 
mentioned principles exercise a wonderful modifying power 
over the action of the resinoid principle. None but those who 
have tested the matter can appreciate the great difference 
between the physiological impressions of the resinoid when 
ased alone, and those of the three principles combined. 
Many who have deemed the resinoid Podophyllin too harsh 
and drastic, and justly so, have found the combined principles 
to answer all their expectations. We earnestly invite the 
attention of the profession to the explanations we have given 
in reference to the multiplicity of principles residing in the 
Podophyllum Peltatum, and, if doubtful of the correctness of 
our statements, to put us to whatever test may be deemed 
necessary. We have no mercenary motive to subserve in our 
essay upon this article, neither in aught we ever have or ever 
shall submit to the profession, hence fear not for the results of 
the severest criticism. We desire investigation and scrutiny, in 
order that the profession may become enlightened against the 
errors and frauds of ignorant and incompetent manufacturers 
of concentrated organic remedies ; and in order that the justice 
of our claims to a truthful exposition of the number, character 
And properties of the proximate active principles of plants may 
be vindicated. 

We have, in the Podophyllin under consideration, a complete 

and reliable substitute for mercury and its preparations. The 

plea that the vegetable kingdom affords no remedy of equal 

flicacy with calomel and other mercurials in disorders of the 


liver, and in all cases in which those preparations are employed, 
is no longer tenable. Podophyllin has been called the " Vege- 
table Calomel." So far as the similitude relates to its power 
to produce sanative results, it is correct; but here. the resem- 
blance ceases. For all the good that calomel can possibly do, 
the Podophyllin is equally competent, while at the same time 
its operation is entirely devoid of those unfortunate results 
which so often follow in the wake of its mineral protonymio. 
It may seem presumptuous in us to advocate an equality 
between a remedy of comparatively recent discovery, and one 
which has received the sanction of the profession for nearly 
four hundred years, yet if we can succeed in showing that 
the Podophyllin will effectually subserve all the curative 
pin-poses of mercury, and is, at the same time, innoxious in 
itself, we trust that we shall not be deemed hasty or incautious 
in our advocacy of a substitute. 

It has been said that Podophyllin is capable of producing 
ptyalism, but we have never seen any evidence of the fact in 
persons who had never taken mercury. The only symptoms 
of salivation we have ever observed have been in those cases 
where mercury had been taken at some previous time. Podo- 
phyllin is powerfully resolvent, and by its peculiar excitation 
of the glandular system will sometimes dislodge deposits of 
latent mercurial atoms, and so bring about a season of mercu- 
rialisation. Lobelia, Irisin, Phytolacin, etc., will frequently 
-do the same. We believe it is conceded by the most intelligent 
writers and teachers of the present day, that the production of 
ptyalism is entirely unnecessary to the cure of disease, hence 
the absence of this power in the Podophyllin does not militate 
against its value. We have frequently induced a degree of 
salivation in patients by passing a current of electro-galvanism 
through the salivary and cervical glands, but only in those 
cases where mercurials had been previously administered. The 
effect in these cases was produced by the dislodgment of mercu- 
rial deposits, and as soon as they were removed the glandular 
inflammation would subside, nor would the re-application of 
the electricity ever again induce a similar train of symptoms. 


In large doses, say from three to five grains, Podophyllin 
is an active emeto-c&thartic. Its operation is attended with 
copious bilious discharges, a lingering, death-like nausea, and 
frequently with severe griping pains in the small intestines. 
The primary impressions of Podophyllin are expended upon 
the gastro-enteric and hepatic apparatus, and nausea and 
vomiting seldom occur until from two to four hours after the 
medicine has been administered. From this fact it may be 
learned that the sickness, griping, and other unpleasant, 
symptoms arise more from the acrid character of the morbid 
matters dislodged, than from the primary influences of the 
remedy itself. The neutral and alkaloid principles are com- 
pletely soluble in the stomach, while the resinoid principle is 
soluble only in the enteric secretions. For a fuller explanation 
of the action of the different principles, the reader is respectfully 
referred to page 85, et seq. ' If Podophyllin be retained for 
three quarters of an" hour after it is administered, it will not 
be rejected by vomiting, showing that within this period it has 
entered into solution and passed into the circulation, which 
fact will be manifested by its producing its characteristic 
influences upon the system, even though free emesis occur 
immediately upon the termination of this period. The thera- 
peutic action of Podophyllin is completely suppressed by the 
presence of a considerable quantity of lactic acid, but operates 
without hindrance in the presence of acetic acid. Hence the 
necessity of neutralising undue acidity of the stomach previous 
to its exhibition will be apparent, as well as to avoid the use 
of such substances as will give rise, by putrefactive decom- 
position, to the formation of lactic acid. Sugar is particularly 
objectionable in connection with Podophyllin. We have 
previously shown that sugar, when in solution and exposed to 
a temperature above 80° of Farenheit, undergoes a putrefactive 
fermentation, and gives rise to the formation of a number of 
products, among which is lactic acid.^ Hence the use of 
syrups, sweetened infusions, etc., should be dispensed with 
while the system is under the influence of Podophyllin. Were 
the sugar properly digested, it would be of no disadvantage ; 


but those conditions rea airing the exhibition of Podophyllin 
are unfavorable to the digestion of nutritious matters of any 
kind, and much more so when the digestive apparatus is under 
its immediate influence. The sanative impressions of Podo- 
phyllin upon the digestive organs, unlike those of many othei 
remedies, are indirect and subsequent to its specific constitu- 
tional influences. Digestion cannot proceed during the 
immediate operation of Podophyllin, nor until several hours 
have elapsed after its cathartic powers are manifested, when 
given in cathartic doses. Populin, Xanthoxylin, and other 
stimulants and tonics, on the contrary, directly promote 
digestion, hence are given with the greatest advantage 
immediately before or after meals, in order that their specific 
influence may be expended upon the digestive organs at the 
precise time when extraneous aid is necessary. 
_ Chloride of sodium, common salt, enhances the activity of 
Podophyllin, and to the abundant use of this condiment may 
be attributed the apparent hyper-cathartic effect sometimes 
observable in the use of this remedy. Our attention was first 
called to this fact some five years since, and the phenomenon 
was at first ascribed to the eating of oysters, but subsequent 
observations demonstrated the fact that it was the salt so 
conveyed into the system that produced the effect. This 
property of salt renders it valuable in promoting the action of 
Podophyllin in those cases where great coldness and torpidity 
exist, and when that remedy is tardy in operating. In all 
cases of a sthenic character, however, salt should be used in 
moderation while the svstem is under the influence of Podo- 
jhyllin. We generally confine our patients to a diet of sim- 
ole corn meal gruel for a period of twenty-four hours after 
exhibiting a full dose of Podophyllin. If it be desirable to 
promote the action of the medicine, salt may be added to the 
gruel in sufficient quantity to produce the desired effect. 

Many suggestions .have been made in regard to the combi- 
nation of other agents with the Podophyllin, in order to 
modify its operation. Among those agents, we may mention 
Leptandrin, Jalapin, Asclepin, Caulophyllin, Gelsemin, Phy- 


tolacin, etc. Tne Leptar.drin is, perhaps, more employed than 
an}^ other. There is no doubt but that it both enhances and 
modifies the chologogue power of the Podophyllin, while at 
the same time it lessens the intestinal irritation. It also seems 
to be of great service in securing the full alterative influence 
of the Podophyllin, although a portion of this influence is 

• undoubtedly due to the adjunctive itself. j In typhoid fever, 

dysentery, and other diseases attended with intestinal irritation, 

we deem the Leptandrin an indispensible auxiliary. We 

usually employ two parts of" Leptandrin to one of Podo- 

• phyllin, A 

Jalapin with Podophyllin is indicated in dropsy, and in all 
cases where a speedy evacuation of the immediate contents of 
the bowels is desirable. The Jalapin will neither quicken nor 
in any other way influence the action of the Podophyllin, 
which will manifest its accustomed influences independent of 
the Jalapin. In congestions of the portal circle, accompanied 
with intestinal engorgement, the combination of Jalapin with 
Podophyllin is appropriate. By the use of the Jalapin in 
these cases, we get a prompt evacuation of the alimentary 
canal as the result of its more speedy local cathartic power. 
But the Podophyllin will take its own time, and its general 
influence will be the same as if no Jalapin had been employed. 
r-sEj In the treatment of dropsies, we have derived more prompt 
and permanent sanative results from a combination of Podo- 
phyllin. Jalapin, and Cream of Tartar, than from any othei 
hydrogogue remedy, ^ 

Asclepin has long been a favorite adjunctive to the Podo- 
* phyllin, with us. Long before the discovery of the active 
principles of these plants, we were in the habit of combining 
the crude Asclepias with the Podophyllum. It lessens the 
tendency to griping, and by virtue of its diaphoretic properties, 
seems to enhance the influence of the Podophyllin upon the 
sub-cutaneous glandular structure. For this reason we deem 
it a valuable adjunctive to the Podophyllin in the treatment 

. of*cutaneous diseases. Also in all affections attended with 
febrile symptoms wherein Podophyllin is indicated. 


Caulophyllin is also -an excellent modifying agent for com- 
bining with the Poclophyllin. Its anti-spasmodic properties' 
are useful in controlling the tendency to nausea, pain and 
spasm. It is particularly serviceable as an auxiliary in the 
treatment of amenorrhea, hysteria, chorea, and all nervous 
affections. Also in certain forms of indigestion, cholera 
morbus, etc. 

Gelsemin is used for the same purposes as the above. It is 
a more enegetic anti-spasmodic and relaxant, and at the same 
time possesses other properties frequently indicated in connec- 
tion with the Podophyllin. We are in the habit of prescribing 
in combination with the Podophyllin daily. In hepatic 
congestions, the forming stages of fevers, pneumonia, croup, 
and whenever febrile and spasmodic symptoms are present, we 
seldom omit it. By relaxing spasm, abating febrile excite- 
ment, and soothing the irritability of the nervous system, it 
quickens and promotes the operation of the Podophyllin. We 
find it of great service as an adjunctive in a great variety of 
chronic diseases. 

Phytolacin is peculiarly serviceable as an adjunctive in the 
treatment of obstinate hepatic disorders, constipation, and in 
all cases accompanied with a languid or torpid condition of 
the sj^stem. Whenever it is found difficult to bring the sys- 
tem under the constitutional influence of Podophyllin, by 
reason of excessive sluggishness or other causes, vital debility 
excepted, the Phytolacin will be found to answer an admira- 
ble purpose. In syphilis, scaly eruptions of the skin, chronic 
hepatitis, scrofula, etc., the Phytolacin will always prove a 
valuable auxiliary. 

From five to ten grains of super-carbonate of soda may be 
advantageously combined with each dose of Podophyllin in 
case acidity of the stomach be suspected. Capsicum is a good 
adjuvant to Podophyllin in cold and languid conditions of the 
system. Many other combinations may be effected, some of 
which we shall have occasion to notice, and others will readily 
suggest themselves to the practitioner. 

Of the special emploj^ment of Podophyllin in the treatment 


of disease, we would mention fevers generally as affording, 
frequent and decided indications for the use of this remedy- 
In the treatment of fever and ague, we almost invariably 
precede the employment of other remedies by the free exhibi- 
tion of the Podophyllin. By so doing, in this climate, we cut 
the disease short at once, and oftentimes have no occasion for- 
furthei medication. We have known many cases of intermit- 
tent fever to yield to a single dose of Podophyllin, and we^ 
have no doubt that the credit of cure is frequently due to this- 
agent, when it is attributed to other means. In those cases of 
fever and ague in which the bowels are a special point of con- 
gestion, manifested by a troublesome and painful diarrhea, the- 
Podophyllin is sometimes inadmissable. If, however, the 
diarrhea depend upon a functional disturbance of the liver, it 
will be indispensible. It should always be combined, in such 
cases, with Leptandrin and Caulophyllin or Dioscorein. If, on 
the other hand, the diarrhea arises from a primary intestinal 
congestion, and be of a serous or mucous character, the Podo- 
phyllin should be dispensed with, and the chief reliance be 
placed upon Leptandrin, or Euphorbin, in combination with 
diaphoretics and anti-spasmodics. In cases of this type, it will 
be better, as a general thing, to administer the above remedies, 
in divided doses. The following formula is excellent : 
J*. • 

Leptandrin 3 j. 


Dioscorein aa. grs. X 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one every two hours 
until the alvine discharges assume a healthy appearance* 
Astringents may then be employed, but we seldom find them 
necessary. The above formula may be varied at the option 
of the practitioner. In the treatment of chronic cases of this- 
complaint, in adults, we generally premise our subsequent 
treatment with the following somewhat heroic prescription : 

| . Podophyllin, 

Euphorbin aa. grs. ij. 

Leptandrin grs. iij. 


n * / * c/ 1 


Mix, and give at a dose. This will produce free emesis and 
catharsis, and thoroughly arouse the system. If the first 
dose does not sufficiently break up the hepatic obstructions 
and awaken the system from its torpor, we repeat the dose at 
♦he expiration of from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. Of 
course the quantity of the ingredients in the above formula 
must be regulated to the necessities of the case in hand. In 
all cases attended with gastric or enteric irritation, a free use 
of mucilages and demulcents is advisable. The above pre- 
scription we have found of eminent service in the forming 
stages of bilious, typhoid, and other fevers, pneumonia, 
erysipelas, acute rheumatism, etc. We vary the formula to 
meet the indications., If a considerable degree of febrile ex- 
citement be present, we usually substitute from ONE half to 
. TWO grains of Gelsemin for the Euphorbin, increasing, if 
necessary, the proportion of Podophyllin, or Leptandrin, or 
both. Congestion of the brain has frequently yielded to the 
prompt administration of this remedy. We have cured 
Panama fever of eight months duration by means of Podo- 
phyllin and Gelsemin, followed by Hydrastin and Xanthox- 
ylin. We wish it distinctly understood, that the treatment 
here detailed applies to the peculiarities of this climate. We 
are aware that the habits of individuals, food, water, climatic 
and other influences all tend to modify both the types of 
disease and action of medicines, and that it is necessary to 
modify the combination of agents in accordance with the cir- 
cumstances of their employment. These peculiarities it is the 
duty of the resident physician to ascertain, and, having made 
himself thoroughly acquainted with the therapeutic properties 
of the agents he employs, to modify his treatment accordingly. 
We have exhibited the Concentrated Medicines in the States 
of North Carolina, Alabama, Florida, and upon the Mississippi 
River, both to the white and colored races, and we never had 
them fail of their accustomed effect. Scarlatina, acute rheu- 
matism, nephritis, diarrhea, dysentery, and other diseases 
yielded as readily to the organic remedies as in our native 
clune. Yet our residence in those localities was too brief to 


enable us to speak authoritatively as regards the proper plan of 
treatment to be there pursued. In miasmatic districts, as in 
the valleys and river bottoms of the West, disease assumes a 
more periodic t} T pe, and, in complaints like rheumatism, chol- 
era morbus, etc., unless anti-periodics be promptly adminis- 
tered during the remissions, relapse will speedily follow 
relapse. From this fact we may learn the importance of using 
proper means to maintain a favorable condition when it is 
once brought about. Upon this point we shall have more to 
say when treating of special anti-periodics. 

In many instances it will b,e necessary to combine Podo- 
phyllin with active stimulants, at other times^ with sedatives, 
diaphoretics, antispasmodics, or simply with mucilages or de- 
mulcents. We cannot undertake to point out all the specific 
indications in which these various modifications will be neces- 
sary, neither do we deem it necessary, as the practitioner 
cannot fail to comprehend the combination suggested by the 
circumstances of the case. 

In the treatment of typhoid fever, the Podophyllin is 
sometimes deemed too irritating in its operation. Such, no 
doubt, is the case in many instances. We have heretofore 
spoken of the escharotic property of the resinoid principle of 
the Podophyllin, and we again desire to draw attention to the, 
fact. It is all the more important to keep this fact in view, 
when we consider that the Podophyllin of many manufactu- 
rers consists of the resinoid principle alone, and we have no 
doubt but that this circumstance will account for the drastic 
effect observed by some practitioners in the operation of Podo- 
phyllin, and which, by them, has been justly considered an 
objectionable feature. We have before stated that Podophyllin 
is contra-indicated in gastritis and enteritis, and whenever 
there is evident local inflammation of any portion of the glan- 
dular structure of the intestines. It must be born® in mind, 
that organic substances are possessed of chemical affinities 
equally with the inorganic, and that in diseased conditions of 
any portion of the animal economy, not only is there a func- 
tional aberration, but also is the chemical constituency of the 


apparatus and its secretions essentially changed and modified. 
With this change of constitution comes new affinities, and a 
substance which, under other circumstances, would pass harm- 
lessly over a given surface, is, by th<j consequent reaction 
resulting from this changed composition of the secretions con- 
verted into a drastic irritant. It might be said that these 
phenomena arise from a modification of nervous impressibility, 
but we invariably find that such modification is attended with 
change both of the chemical structure of the organ and its se- 
cretions. It is important, therefore, if Podophyllin be 
employed at all, that it be so combined that these accidents of 
impression be obviated. In the treatment of Typhoid Fever, 
and other acute diseases, when called in the advanced stages 
if we find on examination a suppression of the mucous secre- 
tions, we do not immediately administer Podophyllin, be it, in 
other respects, ever so much indicated. Our first reliance is 
upon diluents and demulcents, preferring those of a diapho- 
retic character, in order that a degree of reparation may be 
made for the expended fluids of the system. As soon as we 
have awakened the secretive action of the mucous surfaces, we 
administer our Podophyllin, or whatever other constitutional 
remedy we may deem necessary in the case. It is bad practice, 
when the tongue, mouth and fauces are dry, parched and in- 
flamed, showing, evidently, a suspension of action on the part of 
the exhalents, to administer Podophyllin or any other remedy 
requiring the menstrua of solution, and which are capable, if 
they remain undissolved and unabsorbed, or even if they dis- 
solve very slowly, of expending an unneeded and undesirable 
local influence. Nothing is more essential to health than that 
a proper diluency of the blood and various juices of the sys- 
tem be maintained. The very suspension of the exhalations 
of the serous and mucous membranes is oftentimes a conser. 
vative manifestation on the part of the system, showing that 
the dissipation of the fluids has reached an extent inconsistent 
with the integrity and duration of the animal economy. It 
is in cases like these that the very blood corpuscles themselves 
become shrivelled and shrunken, having, by the action of exos- 


rnose, given off a portion of their water to supply the demand 
denied from the proper sources. Not many years have elapsed 
since the standard treatment of patients laboring under febrile 
forms of disease was such as to consume them by a slow pro. 
cess of moist incineration.JjJVenesection, evacuants, and other 
artificial means of depletion were employed, while, at the 
same time, the patient was denied the indulgence of that indis* 
pensible and Heaven sent conservator, water, even while the 
body shrunk and consumed in the pyrexian furnace. Bleed- 
ing, blistering, cupping, leeching, vomiting, purging, sweating 
and diuresis, served to aid the fever in extracting and dissipa- 
ting the fluids of the body, leaving the vital currents to thicken 
and stagnate in the channels of life, and planting the banner 
of death at the very citadel of the life forces. Fortunately for 
the interests of suffering humanity, a reform in this respect is< 
apparent amongst the more intelligent of the profession 
although we fear that the requirements of the natural lawj are 
not, in many instances, sufficiently regarded. ^K^. 

Water is, properly speaking, the only diluent. *At the sam 1 
time it is capable of holding in solution certain therapeutic 
principles which act as stimulants, both upon the exhaling an-( 
absorbing vessels. Hence, by the administration of infusions 
of some of the simpler plants, such as yield soluble neutral 
principles possessed of diaphoretic properties, we may at the 
same time furnish the material for maintaining a proper dilu- 
ency of the various juices, and the means conducing to its 
appropriation. When attainable, we should scarcely make use 
of any other remedy than the Asclepin for that purpose, deem- 
ing it alwa} T s appropriate. As it is nearly all soluble in warm 
water, it is of convenient and admirable utility. Mucilages 
and demulcents act in a manner mechanicallv, shielding the 
irritable and irritated membranes from the action of the acrid 
secretions, and at the same time apparently soothe and allay 
the excited condition of the mucous surfaces: They also, as 
a general thing, afford absolute nutriment, ami, provided the 
system be in a condition to appropriate nutritive matters, will 
answer both as food and medicine. It is necessary to success 


in the practice of medicine to always bear in mind the fact, 
that medicines calculated to induce constitutional changes are 
always first acted upon by the system, and that the different 
•degrees of ability on the part of the system to properly dis- 
pose of or appropriate a remedy, will regulate in the same de. 
•gree its positive influences ; while the absence of this power 
will simply afford negative results.-^LThis is precisely the case 
with food, and, in chronic diseases, when the nutritive appara- 
tus fails to make disposition of the aliment taken into the 
stomach, we need scarcely hope that medicines will share a 
better fate. How important, then, that due discrimination 
should be exercised in selecting the various remedies used in 
the cure of disease, always keeping in view the question of 
•adaptation on the part of the remedy, both as regards its thera- 
peutic and physical character, to the conditions present. *' It is 
in consequence of this constitutional diversity that individual 
remedies cure in some cases and fail in others, or exhibit vari 
■ous shades of curative power. 

"We hope we shall be pardoned for digressing somewha 
from the strict details of the remedy under consideration, but 
we could not well do otherwise than revert to a few general 
principles governing the successful employment of remedial 
agents, and especially the Podophyllin. 

In the treatment of exanthematous fevers, Podophyllin is 
frequently indicated in the forming stages, and its prompt ad- 
ministration will deprive this class of diseases of much of their 
malignancy. If the symptoms indicate a considerable degree 
of hepatic derangement, it should never be omitted. Later 
than this, it is bad practice to administer Podophyllin, or in. 
deed any 'other cathartic, until the efflorescence is complete 
and mature. At this stage, the Podophyllin will be found to 
act more desirably than any other agent of its class. In these 
cases it should, as a general thing, be combined with Leptan- 
•clrin. In some cases stimulants may be indicated, as Xanthox- 
ylin, Capsicum, etc. The general directions in the early part 
of this article may be consulted in regard to suitable corn 
^»i nations. In the treatment of fevers and other inflammatory 


diseases, a single dose of Podophyllin must Dot be relied upon 
in the outset, unless the alvine discharges give evidence of the 
removal of all morbid accumulations. Our practice in such 
cases is to repeat the Podophyllin once in twenty-four hours, 
or at such periods as may be suitable, until the discharges 
from the bowels give evidence of effective and complete depu- 
ration through that channel. Unless this be done, the prac- 
titioner will frequently fail of his objects. Evidence is thus 
afforded that the principal obstructions are broken up, and that 
the effete and corrupt materials which act as fuel to the flame 
are expelled. The success of the subsequent treatment will 
depend in a great measure upon the consummation of this re- 
sult. Following this, diaphoretics, sedatives, febrifuges, ner- 
vines., etc., will act with greater promptitude and certainty, 
as they will not have to contend against the principal cause 
which perpetuates the functional disturbances, and frequently 
leads to organic lesions; but simply have to harmonise the 
disturbances remaining after the expulsion of a cause which has 
ceased to operate. Much less medicine will be needed subse- 
quently, and greater certainty will attend its administration. 
Thus, In bilious, scarlet, and other fevers, if this be done, the 
subsequent employment of Yeratin, Asclepin, Gelsemin, etc, 
will be attended with more speedy and satisfactory results ; 
while, if this be neglected, and the direct cause of excitation 
be allowed to remain, seldom can a sufficient amount of calma- 
tive iniluence be brought to bear to harmonise the action of 
the disturbed functions. We hold it to be an axiom in medi- 
cal science, that every effect in turn becomes a cause. Let us 
look a moment at the approach and progress of a case of ty- 
phoid fever. First we have slight debility or lassitude, a dull 
feeling in the head, followed by pain, aching, and lameness in 
the limbs, soreness of the flesh, appetite feeble or wanting, 
bowels generally constipated, skin dry, urine scanty, tongue 
slightly coated, taste impaired, accompanied with other symp- 
toms and modifications which finally usher in a season of chills, 
alternated with febrile paroxysms until the disease is fairly es- 
tablished. Here we see that there has beeu manifest tardiness 


on the part of the depurating functions, the effect of which is 
retention of morbid and effete matters, whien in turn results 
in accumulations. These retained and accumulated matters 
are acrid and morbific, as we may learn from the fact 
that nature frequently makes an effort to expel them in the 
earlier stages of the disease by diarrhea. But many practi- 
tioners thwart this early effort of the system by administering 
opiates and astringents. Our practice is different. We hold 
that the violence and duration of the disease will be modified 
and frequently cut short by the early expulsion of the morbid 
accumulations. These acrid and irritating matters are the 
direct and perpetuating cause of the febrile excitement. The 
fever ^o induced and perpetuated hastens the metamorphosis 
of the interstitial tissues of the body, and thus is the labor of 
depuration augmented, and the liability to local congestions 
increased. By the long retention of the metamorphosed 
animal tissues is engendered a peculiarly acrid and corrosive 
condition of the fluid menstrua, which hold these matters in 
solution, even to such an extent that they will react upon and 
destroy the very apparatus in which they circulate. This we 
have evidence of in the advanced stages of the disease, when 
an uncontrollable diarrhea sets in, and which is the result of 
an absolute erosion of the glandular structure of the intestines 
by their own secretions, which now are of a decided septic 
character. Thus what was at first but functional has become 
organic, and the integrity of the secreting vessels is destroyed 
by their own legitimate contents. How important, then, that 
these facts be taken into consideration early in tilt? history of 
the disease. No matter what may have been the primary 
causes by which a retention of the waste matters of the system 
was induced, their retention and consequent accumulation 
constitutes a morbid condition, an effect, which, remaining 
uncorrected, becomes a cause or antecedent to the production 
of further results. For the purpose of meeting the indications, 
no better agent comes within the province of the healing art 
than the Podophyllin. We by no means advocate it as a 
specific, but as being appropriate and reliable in by tar the 


largest majority of cases. In order, however, to be successful 
with this agent, the conditions heretofore mentioned as 
governing its employment must be strictly observed. 

Podophyllin, in our opinion, is eminently superior to all 
other remedies as a resolvent and alterative. In this opinion 
we are not alone. It is, for this reason, more frequently 
indicated in the treatment of chronic disease than any other 
remedial agent. In all disorders of the liver, no matter what 
their tffpe, we have need to avail ourselves of the curative 
powers of Podophyllin. Be that organ indolent from any 
<*au>e, excepting only a deficiency in the blood of the elemen- 
tary constituents of bile, we have, in the Podophyllin, a safe 
#nd certain agent for restoring its functional energy. ( In this 
case it proves directly stimulant to that organ, and is instru- 
mental in restoring lost action. If, on the other hand, the 
condition be one of abnormal excitement, as in diarrhea, dys- 
entery, etc., Podophyllin is equally efficient in regulating the 
secretive action of that organ. No matter to which side the 
scale may be turned, Podophyllin may be relied upon to 
restore and harmonise the functions of secretion. Our views 
in relation to the peculiar property whereby diverse derange- 
ments are regulated by one and the same remedial agent, aro 
more fully set forth under the head of Senecin. Transfer the 
exposition there given to the Podophyllin, and the phenome- 
non is explained. 

As a derivative, in the discussion and diffusion of local 
inflammations and congestions, the Podophyllin is, perhaps, 
without an equal. In the treatment of chronic inflammation 
of the bladder, we have frequently had occasion to "put its 
peculiar virtues in this respect to the proof, and never have 
we been disappointed. As a radical means in the cure of this 
complain!", our success with it has been such that we deem it 
indispensable. We usually exhibit it in full cathartic doses 
at bed time, and repeat every second or third night until the 
more violent symptoms are subdued. It answers well 
•lombmed with Asclepin in these cases. The auxiliary 
remedies will consist of mucilaginous and cooling diuretics, 


as a decoction of Marsh Mallows, Pumpkin-seeds, or Cleavers 
■infused in cold water. Populin, Lupulin, and Hydrastin will 
also be found serviceable. If calculous deposits are suspected, 
^borate of soda, in doses of two grains twice a day. 

In the treatment of felons, and local inflammations 
generally, we almost invariably employ the Podophyllin in 
full closes, and have always found it efficient in modifying the 
inflammatory action, and abating the violence of the local 
-congestion. As a revellent, we give it the preference over all 
•other remedies. 
v^ As an alterative, in the treatment of syphilitic infections, 
its sanative influences are more certain and reliable than those 
of mercury, and its operation entirely devoid of any 
secondary deleterious effects whatever. Not only is this true 
in regard to primary syphilis, but also of the secondary and 
tertiary forms, and he who fails with this remedy, when judi- 
ciously employed, need not resort to mercurials with any hope 
•of success. It does not cure by changing the type of the 
•disease, inducing a Poclophyllo-syphilitic complication, but by 
'eradicating the virus effectually from the system. And when 
primary syphilis is properly treated with Podophyllin, in 
connection with suitable auxiliaries derived from the organic 
materia medica, secondary and tertiary symptoms will seldom 
or never appear. At least we have never known such a result, 
and our experience has not been limited. It is a great mistake 
to suppose the vegetable kingdom incapable of affording a 
remedy of equal efficacy with mercury in resolving deposits 
•of inflammatory exudations, for in Podophyllin we have that 
remedy. Whether they arise from pleural or other adhesions 
<of the serous membranes, or from syphilitic or other infections, 
the Podophyllin will answer an equally good purpose. -^In 
these cases it should be given in small doses, say from one-^. 

eighth to one-half of one grain, and continued for a length 
TS, . ... . 

of time, occasionally administering a full dose, if the bowels 

■are not sufficiently relaxed, in order to guard against intestinal 

accumulations. The best adjunctive in these cases is Asclepm 

Piles, when dependent upon a sluggish condition of the 


portal circulation, are promptly and radically relieved by the 
use of Podophyllin. The proper method of using it in this 
complaint is to commence with a dose sufficiently large to 
impress the liver thoroughly, and then follow with small 
doses in combination with Hyclrastin, as follows : 

Podophyllin grs.iii 

Ilydrastin grs.xxiv. 

Mix, and divide into twelve powders. Dose — one, twice or 
thrice a day, according to the solubility of the bowels. We 
prefer, however, alternating the Podophyllin with Hydrastin, 
exhibiting the latter during the day and the former at bed- 
time. In all cases of chronic disease, the Podophyllin will 
operate better if given at bed time, as the stomach is then, or 
should be, free from all other matters requiring digestive 
action, and can devote its energies exclusively to the appro- 
priation of the medicine. 
•f-~ For jaundice, the Podophyllin should be alternated with 
Leptandrin, Juglandin, Hydrastin, etc. These should be 
given in appropriate doses two or three times per day, and a 
cathartic dose of Podophyllin administered every third or 
fourth night. 

We seldom employ any other medicine than Podophyllin 
in the treatment of croup, when called to treat the disease in 
its incipient stages. N^Our first care is to apply the cold water 
bandage to the throat, and to have the feet frequently bathed 
in warm alkaline water. /We then exhibit a full dose of 
Podophyllin, combining it as circumstances require, and 
seldom find occasion for other medicine, or even a repetition 
of the same. If other medicine be absolutely necessary, we 
employ the Asclepin in solution, with, occasionally, a few 
drops of the Wine Tincture of Lobelia. \f If this plan of 
treatment be adopted early, it will seldom disappoint the 
practitioner. The peculiar alterative and resolvent properties 
of the Podophyllin render it invaluable in arresting the 
progress of membranous croup. 

In chronic constipation of the bowels, arising from hepatio 


torpor, we know of no remedy more to be relied upon than 
the Podophyllin. To ensure success, the remedy must be 
persevered in. In one case of fifteen years' duration, we 
continued the use of this medicine for one year, exhibiting it 
on an average every alternate night, and with complete suc- 
cess. Tonics should be used in connection.. 

For scrofula, ophthalmia, otorrhea, eruptions of the skin, and 
for all diseases arising from, or dependent upon, tardy depu- 
ration, hepatic aberation, local obstructions, defective secre- 
tion, or a vitiated condition of the blood and fluids from 
any cause, Podophyllin is the radical remedy. It arouses the 
latent energies of the system, and paves the way for furthei 
medication. Podophyllin exercises a remarkable control over 
the sanguiferous system, removing capillary obstructions, and 
equalising the circulation. The exhibition of a dose of Podo- 
phyllin is frequently followed by a decided increase of 
temperature on the part of the skin, and patients sometimes' 
imagine that the medicine is going to induce a fever. Many 
who have been troubled with unequal circulation and 
■coldness of the extremities for months, are permanently 
relieved by a single dose. In apoplexy, as soon as the patient 
is restored to consciousness, we generally exhibit a full dose 
of Podophyllin and Leptandrin, and the early employment of 
the same prescription will generally prevent an attack, when 
taken on the approach of the premonitory symptoms. 

In cholera morbus, as soon as the vomiting and spasms 
-are allayed, we invariably exhibit the same combination, 
adding to it, if occasion requires, Dioscorein, or Caulophyllin, 
or Asclepin, etc. If the affection be accompanied with 
hepatic congestion, it will relieve the pain in a very short 
time, and prove the very best anodyne that can possibly be 

y^For the convulsions of dentition, we give the Podophyllin 
preference over all other remedies. "While others administer 
antispasmodics, anodynes, etc., we give Podophyllin, 
&nd we have never been disappointed in our expecta- 
tions. The fact is, in all congestions of the hepatic / 


system, Podophyliin is without an equal as an anti-spasmodie fc 
Hence, as soon as the difficulty is determined to arise from 
biliary obstruction, palliative means should be dispensed with,, 
and the radical remedy, Podophyliin, immediately exhibited. 
The timely use of Podophyliin during the period of dentition 
will obviate all liability to convulsions. As acidity of the 
stomach predominates during this period, means must be 
employed to neuL<Jise it. Lime water, in doses of a tea- 
spoonful three or four times a day, is the best remedy we are 
acquainted with. Ir this precaution has been neglected, the 
Podophyliin may ► - combined with supercarbonate of soda, 
when exhibited, otherwise it may fail of its effect. It will be 
remembered that we have stated that the operation of Podo- 
phyliin is negativer 1 u y the presence of lactic acid. Bearing 
in mind the fact, also, that the food of children at this age 
consists chiefly of milk, the most ready source for the produc- 
tion of lactic acid, the necessity of our admonition will be 
apparent. If the symptoms indicate the presence of acrid 
ingesta in the stomach, an emetic of the Wine Tincture of 
Lobelia should precede the exhibition of Podophyliin, as more 
prompt relief will thereby be afforded. We have attended 
many cases of so-called congestion of the brain in infants,, 
which we have demonstrated to have arisen from the presence 
of a considerable quantity of acrid ingesta in the alimentary 
canal. In one case, a child of eight months old, we removed, 
by means of Lobelia and Podophyliin, one and a half pints 
of solid casein. This matter so expelled was in a high state 
of putrefactive fermentation. The child was being reared by 
hand, as it is called, that is, fed upon cows' milk. The expuk 
sion of these morbid accumulations was followed by an 
abatement of all the symptoms, rendering other medication, 
except a little Asclepin and Con. Tine. Veratrum, to soothe the 
excited nervous and sanguiferous systems, unnecessary. We 
mention this case as simply illustrative of many that have 
occurred under our observation, both in our own practice and 
that of others, and to demonstrate the efficacy, reliability, and 


safet} r of the remedials above mentioned, in the* treatment of 
the diseases to which infants are liable. 
""}KJBut of all the valuable properties pertaining to the Podo- 
phyllin, perhaps none are more- remarkable than its power, in 
connection with olive oil, of removing biliary concretions. 
That it does possess this power we have demonstrated again 
and again.^The symptoms indicating the existence of these 
concretions are manifold, yet -so well marked, that the 
diagnosis is not difficult. The ordinary symptoms indicating 
a functional disturbance of the liver, such as furred tongue, 
bad taste in the mouth, sallowness of the skin, eyes, etc., 
are usually present. The special symptoms are, in many 
cases, a seated pain in the right epigastrium, which both 
internal and external means fail to alleviate; a feeling of 
distension or fulness in the region of the liver ; bowels some- 
times constipated, at other times diarrhea; but the most 
certain symptom is alternate diarrhea and constipation; severe 
pain in the head, accompanied with nausea and vomiting of 
bilious matter ; sometimes the patient is attacked at night 
with a severe spasmodic pain in the region of the liver, 
with difficult respiration, and is only relieved by free vomiting, 
which requires to be artificially produced, as the spasm is 
generally so great that it will not take place spontaneously. 
Other symptoms, as emaciation, extreme sallowness of the 
skin, cough, sudden faintings, scanty and high-colored urine, 
etc., are sometimes present. Many cases of periodical sick 
'headache are entirely dependent upon this cause. 

The proper plan of treatment in these cases is as follows : 
exhibit at bed time the following powder : 

Podophyllin grs.ij 

Euphorbin grsj 

Caulophyllin grs.ij. , 

Mix. It is best taken in a little water. The next morning, 
as soon as the nausea attending the operation of the powder 
has subsided, administer eight ounces of pure Olive Oil. 
This quantity is the average dose for an adult. We have 


known as high as sixteen ounces to be given at a single 
dose, but the patient was of unusual physical development. 
"We have frequently admin igtered six and eight ounces to 
females, and never without the most beneficial results. The 
oil will sometimes produce a considerable degree of nausea, 
and usually operates upon the bowels in the course of four 
hours. We have known as many as two hundred of ^hese 
concretions, varying in size from that of a small pea to that 
of a hazel nut, to be passed after the administration of a 
single dose of the Podophyllin and oil. It is always Mvisable 
to administer half the quantity of oil on the second morning, 
as some of the concretions are liable to lodge in fcb«j bowels, 
giving rise to flatulence, pain and irritation. If the"<j is reason 
to suspect that more of the concretions remain unc/.pelled, the 
same course of treatment must be repeated. It is requisite, in 
all cases, to give the Podophyllin in sufficient d' s-s to relax 
the hepatic constriction thoroughly previous to e; iiibiting the 
oil. The dose above advised will of course r iqu're to be 
increased or diminished according to circumstanc s. A smaller 
quantity of oil may also sometimes answer lie mirpose, 
although less than four ounces will prove inetlcient. We 
seldom give less than six. The combination of the Podophyllin 
may also be varied at the option of the practitioner. 1 eotan- 
drin may be substituted for the Euphorbin, and Oelsemhi for 
the Caulophyllin. We give preference to th* Euphorbin, 
however, having met with better success in th« u^e of that 
agent as an adjunctive 

After the operation of the above medicine- the patient 
should be placed upon a laxative and tonic course <>* treatment. 
The following we have found excellent: 

Leptandrin - - - • • .1 j. 

% Cornin ------ 7 ij. 

Mix. Dose — three to five grains three times a day Kvdras- 
tin will answer a good purpose in some cases. J amandin ia 
also excellent, and may be combined with Coram in snnai 


la the relief of suppression and retention of urine, we have 
found the Podophyllin of exceeding utility, as a radical 
remedy. We remember one case in which the catheter had 
been used, on an average, twelve times in twenty-four hours, 
for four weeks, and which was promptly and permanently 
relieved by a single dose of Podophyllin, rendering the further 
use of the catheter unnecessary. In all derangements of the 
urinary -apparatus, Podophyllin will be found one of the best 
alterative diuretics that can possibly be employed. It operates 
not so much by increasing the flow of urine, as by restoring 
the secreting power of the kidneys. It is very effectual in 
removing uric acid deposits, and corrects the diathesis giving 
rise to the superabundant formation of that constituent of the 
urine. It is of exceeding utility in all calculous affections, by 
reason of its peculiar alterative, resolvent, and diuretic pro- 
perties. Frequently, during its operation, considerable pain 
will be felt in the region of the kidneys, followed by a flow 
of urine highly charged with calculous sediment. 

In the treatment of the various types of skin diseases, we 
have, in the Podophyllin, one of the. best constitutional reme- 
dies that can possibly be employed. It exercises a peculiar 
influence over the sub-cutaneous glandular system, which, in 
fact, is but t3rpical of its influence over the entire glandular 
structure of the system. Its action upon the animal economy 
is universal, not a gland or tissue escaping its sanative impress. 
It awakens power when latent, quickens the functions when 
tardy, resolves viscid deposits, restores and harmonizes the 
functions of secretion, removes obstructions, promotes depu- 
ration, dissipates capillary congestion, equalizes the circulation, 
and restores equilibrium of action to the nervous system. All 
this it does without corroding the tissues, or vitiating the fluids, 
promoting the expulsion of nothing but that which has 
become effete, entering nto no abnormal combinations, nor in 
any wise impairing the integrity of the materials of organic 
formation. Having expended its therapeutic powers upon the 
various functions of the system, it is itself depurated along 
with other waste matters, leaving none other than physiolo 


gical traces of its former presence. We are aware that our 
language is laudatory in the extreme, but we have no hesi- 
tancy in expressing our convictions upon a subject so pregnant 
with the best interests of suffering humanity. The truth of 
our expressions has been fully and repeatedly demonstrated 
by hundreds of the most intelligent of our profession, hence 
we stand not alone in our estimation of the remedial agent 
under consideration. 

Of the special combinations of Podophyllin, we shall not 
have much to say in the present article. They are noticed 
throughout the work in connection with other agents. We- 
shall, therefore, leave it to the judgment of the practitioner tx> 
form such combinations as his judgment may dictate. We 
would again state that Podophyllin will take its own time to 
operate, independently of the agent with which it may be 
combined. The average time required for the operation of 
Podophyllin is eight hours. The variations in this respect will 
depend in a great measure upon the readiness with which it is 
dissolved and absorbed. Hence any means by which those 
processes may be facilitated will tend to quicken its operation. 
By triturating it thoroughly with Asclepin, it will the more 
readily pass into solution, and in this form is appropiiate in 
the treatment of skin diseases, pleural adhesions, capillary 
congestions, bilious and typhoid fever, dysentery, iritis, etc. 
With Baptism for amenorrhea and defective menstruation. 
Triturated with gum arabic, one part in eight, it answers an 
excellent purpose in disorders of the bowels. We wish it 
distinctly borne in mind, in order to ensure success, that it is 
not sufficient, in the use of this remedy in the treatment of 
violent attacks of acute disease, as well as in chronic cases, to 
simply produce a cathartic effect upon the bowels, but the 
action must be promoted until the evacuations show that the 
morbid accumulations are expelled, and the secretions evince 
a more healthy appearance, Podophyllin is sometimes very 
tardy in its operation, not acting under eighteen or twenty 
hours, and frequently it will operate more freely during the 
second twenty-four hours than during the first. In cases of 


cnroiiic disorders of the liver, spleen, and other viscera 
considerable pain will frequently be experienced in the diseased 
organ during the operation of the medicine. Sometimes the 
pain will be in the liver, at others in the spleen, again in the 
kidneys, in the back of the neck and head, in the pleura 
intercostales, etc., but these sjTnptoms will subside with the 
operation of the medicine,and are favorable indications, showing 
that the remedy is at work arousing the dormant energies of 
the system. 

The average cathartic dose of Podophyllin is two GRAINS* 
An emeto-cathartic dose, from three to five grains, although 
ONE or TWO grains will frequently vomit. As an alterative, 
from one-eighth to one-half of one grain. In combining 
it with other agents of similar properties, the quantities admit 
of some reduction.>JIf much pain or griping is experienced 
during its operation, it may generally be readily relieved by 
administering freely of warm ginger tea. When, however^ 
the pain is obstinately seated in the small intestines, it will be 
relieved only by a motion of the bowels, and upon observing 
the character of the discharge, it will be found to consist, in 
most cases, of a clear, jelly-like substance, plastic lymph, 
which is the material of which the false membrane that fre- 
quently lines the small intestines is formed. The pain will 
abate as soon as this matter is expelled. 7-— 

In case Podophyllin be taken by mistake, or in over-doses, 
it is readily counteracted by lactic acid, the most ready source 
of which is sour milk, or buttermilk, which should be freely 


Derived from Myrica Cerifera. 

Nat. Ord — Myricaceoz. 

Sex. Syst. — Dimeia Tetrandria. 

Common Names. — Bayberry, Tallow Berry, Wax Myrtl^ 
Wax Berry, Candle Berry, etc. 

Part Used. — Bark of the Boot. 

No. of Principles. — Two, viz., resinoid and tannin. 

Properties. — Alterative, astringent, stimulant ', diuretic 
antispasmodic, and anti-syphilitic. 

Employment. — Apthous affections, scrofula, diarrhea 
dysentery, jaundice, leucorrhea ) catarrh, polypus, fistula, 
suppression- of urine, to allay false labor pains, burn, chan- 
cres and whenever a stimulating astringent is needed. 

Few of the simple agents of the materia medica are of more 
practical and frequent utility than the Myricin. We class it 
among the simpler agencies, because, while it possesses specific 
and decided therapeutic properties, it is entirely innoxious in 
itself. With the exception of a mild diuretic action, it is never 
visibly evacuant, except in very large doses, when it some- 
times proves emetic. 

Amongst the affections in which the Myricin ha? been found 
peculiarly serviceable, we may first mention apthous affections 
of the mucous surfaces. It is valuable both as a local and as a 


constitutional remedy. Lr the various forms of stomatitis, 
ulcerative sore throat, nursing sore mouth, and ulcerations of 
*lie stomach and bowels, it has proved of great utility. The 
average dose for internal administration is three grains, which, 
in bad cases, may be repeated every three hours. Locally, it 
may be used in the form of a gargle, one drachm to half a 
pint of boiling water. It is usual to combine it with other 
astringents, Rhusin being the bust for the purpose. They may 
be combined in equal proportions. If desirable to avoid con- 
stipation, it should be alternated with Leptandrin, Juglandin, 
etc. In painful ulcerative affections of the stomach and 
bow T els, it may be advantageously combined with Lupulin, 
equal parts, and from three to five grains exhibited once in 
three hours, in warm water. 

Myricin has obtained considerable repute in the treatment 
of scrofula. It is an efficient alterative, and its peculiar stimu- 
lant properties are exceedingly appropriate in the cold and 
languid conditions characteristic of that disease. It should be 
given in doses of from three to five grains three times per 
day. It is necessary to obviate its astringent effects when 
used as an alterative, for which purpose it may be combined 
with such laxatives as the judgment of the practitioner may 
dictate at the time, although we much prefer alternation. TVe 
consider it better practice to employ the Myricin alone during 
the day, and to exhibit a suitable dose of Podophyllin, Lep- 
tandrin, or other cathartic or laxative at bed time. Externally, 
the Myricin is applied to scrofulous ulcers, the surfaces of 
which may be sprinkled over with it, or it may be applied by 
means of a poultice. In the same manner it is an excellent 
stimulant to old and indolent ulcers. In solution, it is employed 
as an injection in scrofulous, mammary, and other abscesses. 
y^ In diarrhea and dysentery, Myricin is employed with great 
benefit, but not until the morbid accumulations have been 
expelled and the functions of the liver regulated. It may 
then be administered in doses of two grains every one to 
three hours, until the discharges are controlled. In these com- 
plaints it may be joined to the Geranin, or Rhusin, etc. To 



increase its stimulant properties, with Xanthoxylin. In the 
diarrhea of phthisis pulmonalis, and when the system has 
been exhausted by profuse colliquitive discharges, with 
Fraserin, as follows: 

Myricin « 

Fraserin aa. 3 j 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose — One every two to 
four hours. 

Myricin has been found serviceable in jaundice, in which 
complaint it may be combined with Apocynin, or Leptandrin, 
or Euonymin, etc. Enough of the adjunctive agent should 
be added to overcome the astringency of the Myricin. 

Myricin is much employed in leucorrhea, though mostly as 
a local remedy >J^One drachm may be infused in a pint of 
boiling water, and used in suitable quantities as an enema. 
For the relief of fetid leucorrheal discharges, ONEfdrachm _ 
each, of Myricin and Baptism should be infused in a pint of 
boiling water, and used as an injection, alternated with a solu- 
tion of chloride of lime, one ounce to a quart of cold water. 
— Myricin, used as a snuff, will relieve catarrh, and has been 
found beneficial in some forms of nasal polypus. In the latter 
affection, it may be rendered more efficient by combining it 
with Sanguinarin. 

In solution, Myricin is employed as an injection, to 
promote the healing of fistulous openings after they have been 
converted into simple ulcers by the use of suitable remedies. 
It will be found reliable for this purpose when the parts are 
tardy in healing. 

We have found the Myricin effectual in relieving suppres- 
sion of the urine, for which purpose we usually employ it in 
the form of an enema. From one-half to one drachm may 
be administered in SIX ounces of warm water, .the patient 
retaining it 'as long as possible. If the first should not be 


retained a sufficient length of time, repeat until the desired 
effect is produced. To render it more effectual, from ON r E- 
, alf to ONE ounce of the Wine Tincture of Lobeli.-i may be 



added to each injection. The same will be found admirable 
tor relieving the pain and promoting the expulsion of renal 
calculi. While using the above, the Myricin may be admin- 
istered internally, in doses of five grains every two hours, in 
warm water. To add to its efficacy it may be joined with 

But perhaps the most remarkable feature of the Myricin is 
its power, in connection with Lobelia, of allaying false labor 
paii is. The peculiar therapeutic property here manifested is 
the result of the combination. Neither will answer the pur- 
pose alone. As soon as the pains are ascertained to be 
spasmodic, place the patient in bed, and administer the fol- 


Myricin ..... g rs . xv. 

Wine Tine. Lobelia - - 3 ss. 

Boiling Water - - - 3 j. 

Add the Myricin to the boiling water, and after a few minutes 
the Tine. Lobelia. Exhibit at one dose, and repeat in two 
hours, if necessary. "^This will seldom or never disappoint 
the practitioner, and rarely is a second dose necessary. It 
allays the pains, quiets the nervous system, and postpones 
parturition to the proper period. Delivery will frequently be 
delayed from one to four weeks, and the matured energies of 
the system will then ensure a safe and easy accouchment. 
s Myricin is an excellent application to burns after the pain 
and inflammation has measurably subsided. Applied in time, 
it heals them without suppuration. For this purpose it is best 
dissolved in alcohol, from two to four drachms to the pint. 
Apply cloths wetted with the tincture. 

In the treatment of mild chancres, the Myricin will be found 
efficient as a local application in a majority of cases. Fill the 
sore with the dry Myricin, and dress with cold water. Renew 
twice or thrice a day. Internally, Myricin is of great utility in 
the treatment of syphilitic infections, possessing considerable 
poAver in itself as an anti-syphilitic, as well as promoting the 
action of other alteratives. In this disease it should be given 




in doses of five grains three times a day, and persevered in 
for a length, of time, alternated with an occasional dose of 
Podophyllin. In all languid and cankered conditions of the 
stomach and bowels, the Myricin is admirably calculated to 
arouse the latent forces of the system, detach false membranous 
formations, and promote the action of auxiliary remedies. 
To prepare the stomach, and facilitate the operation of emetics, 
there is nothing better than Myricin. Administer in plenty 
of warm water. ^In cases of atony of the digestive apparatus 
and general debility, the Myricin will be found one of the 
most serviceable agents in the range of the materia medica. 


* . 

««*« »M, 


Derived from Euonymus Americanns. 

Nat. Ord. — Celastracece. 

Sex. Sy st. — Pentandria Monogynid. 

Common Names — Wahoo, Burning Bush, Spindle Tree, 
Indian Arrow Wood, etc. 

Part Used— The Bark 

No. of Principles — three, viz., Resinoid, neutral, and 

Properties — Tonic, laxative, alterative, and expectorant. 

Employment — Dyspepsia, constipation, dropsy, hepatic 
torpor, and affections of the respiratory system. 

In medicinal doses, Euonymin is laxative, tonic, alterative, 
expectorant, and feebly diuretic. It is also accredited with a 
degree of anti-periodic power. In very large doses it proves 
a drastic cathartic, its operation being attended with a death- 
like nausea, excessive tormina, prostration, and cold sweats. 
The dejections from the bowels are violent, profuse, and 
accompanied with much flatus. From these symptoms, how- 
ever, the patient soon recovers. 

We esteem the Euonymin a remedy of great value. In the 

treatment of indigestion arising from hepatic torpor, it will be 

iound of excellent service. It is powerfully tonic, and while it 

deterges and resolves viscid deposits, and promotes the various 



secretions, it imparts a decided arid permanent tone to the 
various functions. The average dose of the Euonyminis TWO 
grains. This quantity may be given twice or thrice a day a? 
occasion requires. It may be joined with other tonics when 
desired, as the, Hydrastin, Fraserin, etc., or with anti- 
spasmodics and nervines, as the Cypripedin, Caulophyllin, 
Lupulin, Scutellarin, etc. When a stimulant is needed, with 
Xanthoxylin, and in some cases of scrofula, torpor of the 
lacteals, and syphilitic diseases, with Myricin. 

For the relief of obstinate constipation of the bowels, the 
. Euonymin is one of the most reliable agents we possess. It 
is not as prompt as many other laxatives in its operation, 
some two or three days frequently elapsing before it manifests 
any effect upon the system, but it makes amends for its tardi- 
ness by the permanency of its influence. In order to effect a 
radical cure, the Euonymin must be persevered with, in mode- 
rate doses, for a considerable length of time. It operates 
slowly but surely. 

Euonymin has been found useful in the treatment of dropsy, 
in which complaint it proves efficacious by reason of its resol- 
vent, diuretic, and tonic properties. Its diuretic influence is 
more secondary than primary, being the result of increased 
absorption. It is of great utility in dropsy, after the effusions 
hare been removed, for the purpose of toning up the system 
and preventing a return. This it accomplishes by maintaining 
the integrity of the secretive action of the system. Although 
not, in the proper sense, a diaphoretic, it promotes the depu- 
rr.tive action of the skin, and this, together with its laxative 
power, renders it valuable for the prevention and removal of 
serous exudations. 

In the treatment of hepatic torpor, we have, in the Euony- 
min, a remedy deserving of much confidence. It may be 
combined with any other agent or agents that the judgment 
of the practitioner may deem indicated, or may be alternated 
with such auxiliaries as the necessity of the case demands. 
We prefer the latter course. In indigestion arising from 
hepatic torpor, and accompanied with acidity, the Juglandin 


will be found an excellent adjunctive, of which two parts 
may be combined with one of Euonymin. 

Euonymin is an excellent remedy in affections of the respi- 
ratory apparatus, as bronchitis, laryingitis, coughs, colds, 
influenza, and incipient phthisis. Asthma arising from a 
■disordered action of the liver may be most effectually cured 
by means of the Euonymin. In pneumonia, as soon as the 
■inflammatory symptoms are subdued, the Euonymin operates 
admirably as an expectorant, promoting at the same time the 
depurative action of the skin, kidneys, and bowels, thui/ 
relieving the lungs by promoting the expulsion of effete 
matter through the proper channels, and imparting tone to the 
•digestive and assimilative apparatus. Hectic fever is fre- 
quently arrested by means of the Euonymin, and chronic 
•cases of intermittent fever have been cured by a persevering 
use of the *same remedy, thus seeming to entitle it to the 
appellation of anti-periodic. In the treatment of coughs, 
colds, and influenza, it is better to give the Euonymin in small 
and oft-repeated doses, say half a grain every two hours. 
The same course answers well in pneumonia. In the treat- 
ment of the form of asthma above mentioned, the use of the 
Euonymin should be preceded by a thorough dose of Podo- 

As a laxative and tonic, from TWO to FOUR grains may be 
given. As an expectorant, from ONE-FOURTH to ONE grain. 
In chronic disease, the system should first be cleansed with 



Derivation, properties, and employment, same as the 
Euonymin. Contains all the virtues of the bark in a concen- 
trated and reliable form. Average dose, four drops. Con- 
venient for adding to mixtures, and for combining with other 
of the concentrated tinctures. Said to be of some efficacy as 
a vermifuge, for which purpose it may be joined with the Con. 
Tine. Chelone Glabra, or Apocynum Cannabinum. It will 
prove a desirable adjunctive, on account of its laxative and 
tonic properties. Combined with the Con.. Tine. Xan- 
thoxylum Frax., will be found useful in torpor of the lacteals. 
Convenient and useful as an expectorant, in coughs, colds, 
influenza, asthma, phthisis, pleuritis, pneumonia, etc., in dosea 
of ONE drop every hour or two, as may be necessary. 


Derived from Erigeron Canadense. 

Nat. Ord. — Aster acece. 

Sex. Syst. — Synyenesia Super jiaa. 

Common Names. — Fire Weed., Canada Fleaban-,, Coif 9 
Tail, Scabious, etc. 

Part Used. — The Plant. 

Properties. — Astringent, styptic, and diuretic. 

Employment. — Uterine hemorrhage, hemoptysis, hemaloy- 
mesis, hematuria, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, uterine leu- 
aorrhea, gonorrhea, gravel, and other affections of the urinary 
■apparatus. Locally, in rheumatic affections, enlargement of 
the tonsils, neuralgia, spinal irritation, etc. 

The Oil of Erigeron is, in our estimation, the most valuable 
remedy of its class. Although not a specific, it is undoubt- 
edly the best agent we possess for the relief of uterine hemor- 
rhage. The dose of the oil in these cases is from five to 
ten drops, repeated once in from thirty to sixty minutes, 
according to the urgency of the symptoms. It will act more 
promptly, being rendered more diffusible, by being previously 
dissolved in alcohol. In addition to internal adninistration, 
it may also be applied locally with the best results. A case 
occurred under the observation of the writer over twenty 
years ago, in which the patient, from excessive loss of blood, 


was reduced to a comatose condition, and incapable of swal* 
lowing. V A piece of cotton wool, saturated with the oil, was 
introduced into the vagina and placed in close juxtaposition 
with the mouth of the uterus, when an instantaneous stop was 
-i put to the bloody flow. "^ The patient is still living, in good 
health, having attained the age of sixty- three years. During 
the past season we were consulted in a similar case, in which 
we advised the adoption of the above plan, and with complete 

Auxiliary agents may be employed in connection with the 
oil, if deemed advisable. The Myriciri, Lycopin, Trilliin, 
Geranin and Hamamelin are all good, and may be given in 
suitable doses in warm water. An infusion of Avens root, 
Geum Hivale, answers an excellent purpose. In passive 
hemorrhages, Cerasein, or the Oil of Capsicum, will answer 
the best purpose. One drop of the Oil of Capsicum should 
be given with eacn dose of the Erigeron. 

For hemoptysis, we alternate the oil with Lycopin. If the 
condition of the stomach does not contra-indicate, we use the 
oil in the following manner : 

Oil Erigeron Canad gtt.xv 

White Sugar 3 i j 

Water § ij 

Triturate the oil thoroughly with the sugar, and add the water* 
If sufficient care be exercised, the oil will be completely sus- 
pended in the water. If the hemorrhage is severe, give one 
teaspoonful every ten or fifteen minutes, until it is arrested^ 
and then at intervals of from two to four hours. As soon as 
the urgent symptoms are allayed, in order to effect a radical 
cure, alternate with Lycopin, giving a dose of the oil morning 
and evening, and from two to five grains of the Lycopin at 
noon and at bed time. Or better, make a solution of the 
Lycopin, fifteen grains to four ounces of warm water, and let. 
the patient take a tablespoonful once in three hours. If dia- 
phoretics are needed, combine the Lycopin with Asclepin. To 


oLviate the astringent effects upon the bowels, Leptandrin, 
Kdonymin, Hydrastin, Podophyiiin, Menispermin, etc., may 
he employed. 

^ In the treatment of hernatamesis, small doses of the oil fre- 
quently repeated, will answer a better purpose. Prepared a3 
above directed, we employ it in this affection, and in hematu- 
ria, menorrhagia, and dysmenorrhea. In the latter two com- 
plaints we have made much use of it, and with the most gra- 
tifying success. It allays the spasmodic pains accompanying 
dysmenorrhea, and restrains, without suppressing the men- 
strual flow, when too profuse. One teaspoonful of the above 
preparation of the oil may be given every one, two, or three 
hours, according to the urgency of the symptoms. When 
gastiic derangement forbids the use of sugar, the oil may be 
dissolved in alcohol and mixed with water, or exhibited in 
mucilage of gum arabic, or slippery elm. Or it may be formed 
into pills with bread, or any other suitable excipient. 

Oil of Erigeron exercises considerable control over the heart 
and arterial system, acting as a sedative. We have found it 
serviceable in allaying pa^itation of the heart, particularly 
when arising from uterine irritation. From two to five drops 
may be administered at a time, and repeated as occasion 
requires. The remarkable sanative influences exercised by 
this agent on the uterine system, gives it a wide range of em- 
ployment. In combination with Oil of Stillingia, we have 
used it with remarkable success in the relief of those peculiar 
headaches accompanying defective menstruation. 

Oil Erigeron - - - 
" Stillingia aa. 3j. 

Mix. Dose — two drops, three times per day. This has 
answered our purpose when other remedies failed. The same 
combination will be found of service in uterine leucorrhea, 
and in gonorrhea. J We have used the Oil of Erigeron alone 
in gonorrhea, with the most marked and beneficial results. 
It may be added to the mixtures used in that complaint, 

264 CONCENTRATED MEDICINES PROPER. we prefer to administer it alone, usually giving it 
twice a da}^ in the morning and at bed time. It allays the 
scalding of the urine, and assists materially in cutting sriort 
the disease. It is of much service in inflammation of the 
kidneys and bladder, and in gravelly affections. It harmonises 
and gives tone to the functions of both the uterine and urinary 
apparatus. Its diuretic power consists more in an alterative 
property, regulating rather than increasing the secretion of 

Locally, we have used the Oil of Erigeron in a variety of 
complaints, and with the most beneficial results. As an appli- 
cation to inflamed aid enlarged tonsils, and inflammation and 
ulceration of the throat generally, this remedy has few supe- 
riors. For the purpose of applying to the tonsils, it should be 

' dissolved in alcohol, in the proportion of ONE drachm of the 
oil to from one to two ounces of alcohol. Apply with a 
probang two or three times a da}'-. "We also apply it to the 
throat, externally, at the same time, for which purpose we 
dissolve one ounce of the oil in from eight to sixteen 
ounces of alcohol, according to the degree of stimulation 
desired. Bathe the throat freely several times a day, or wet a 

. cloth in the tincture and bind on the partsA If there is much 
swelling and inflammation, over the cloth so wetted apply the 
cold water bandage. This application will produce a burning 
sensation of the skin, much resembling that produced by 
Capsicum, but will not vesicate. \ This liniment will ako be 
found excellent as an application to other local inflammations, 
as painful tumors, rheumatic swellings, spinal irritation, chil- 
blains, etc. \ We have frequently applied the pure oil with 
excellent effect in sciatica, neuralgia, rheumatism, etc. Jt is 
powerfully rubefacient, but we never remember to have seen 
it vesicate. \ We mention this fact, as we have seen it stated 
by some writers that it is too acrid for topical use. 

In syphilitic ulcerations of the throat, after the use of proper 
caustics, we know of no better application for allaying *he 
inflammation and promoting the healing of the ulcers. For 
this purpose, ONE part of the Oil should be dissolved in fjx»m 


FOUR to eight of alcohol. The same will be found of service 
as an application to indolent ulcers, and certain forms of 
cutaneous eruptions. 

The Oil dissolved in alcohol, one drachm of the former to 
TWO ounces of the latter, has been found serviceable for the 
purposes of inhalation in hemoptysis and other affections of 
the respiratory organs. One drachm of the above tincture, 
added to one pint of water, and evaporated in a suitable ves- 
sel, will answer for several inhalations. It is excellent where 
there is a tendency to hemorrhage, and where the air surfaces 
are extremely susceptible to the differences in temperature of 
the air inhaled. In the latter stages of phthisis, and in pneu- 
monia, asthma etc., much benefit will be derived from this 
inhalation. It stimulates secretion, while it relaxes and soothes 
the nervea, 

• ;, *rfc^i; • *V&*9$fia$? 

'.'- ""'.■; -'■-.^■.■•.■7 : - : * : .V*^". : - ' 



Derived from Alnus Iiubra y (A. Serrulata of Willdenow.y 
Nat. Ord. — Betulacem. 
Sex. Syst. — Jfonoscia Tetrandria. 
Common Names. — Tag Alder, Swamp Alder, etc. 
Part Used.— -The Bark. 

No. of Principles.— £Ar<?<3, viz., resin, resinoid, and neutral 
Properties. — Alterative, resolvent, tonic and sub-astringent 
Employment. — Scrofula, eruptions of the skin, rheumatism^ 
syphilis, and whenever an alterative is required. 

The Alnuin is chiefly valuable as an alterative, resolvent, 
and tonic, its astringent properties Being but feeble, and in no 
wise interfering with its properties as an alterative. We have 
been familiar with the employment of the Alnus and its pre- 
parations for many years, and our experience enables us to- 
speak in very decided terms as regards its therapeutic value. 
We esteem it one of the best simple alteratives and resolvents 
possible to be employed in scrofula, cutaneous eruptions, and 
in all affections arising from a vitiated condition of the blood 
and fluids. In order to reap the full value of the Alnuin, its 
use must be persevered in for a considerable length of time, 
and we deem alternation preferable to combination, when it is 
desirable to employ auxiliary alteratives. It is slow, but certain 


in its operation, resolving viseid deposits, promoting secretion 
oud depuration, increasing the appetite, and giving tone to the 
digestive apparatus. Although not strictly a diuretic, it never- 
theless exercises a peculiar alterative influence over the kid- 
neys and urinary apparatus generally, hence is valuable in the 
treatment of chronic rheumatism, erysipelas, gonorrhea, gleet, 
syphilis, gravel, catarrh of the bladder, etc. The average 
dose of the Alnuin is three grains, three times per day. In 
many cases the dose may be advantageously increased to ten 
grains. It seldom or never offends the stomach, hence is pecu- 
liarly serviceable in the treatment of patients possessed of a 
very susceptible organisation. It is appropriate and useful in 
the convalescing stages of acute diseases, as it obviates the 
plasticity of the secretions, and at the same time promotes the 
appetite, digestion, and depuration, thus manifesting the 
powers of a general tonic. 

When combinations are desired, they should be made com- 
patible with the existing necessities. Thus, in rheumatism, the 
Alnuin may be joined with Macrotin, as follows : 


Alnuin 3 ss. 

Macrotin grs. v. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. Dose — One, three times a 
day, or with Phytolacin : 


Alnuin 2)ij. 

Phytolacin 3 j. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Dose — same as above. 
In scrofula it may be desirable to join it with more decided 
tonics. If laxative properties are indicated, with Euonymin 
or Hydrastin. 

Alnuin ........ 3j 

Euonymin _. grs, x. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. 



Hydrastin aa. 3 ij. 

Mix and divide into twenty powders. Dose of either — one 

powder three times a day. When the simple tonics are indi- 
cated, as in the convalescing stages of dysentery, diarrhea, 
cholera, etc, Fraserin, or Cornin, or Cerasein, will be appropri- 
ate. If astringent tonics are required, in order to control a 
tendency to diarrhea, the Myricin, or Rhusin, or Lycopin, or 
Trilliin should be employed. In the treatment of scrofulous 
and indolent ulcers, eruptions of the skin, rheumatism, etc., 
Xanthoxylin will be found a most valuable adjunctive. 

In cases of general debility, particularly of the aged, the 
Alnuin will be found peculiarly serviceable. While it is Dot 
perceptibly evacuant, it nevertheless imparts a healthful impe- 
tus to the various functions of the system, proving itself a 
true constitutional alterative. Of course the dose must be 
regulated according to the age, sex, and condition of the 
patient, the chief consideration being to give enough to bring 
them fully under its influence. When the liver is involved 
in the existing difficulty, the judicious use of Podophyllin, 
Leptandrin, Juglandin, etc., will much facilitate the cure; and 
in all cases, when the liver is primarily deranged, should not 
only precede, but be occasionally alternated with the Alnuin. 



Ptmed from Viburnum Opulus. (V. Oxy 'coccus. Pursh.) 

Nat. Ord. — Caprifolidcece. 

Sex. Syst. — Pentandricc Trigynia. 

Common Names.— -Hig h Cranberry ', Cramp Baric, etc. 

Part Used. — The Baric. 

No. of Principles, four, /iz., resinoid, two resins and 

Properties. — Anti-spasmodic, inti-periodic, expectorant, 
alterative and tonic. 

Employment. — Cramps, spasms, convulsions, asthma, hys- 
teria, chorea, intermittent fever, pneumonia, dysmenorrhea y 
to prevent abortion, and to relieve after-pains. 

The Yiburnin is a safe, certain, and reliable anti-spasmodic, 
for which, property it is chiefly valuable. For the relief of 
cramps and spasmodic pains, no matter from what cause they 
arise, we know of no remedy of so great general utility. It 
exercises a wonderful control over muscular fibre, and acts 
with great promptitude. Although in small doses it is 
esteemed a tonic, yet we know that in full doses, and continued 
for fl. few days, it will most effectually relax the nervous sys- 
tem, and render physical exertion somewhat of a task. 


The average dose of the Yiburnin is two grains, although 
admitting of being increased to ten grains with advantage, 
and of being repeated at intervals of from twenty to sixty 
minutes until the desired effect is produced. We have used 
the Viburnin quite extensively, and esteem it an almost indis- 
pensible agent of the materia medica. Cramping pains in 
the limbs, whether arising from the irritation produced by a 
gravid uterus, or from a fracture of the bone, or in females 
past the turn of life, and yet troubled with some uterine dis- 
turbance, are more generally and radically relieved by the 
Viburnin than any other remedy, the Grelsemin, perhaps, 
excepted. iFor the cramps with which females are afflicted 
during the period of utero-gestation, it is a safe and certain 
iemedy. For the cramping pains sometimes occurring as 
sequents to the fractures of bones, we have found it equally 
efficacious. In asthma and pneumonia, as well as in intermit- 
tent fever, it seems of much, service, not only correcting the 
plastic condition of the blood, relaxing or preventing muscu- 
lar spasm, and acting as an expectorant, but also seeming to 
manifest considerable anti-periodic power, and so prolonging 
the remissions, and lessening the tendency to a return. In 
dysmenorrhea we have used it with the most decidedly bene- 
ficial results, both alone and in combination with other agents, 
For the relief of after pains it is equally beneficial. When 
abortion is threatened, as the result of over exertion or mental 
excitement, we have, in the Yiburnin, one of the most reliable 
remedies for its "prevention. It allays false labor pains, relaxes 
spasm, and soothes' and harmonises the action of the nervous 
system. The patient should be brought as quickly as possible 
under its influence, and perfect quiet enjoined. Notwithstand- 
ing its peculiar control over spasm, we have never found it to« 
interfere with true labor pains. We have frequently made 
use of it during parturition, when the pains were scattered, 
extending to the thighs and knees, and with the most bene- 
ficial results. 

Yiburnin admits of many combinations, most of which will 
readily suggest themselves to the practitioner. For dysmcu- 


-orrhea and after pains, the following 13 our favorite formula : 

Viburnin .. 

Caulophyllin aa.3j 

Gelsemin grs. v. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose — one, every two 
-hours, or, in severe cases, every hour, until relieved. This 
will be found one of the most effective combinations that can 
; possibly be made. 

In order to render permanent the good results produced by 
Viburnin, it is advisable to follow with tonics, as soon as a 
remission of the symptoms for which it was exhibited occurs. 
' The list embraced in this volume will afford an opportunity 
for a judicious selection. Quinine, iron, etc., may also bo em- 
ployed at the discretion of the practitioner. 

Viburnin has been found remarkably efficacious in relieving 
the pains accompanying diarrhea, dysentery, and cholera 
morbus, and also in flatulent and other forms of colic. For 
use in these complaints it may be joined with Asclepin, or 
Caulophyllin, or Gelsemin. It will increase the anti-spas- 
modic power of Dioscorein, and may be joined with it in the. 
treatment oT bilious colic. When a tonic is indicated, Frase- 
rin will be found to operate remarkably well in connection 
with the Viburnin. Finally, as an anti-spasmodic, Viburnin 
may be relied upon in all cases with confidence, and will 
seldom disappoint the expectations of the practitioner. It 
^possesses no narcotic r roperty whatever. ■ 


Derived from Comus Florida. 

Nat. Ord. — Comacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Dogwood, Boxwood, Flowering Cornel 

No. of Principles — two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Tonic, stimulant, anti-periodic and astringent 

Employment. — Intermittent and other fevers, indigestion, 
debility, and the convalescing stages #f many acute diseases. 

As a tonic, the Cornin ranks high in the estimation of all 
who have employed it. Its anti-periodic power renders it of 
peculiar value in the treatment of intermittent and other 
periodic fevers. "We nave employed it with much success in 
the cure of fever and ague, either alone, or joined with 
Macrotin and Xanthoxylin. The average dose of the Cornin 
is three grains, but may be increased to TEN" grains in some 
cases with advantage. The Cornin will be tolerated by the 
Btomach when other tonics are rejected. By many it is 
esteemed a reliable substitute for quinine, but this opinion, 


perhaps, needs some qualification. It is certain that Cornin 
has cured fever and ague when quinine had failed, and that in 
all cases where the latter cannot be employed, in consequence 
of a peculiar idiosyncracy, the Cornin answers admirably as a 
substitute. It is certainly one of the best native substitutes 
we have for the bark. 

When the system is brought under the influence of Cornin, 
the pulse is accelerated, the temperature ot the skin is elevated, 
and tonicity is imparted to the functions of the system gene- 
rally. In the treatment of ague and fever, the system should 
be properly prepared for the influence of tonics by the judi- 
cious use of Podophyllin and Leptandrin, and, as soon as a 
distinct remission occurs, the Cornin then administered in 
doses of from three to five grains every three hours, until 
the paroxysmal stage is passed, and then continued at longer 
intervals for three or four days, in order to guard against a 
return. ' Acidity of the stomach, if excessive, must be duly 
neutralised in order to reap the full value of the Cornin. We 
have frequently used the Cornin in combination with Macro- 
tin and Xanthoxylin, with excellent effect, as follows : 

Cornin grs.xx 

Xanthoxylin grs. x. 

Macrotin grs. v. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose — One, every three 
hours. In quotidian ague, the doses should be repeated every 
two hours. The quantity of Macrotin must be regulated 
according to the ability of the patient to bear it. Cornin is 
most successful in the cure of fevers when the remissions are 
marked and distinct, hence, if they are obscure, perfect 
remissions must be induced by the use of Gelsemin, Yeratrin, 
etc., and the Cornin then employed as above directed. 

Although Cornin does not possess the power of directly 
neutralising acidity of the stomach, yet it is of exceeding utility 
in those cases of indigestion in which that symptom is a trou- 
blesome feature. It gives almost immediate relief in that 
distressing symptom called heart-burn ; and its continued use 



will prove a sure prevention of its recurrence, by restoring the 
tone of the stomach, and so obviating the tendency to ferment* 
ation. Combined with Juglandin, equal parts, it will prove 
more effective still. From five to ten grains of the mixture 
may be taken three times per day. We often advise it to be 
taken immediately after each meal, as in the case of the 
Populin, and with the most beneficial results. 

In general debility, and in the convalescing stages of acute 
diseases, the Cornin may be used for all the purposes of a 
general tonic. Its astringent properties are feeble, and will 
seldom interfere with its general employment. When a lax- I 
ative property is needed, we have found it to act admirably in 
connection with Leptandrin. They may be alternated, using 
the Cornin during the day, and the Leptandrin at night, or the 
two may be combined, if desired. The difficulty, in the latter 
instance, is with the Leptandrin, which, if put up in papers, or 
in any way exposed to the air, absorbs moisture and hard* 
ens. We usually mix the two intimately together, and put 
them into a tightly corked vial, directing the patient to take 
as much as will lie upon a three, five, or ten cent piece, as the 
case may be. True, this is not a very precise way 01 prescribing, 
but with medicines so innoxious as these, a grain or two more 
or less can create no serious disturbance. When preferred, they 
may be formed into pills. 

Cornin has gained considerable repute in the cure of leu- 
corrhea, and, as a general tonic, we have found it Oi much 
efficacy in disorders of the female system. In this complaint 
it may be used in connection with Helonin, or Senecin, or 
Trilliin, etc. In all cases in which an anti-periodic tonic is 
indicated, the Cornin may at all times be relied upon as 
amongst the most efficient of its class. 

We desire, in this connection, to direct the attention of the 
profession to the important difference between the Cornin, of 
which we have been speaking, and an article of Cornine put 
forth by certain manufacturers, and which is represented as 
being, " probably, a mixture of resin and insoluble alkaloid." 
A few lines in advance, in the work from which we quote, 


we are told, in speaking of the Cornus Florida bark, that 
u water or alcohol extracts its virtues." The wisdom here 
-displayed is, tons, unfathomable. If "water" will "extract 
its virtues, can the active principle of the bark be * a mixture 
of resin and insoluble alkaloid ?' " If so, can the water " ex- 
tract " it, as the alkaloid is represented as being " insoluble," 
while the resin is equally so, as is demonstrated by the method 
employed to obtain it, viz., by precipitation of the alcoholic 
solution by means of water. Not only so, but the "resin 1 
and " insoluble alkaloid" are "mixed," hence more completely 
"*' insoluble." The truth is, the active principles of the bark 
are two in number, consisting of a resinoid and a neutral prin- 
ciple. The latter is the principal and most valuable active 
constituent of the bark, and is completely soluble in water. 
This principle it is, in common with that of many other plants, as 
we have previously had occasion to demonstrate, that incompe- 
tent organic chemists throw away with the water from which 
they have "precipitated" their probable active constituents. We 
-see, therefore, that water will extract a part of the virtues of 
the bark only, and that strong alcohol is required to extract 
the remainder, that is, the resinoid principle. We confess to 
being somewhat particular upon this point, as the properties 
and uses of the Cornin, as we have already detailed them, are 
the result of clinical observation in the use of the two com- 
bined principles of the bark, and our reputation as a truthful 
writer would be jeopardised by applying our remarks to any 
"probable mixture of resin and insoluble alkaloid." 


Derived from Rumex Crispus. 

Nat Ord. — Polygonacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Hexcm&ria Tetragynia. 

Common Names. — Yellow Dock, Sour Dock, etc. 

Part Used. — The Root. 

No. of Principles — two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, resolvent, detergent, anti-scorbutie t 
and mildly astringent and laxative, much like Khubarb. 

Employment. — Scrofula, rheumatism, scorbutus, salt 
rheum, leucorrhea, syphilis, cutaneous eruptions, etc. 

As an alterative, the Eumin is deservedly held in high re- 
pute, and is of general and extensive employment in a great 
variety of diseases. It proves most efficient, however, in 
scrofula, syphilis, and diseases of the skin. It operates kindly 
and without excitement, beiDg slow but sure in promoting a 
healthful action of the depurating functions of the system. 
Its laxative properties are not displayed, except when given 
in large doses, and not even then if a considerable degree of 
hepatic torpor exist. It will be necessary, therefore, to use, 
in Buch cases, suitable laxatives in connexion with the Rumin. 


When used to an extent sufficient to affect the bowels sensibly 
it reacts mildly astringent, hence is frequently employed in 
those cases wherein rhubarb is indicated, as in the asthenic 
forms of diarrhea and dysentery, and in the diarrhea of 
phthisis. The average dose of the Rumin is three grains, 
subject to such variations as the circumstances of the case 
may warrant. 

Rum in is seldom employed alone, but generally in connec- 
tion with other alteratives, or with tonics or laxatives, except 
in the cases above mentioned. In scrofula it is combined 
with Ampelopsin, Smilacin, Myricin, Alnuin, etc. In 
rheumatism, with Macrotin, Sanguinarin, Xan thoxylin, Phy- 
tolacin, etc. In scorbutus, with Citrate of Iron, Quinine, 
Myricin, Oil of Erigeron, etc. In salt rheum, with Stillingin, 
Leptandrin, Podophyllin, etc., as for all skin diseases. For 
syphilis, with Corydalin, Ampelopsin, Phytolacin, Smilacin, 
etc. In leucorrhea, with Helonin, or Trilliin, or Senecin. In 
short, the suitability of combinations must be determined by 
the necessities of the case in hand. 


Derived from Caulophyllum Thalictroidea. 

Nat. Ord — Berberidacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Hexandria Monogynia 

Common Names. — Blue CoJwsh, Squaw Root, etc 

Part Used. — The Boot, . 

No. of Principles. — Two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Antispasmodic, alterative, tonic, emmena* 
gogue, 'parturifacient, diaphoretic^ diuretic, and vermifuge. 

Employment. — Amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia y 
leucorrhea, gonorrhea, to promote delivery, after-pams^ 
dyspepsia, rheumatism, dropsy, hooping cough, hic-cough y 
hysteria, hysteritis, apthous sore mouth, to expel worms, etc. 

Caulophyllin is a remedy of frequent and extended 
utility. Not only is it of almost universal application in the 
treatment of the diseases peculiar to females, but also in a 
variety of other affections, both on account of its own remedial 
properties, and as an agent for modifying the action of other 
medicines. The average dose of the Caulophyllin is three 
grains. When used for the purposes of an anti-spasmodic, 
from FIVE to ten grains may be given with advantage. This 
quantity may be repeated every hour or two with perfect 
safety, and, indeed, in many cases, it will be requisite to do so 


m order to accomplish the end in view. Thus, in hysteric and 
other convulsions, cramp in the stomach, and other spasmodic 
affections, if this agent be relied upon alone, it will be requisite* 
to give it in full and repeated doses. 

Caulophyllin is a remedy combining a number and variety 
of therapeutic properties, or at least capable of producing a 
change of action in a variety of morbid conditions, which 
change results in the restoration of a physiological condition. 
Amenorrhea, that is, simple amenorrhea, is successfully treated 
with Caulophyllin. Three to five grains three times per 
day will meet the necessities of most cases. When complica- 
tions exist, suitable combinations may be formed with other 
of the Concentrated Medicines. With this, as with many other 
remedies, we have found alternation the most successful plan 
of treatment. Thus, if there be hepatic aberation, we give one 
of the following powders twice or thrice a week : 

Podophyllin grs. Yj. 

Asclepin grs. Xij 

Mix and divide into six powders. These we direct to be taken 
at night, and the Caulophyllin three times daily. If the case 
is obstinate, or has become chronic before application is made 
for treatment, we vary the prescription. We then combine 
the Caulophyllin with Senecin, as follows : 


Senecin — aa. ^ij. 

Mix and divide into twenty powders. Dose, one, three times 
daily. We also modify the combination of the Podophyllin, 
thus — 



Asclepin -.aa. grs. X. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. One to be exhibited every 
second or third night, same as above. If much nervous 
derangement be present, the addition of from ONE fourth to 


one half grain of Gelsemin to* each dose of the Caulophyllin 
and Senecin will answer an admirable purpose. 

In amenorrhea occurring in anemic habits, we know of no 
better general remedy than the following. We have used it 
in a large number of cases with complete success. 


Senecin aa. 2)ij. 

Iron by Hydrogen .... gi- s . X. 
Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Give one, three times 
per day. In many cases the quantity of Iron may be increased 
to one grain three times a day with decided advantage. In 
some cases the Phosphate of iron may be substituted for the 
Iron by Hydrogen, and may, perhaps, answer a better purpose. 
This will be the case when there is much tendency to wasting 
of the tissues, provided no gastric irritation be present. If 
hysteric symptoms be present, the Valerianate of Iron may 
be used with advantage. In dysmenorrhea, the Caulophyllin 
is an admirable remedy, both for the relief of the present 
symptoms, and for the radical alleviation of the derangement. 
It is a special alterative and tonic to the uterine system, regu- 
lating and giving tone to the functions of that organ. It 
relieves the distress attendant upon dysmenorrhea, and its 
continued use during the inter-menstrual period will prove a 
prophylactic in a large majority of cases. When Caulophyllin 
is not sufficient of itself to give relief, we combine it with 
Yiburnin and Gelsemin, as follows : 

Caulophyllin - • . ~ 
Yiburnin - - - aa. grs. XX. 

Gelsemin .... g rs . y. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Dose, one, every two 
hours until relieved, or, in severe cases, every hour. vThis we 
deem as near a specific as any medicine can be, in these cases. 
\ ^ For monorrhagia, we have found the Caulophyllin one of 
the most effective of the vegetable agents. It should be given in 
\^ suitable doses during the intermenstrual period, and when the 



menses are present in connection with Oil of Erigeron, Trillion, 
Lycopin, etc. It may be combined with Helonin, as follows : 


Caulophyllin _ Qij 

Helonin _„ ^j. 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Give one three times 
daily. This will be found an excellent combination. Also 
with Senecin, as directed for amenorrhea. 

In the radical treatment of hysteria, Caulophyllhi will be 
found a valuable auxiliary. It may be given alone, or in 
combination with Cypripedin, Scutellarin, Lupulin, Hyoscy- 
amin, or Gelsemin, etc. Combined with one or more of these, 
and alternated with tonics, as Cerasein, Cornin, Hydrastin, 
Populin, or Iron, the most desirable results may be antici" 

For the relief of after-pains, the Caulophyllin will be found 
efficient in a large number of cases. If not, the combination 
recommended for dysmenorrhea will seldom fail. Other com- 
binations may be effected with suitable agents, at the option 
of the practitioner. 

The Caulophyllin has gained considerable repute as a partu- 
rifacient, and our experience in its use has fully confirmed our 
previous estimate of its utility. For quieting and harmonising 
the action of the uterus, and of the nervous system generally, 
relieving cramps, and other unpleasant symptoms, it is a per- 
fectly safe, and a generally successful, remedy. It is employed 
by many as a partus accelerator, and, by some, preferred to 
Macrotin. Many practitioners are of opinion that it acts more 
promptly upon the uterine system than the Macrotin. 

As an auxiliary in the treatment of leucorrhea and gonor- 
rhea, it is deservedly held in high esteem. It is seldom relied 
upon alone, but usually employed as an adjunctive to other 

Caulophyllin is an admirable remedy in some forms of 
dyspepsia, particularly those cases attended with spasmodic 
symptoms. "Where there is gastric irritability, and vomiting 
of the food, the Caulophyllin may be employed with advan- 


tage when more decided tonics would aggravate the symp- 
toms. If laxatives are needed, it may be employed in con- 
nection with Leptandrin, or Juglandin, or Euonymin. 

Caulophyllin is employed in connection with other rerne 
dies, in the treatment o." rheumatism, both acute and chronic, 
with much benefit. It is mildly diaphoretic and diuretic, 
hence appropriate in that disease as an alterative and pro- 
moter of depuration. It is frequently useful in allaying the 
spasmodic pains accompanying that complaint. When com- 
binations are desired, it may be used in connection with 
Asclepin, Grelsemin, Veratrin, Hyoscyamin, etc., in the acute- 
form, and with Macrotin, Sanguinarin, Xanthoxylin, Phyto- 
lacin, etc., in chronic cases. 

In dropsy, it is mainly useful as a general alterative, gently 
stimulating absorption, diaphoresis, and diuresis. It also 
proves a tonic to the digestive apparatus, and so becomes in- 
strumental in restoring the tone of the system. 

Caulophyllin has been employed with much benefit in 
hooping cough, asthma, and for the relief of hiccough. In 
hooping cough, it operates well in combination with Asclepin. 
In asthma, with Macrotin, Grelsemin, Apocynin, etc. In ap- 
thous sore mouth, both as a gargle and as an internal remedy, 
the Caulophyllin has been highly spoken of. It may be used 
in connection with Myricin, Baptisin, Rhusin, and other ap- 
propriate remedies. 

The Caulophyllin has gained considerable repute as a ver** 
mifuge, but upon this point we are not prepared to speak 
positively. Certain it is, that during its exhibition for other 
disorders, worms have been expelled in considerable numbers, 
giving good grounds for supposing it instrumental in their 
expulsion. It is deservin * of further trial in this respect. If 
auxiliary agents are desired, Chelonin, Apocynin, Santonin, 
Gelsemin, etc., may be employed, according to the variety of 
entozoa suspected of being present. As the Caulophyllin is 
slightly astringent, it will be necessary to administer a cathartic 
occasionally during the use of that remedy. In all cases of 
debility, spasms and convulsions arising from uterine derange* 


ment, nervous irritability, chorea, etc., occasion will be had 
for the employment of the Caulophyllin, and much confidence 
may be reposed in its remedial value. 

To sum up the history of the Caulophyllin, we would re- 
commend it as being useful, in addition to the complaints above 
enumerated, in passive hemorrhage, congestive dysmenorrhea, 
epilepsy, nervous headache, neuralgia, hypochondriasis, pro- 
lapsus uteri, and as a general alterative remedy in all vitiated 
conditions of the system. Also as an agent for modifying the 
action of Podophyllin, preventing griping, expelling flatulence, 
etc. A narcotic property is attributed to the Caulophyllin by 
some writers, but we have never been able to discover it, 
although we have prescribed this remedy extensively during 
the past five years. We are of opinion that the statement was 
put forth by some one having a theoretical acquaintance only 
frith the therapeutic history of the Caulophyllin. 


^ • »• 

Derived from Ipomcea Jalapa. 
Nat. Ord. — Convolvulacece. 
Sex. Syst. — Pentandria Monogynicu 
Common Name. — Jala/p. 
Part Used.—jTjfo Root, 
No. of Principles — one, viz., a resin, 
Properties. — An irritant hydrogogue cathartic. 
Employment. — Dropsy, fevers, and whenever a powerful 
local cathartic is indicated. 

The medical properties and uses of both the Jalap root and 
its active cathartic constituent, Jalapin, are so well and gene- 
rally understood, that but little is left for us to say. The 
Jalapin, as will be observed, consists of a single resin princi- 
ple, which embodies the cathartic power of the plant. The 
plant, however, yields another principle, a neutral, first 
obtained by Messrs. B. Keith & Co., in the form of a beautiful 
cream-colored powder. This principle is perfectly soluble in 
water, devoid of cathartic properties, and powerfully diuretic 
It may be inquired why a deviation is made in favor of this 
remedy, in not combining the two principles in the Oalapin 
offered to the profession. The reason is simply this — practi- 
tioners of medicine are not so over-stocked with wisdom aa 


not co be sometimes deluded by outside appearances, in which 
respect they are so much like the rest of mankind that we 
can see no difference. The jalap resin is white, while the 
neutral principle is of a dirty cream color, and mixing 
the two together would not improve the appearance of the 
neutral, while it would completely destroy the immaculacy of 
the resin. Now the profession have hitherto been supplied 
with the Jalap resin, and have never known anything of the 
existence of a neutral principle, hence the difference of shade 
became a stumbling-block to honest practitioners, and a sweet 
nut for malicious scribblers, out of which to crack the charge 
of fraud and adulteration. Consequently the resin alone was 
put up as the equivalent only of the resin of Jalap already before 
the profession. We have no doubt but what the time will 
soon come when the combined principles of the Jalap will be 
as eagerly sought after as those of other plants. Certainly, if 
it be desirable to have a concentrated equivalent of the plant, 
euch must be the case. The active diuretic properties of the 
aeutral principle, combined with a very mild laxative power, 
fenders it desirable in dropsy, in which disease the Jalapin is 
to frequently employed. 

The Jalapin is employed in all cases in which it is desirable 
to produce a speedy evacuation of the bowels. It is contra- 
mdicated in all cases accompanied with gastric or enteric in- 
flammation. It usually produces much tormina during its 
operation, which may be prevented in a measure by combining 
vt with stimulants and anti-spasmodics, as Capsicum, Ginger, 
Kanthoxylin, Caulophyllin, etc. Where Podophyllin or other 
cathartics do not operate promptly, as is frequently the case 
in cold, asthenic forms of disease, we exhibit the Jalapin in 
loses of from TWO to six grains, for the purpose of relieving 
intestinal engorgement. It may be combined with capsicum or 
ginger, or what is better, a tea of ginger may be taken freely 
during its operation. 

The average dose of the Jalapin is three grains. It is 
very seldom used alone, except in the cases above mentioned. 
A.s stated under the head Podophyllin, it is frequently com- 


bined with that remedy when it is desirable to produce a 
speedy evacuation of the alimentary canal. The Jalapin will 
generally operate in two hours, while the Podophyllin will 
take its own time, being, so far as we have been able to dis- 
cover, neither quickened nor in any other way influenced in 
its action by the Jalapin. 

The most powerful hydrogogue cathartic we have ever 
employed in dropsy, is the following : 



Podophyllin aa. grs. ij. 

Cream of Tartar 3 j. 

Mix. Give at a dose. The quantity of Cream of Tartar may 
be increased to one drachm if thought desirable. This com- 
bination is admirably calculated to arouse the action of the 
liver, and to powerfully stimulate the entire glandular system. 
It is of particular service in cases of dropsical effusions into 
the larger cavities, as ascites, hydrothorax, etc. Inmost cases 
of dropsical effusion, and particularly in anasarca or general 
dropsy, the Ampelopsin should be given in suitable dosea 
twice or thrice a day, and the above compound powder ot 
Jalapin administered once or twice a week. Jalapin is also 
much employed in hydrocephalus, hydrothorax, and cardiac 
dropsy, in connection with Digitalin. 

In large doses, Jalapin sometimes proves emetic. The free 
use of mucilages and demulcents is advisable when Jalapin is 


Jalapin is also employed in bilious fever, congestion of the 

portal circle, and as a revulsive r*ejnedy in many forms of dis- 
ease. Yet we have other remedies of equal efficacy in those 
complaints, in fact preferable, <vnd calculated, when fully 
known, to supercede it. 




Derived from Phytolacca Decandria, 

Nat. Ord. — Phytolaccacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Decandria Decagynia. 

Common Names. — Poke Booty Garget \ Scoke, Pigeon 
Berry, Coakum, etc. 

Part Used.— The Boot. 

No. of Principles — two, viz., resinoid, a/nd neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, resolvent, deobstruent, detergent^ 
<mti-syphilitic, anti-scorbutic, anti-herpetic, diuretic, laxative t 
slightly narcotic, and, in larger doses, emetic and cathartic. 

Employment. — Bheumatism, scrofula, syphilis, gonorrhea > 
•salt rheum, itch, and other cutaneous diseases, glandular 

^affections, as tuberculosus of the li/ver, spleen, etc., carcinoma^ 

hepatic torpor, etc. 

Ik Phytolacin, we have one of the most decided and effi- 
cient alteratives embraced in the range of the materia medica 
It is not a remedy of doubtful powers, but uniform, certain, 
' and reliable in its action. In all conditions of chronic disease, 
wherein there is tardiness of action on the part of the exhal- 
ing, absorbing, secreting, or eliminating vessels, or a viscid. 



and plastic condition of the blood and fluids, the Phytolacin 
will be found the most efficient, as well as the safest remedy 
that can be brought to bear. In cold and languid conditions 
of the system, it will rouse an action when other remedies fail 
of their accustomed effects. When Podophyllin seems tardy 
in awakening the liver from its torpor, from ONE to two 
grains of Phytolacin, added to each dose, will be found a most 
desirable and efficient adjunctive. It becomes almost indis- 
pensable in the treatment of long standing disorders of the 
liver, when once its full value is known. 

In doses of from one to two grains, twice or thrice a day, 
the Phytolacin proves a certain, safe, and effectual resolvent 
and alterative, manifesting its influence throughout the entire 
glandular system. Many systems are so sensitive as not to 
be able to bear more than one-fourth or one-half of one 
grain, while in other cases from three to FIVE grains will be 
required. In large doses, say from five grains upwards, the 
Plwtolacirj generally proves emetic and cathartic, although it 
is not a desirable remedy for either purpose. Its cathartic 
operation is accompanied with much nausea, pain, and subse- 
quent prostration. When employed as an alterative, if the 
patient be kept too long or too freely under its influence, a 
considerable degree of relaxation will attend its operation, 
-and the patient will complain of prostration and debility. 
Hence it is desirable, under such circumstances, to combine it 
with stimulants or tonics, as the Xanthoxylin, Oil of Cap- 
sicum, Cornin, Cerasein, Fraserin, etc. The average dose of 
the Phytolacin is two grains. 

Eheumatism is a disease affording a fair field for the em- 
ployment of the Phytolacin. It is of more utility in the 
chronic than in the acute form. In the latter form, however, 
it may be employed with advantage when the febrile stage is 
passed, and as a prophylactic against a recurrence. In arti- 
cular and mercurial rheumatism, we deem it superior to, and 
much safer than Iodide of Potassa. We have used it with 
much success in these cases, particularly in combination with 


Stillingin and Xanthoxylin. We usually combine them in the 
following manner : 



Xanthoxylin ..................... aa.3j 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Dose — one, three 
times daily. We sometimes vary the formula, substituting 
Macrotin for the Xanthoxylin, as follows : 


Phytolacin 3j 

Stillingin T)ij 

Macrotin grs.x 

Mix, and divide into twenty powders. Administer same as 
above. Twice a week give the following powder : 

Podophyllin g r -j- 

Leptandrin grs. ij. 

Gelsemin gr. ss. 

Mix, and let it be taken at bed-time. The bowels should be 
kept in a perfectly soluble condition during the course of the 

Phytolacin, in connection with tonics, is of admirable 
utility in the cure of scrofula. It should be given in small 
doses, and alternated with Hydrastin, or Cornin, or Cerasein, 
or Iron. If it be desirable to employ other alteratives, it will 
answer a better purpose to alternate them than to combine 
them. Among the latter we may mention Stillingin, Alnuin, 
Chimaphilin, Rumin, and Corydalin. 

For the cure of syphilis and mercurio-syphilitic disorders, 
the Phytolacin is quite equal to any other organic remedy. 
If the patient be brought properly under its influence, and 
proper observance be paid to diet, regimen, and auxiliary 
treatment, a cure is almost certain. Care must be taken, 
however, that the patient's system does not become too much 

relaxed, which may be avoided by the use of suitable stimu- 
19 , 


lants and tonics. By employing the Phytolacin for three or 
four days at a time, and then alternating with Corydalin for 
an equal period, which is of itself a decided tonic, the neces- 
sity for employing, other tonics will be lessened. Smilacin 
will be a valuable adjunctive to the Phytolacin in the treat- 
ment of syphilis. Also Stillingin, Myricin, Irisin and Ampe- 
lopsin. One or more of these agents may be combined with 
the Phytolacin, at the discretion of the practitioner. The 
severe pains attending tertiary syphilis, and mercurio-sj-phili- 
tic complications, are more effectually relieved by the use of 
the Phytolacin than by any other remedy. ' In these cases it 
may sometimes be advantageously employed in connection 
with Hyosciamin. 

Gonorrhea and leucorrhea have been successfully treated 
with Phytolacin. It is peculiarly serviceable in cases of long 

Salt rheum, itch, and other cutaneous eruptions, have been 
cured with Phytolacin. It is employed not only internally but 
externally. It may be made into an ointment or tincture. — 
Fifteen Grains of the Phytolacin may be rubbed up with 
one ounce of lard, or dissolved in one ounce of alcohol, which 
may be diluted with water before applied. Both the oint- 
ment and tincture have been found useful in piles. The Phy- 
tolacin possesses considerable discutient power, and the oint- 
ment applied to tumors, glandular swellings, etc., will fre- 
quently discuss them. 

Phytolacin has been found of service in tuberculous affec- 
tions of the lungs, liver, spleen, mesentery, etc. In the 
absence of febrile excitement, it is always appropriate in 
glandular diseases of whatever type. Its efficient alterative 
and resolvent properties render it valuable in promoting the 
absorption of all abnormal exudations and deposits. 

Phytolacin has been much employed in the treatment of 
.carcinomatous affections. It is, undoubtedly, as efficient an 
aheratiyj as can be safely employed in that disease. Its bene- 
ficial effects are most apparent in cases of open cancer. The 
patient's system should be brought fully under its constitu 


tional influence, and the dry Phytolacin applied to the ulcer. 
It may be used either alone or combined with Hydrastin, 
^equal parts. To relieve the fcetor of cancerous sores, it should 
be combined with Baptisin. The Phytolacin, applied either 
in the form of a paste with water, or in strong alcoholic tine 
ture, has been found quite effectual in that species of can- 
cer known as lupus, when used in the early stages. Also in 
removing warts and corns. The strength of the ointment and 
tincture above directed for external application may be varied 
to suit occasion, being careful not to apply it too freely wneu 
an extensive abrasion of the surface exists. 


Derived from Hyoscyamus Niger, 

Nat. Ord. — Solanacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Common Name. — Henbane 

Part Used.— The Herb. 

No. of Principles— -four, viz., resin,' resinoid, alkaloid, an<S 


Properties. — Anodyne, antispasmodic, soporific, sedative, 

narcotic, diuretic, and laxatwe. 

Employment. — Neuralgia, gout, rheumatism, asthma^ 

hooping cough, croup, chronic cough, hyper cesthesis, crartvps^ 

convulsions, nervous pains, catarrhal affections, bronchitu f 

laryngitis, etc., etc- 

Perhaps no other agent of the materia medica is better cal- 
culated to illustrate the defects of so-called officinal prepara- 
tions than the Hyoscyamus Niger. The various pharmaceu- 
tical preparations of this plant, such as tinctures, extracts, etc, 
Are in the highest degree uncertain and unsafe, as we shall en- 
deavor to demonstrate. The same objections pertain to thia 


*s to all other crude* medicines. In the first place, the actual 
Amount of active constituents residing in the plant is variable, 
indefinite, and uncertain. In the second place, these constitu- 
ents are very susceptible to disintegrating influences, and rea- 
lity undergo the destructive decomposition described in the 
cfirst part of this work. The extracts of this plant generally 
become inert and worthless within six months after they are 
manufactured. In the third place, the total therapeutic value 
of the plant does not reside in one, but mfour distinct proxi- 
mate active principles, each one representing therapeutic pro- 
perties peculiar to itself. These several principles are of dif- 
ferent solubility, requiring different menstrua for their extrac- 
tion, and the variation in their proportions, or the absence of 
one or more principles in the ordinary preparations, and which 
is almost universally the case, renders them not only of uncer- 
tain therapeutic value, but also unsafe. This fact will be ap- 
parent when the diverse properties and influences of the 
several principles are considered. Thus the alkaloid principle, 
the hyoscyamine of some writers, has but very little of that 
peculiar effect upon the epidermis so characteristic of the plant, 
while it possesses the diuretic power in a high degree, and alsc 
the narcotic, or that property which chiefly affects the brain 
and has a tendency to produce cerebral congestion. The resin 
embodies the relaxant and anti-spasmodic properties to a much 
fuller extent than the other principles, while the neutral ia 
mainly diaphoretic. It will be seen, therefore, how important 
it is, in order to realise the true and full therapeutic character 
of the Hyoscyamus, that its pharmaceutical preparations 
should contain all the active medicinal constituents of the plant, 
and that they should be of definite and uniform medicinal 

In medicinal doses, Hyoscyamin acts as a powerful sedative 
to the nervous system, lessens impressibility to irritation, and 
obviates those conditions of morbidly exalted sensibility so 
frequently observable in disease, while, at the same time, it 
increases the activity of the secreting apparatus, particularly 
of the glands, mucous membranes, skin, kidneys, and bowels. 


In larger doses it produces dryness of the mouth and throaty 
thirst, nausea, vertigo, deafness, and headache. At other 
times, a dull, heavy feeling in the head, debility, confusion of 
the ideas, optical illusions, dilatation of the pupils, with 
increased heat of the head, and coldness of the extremities* 
The extremities, and particularly the tongue, become partially 
paralysed and Immovable. These symptoms are often accom- 
panied with great difficulty of breathing, anxiety, etc. 

In very large doses Hyoscyamin produces severe convulsions,, 
tetanic cramps, swooning, coma y paralysis, and apoplexy. 
When given to persons of a full, plethoric habit, Hyoscyamin 
stimulates the arterial system, but in general reduces the force 
and frequency of the pulse. The secondary effects of large 
but not fatal doses of Hyoscyamin are manifested by increased 
and copious perspiration and expectoration, and frequently a 
slight ptyalism. The autopsy in those cases in which Hyos- 
cyamin has proved fatal seldom reveals any real inflammation 
of the stomach. The veins and blood vessels of the head are- 
generally injected with much dark blood, and also the lungs. 
The blood exhibits the appearance of undergoing decomposi- 
sition, and the cadaver rapidly putrefies. 

Hyoscyamin acts most promptly and energetically when 
brought in direct contact with the cell-substance, or injected 
into the veins. When injected into the rectum, sudden, violent,, 
and serious results have been witnessed. 

Hyoscyamin is considered anodyne and anti-spasmodic. It 
depresses the sensibilities of the nervous system, and lessens 
the irritability of the fibres. Although affecting the brain to 
a greater or lesser extent, it seems, by preference, to expend 
its influence chiefly upon the peripheral nervous system, upon 
the nervous structure of the epidermis, and upon the nerves- 
of sensation. It promotes the action of the cutaneous exha- 
lents, of the lungs and mucous membrances generally, and also- 
of the glandular structure, kidneys, etc. In view of its in- 
fluences in these respects it is accredited with resolvent, 

Hyoscyamin is generally employed in hyperaesthesis, nervous. 


fains and spasms, erethismus, and febrile conditions of the 
vascular system, particularly when arising from increased 
irritability of the nerves of sensation. In catarrhal, and even 
in inflammatory affections of the mucous membrances of the 
respiratory organs, it is used with much success. 

Hyoscyamin is of 'service in the treatment of nervous fevers 
of an erethismal character, but is contra-indicated in cases of 
rital or paralytic debility. It is valuable for the relief of hy- 
peresthesia, morbid acuteness of the organs of sense, phan- 
tasma, and their accompaniments, nervous irritability and 
wakefulness. Also in the treatment of local inflammations 
complicated with idiopathic or secondary symptoms of exalted 
nervous sensibility, manifested by pains of an unusually 
violent character, with much spasmodic action, as, for instance, 
nervous and catarrhal inflammation of the lungs, bronchitis, 
laryngitis, pharyngitis, etc. As an adjunctive remedy in the 
treatment of croup, it has been of much value, as well as in 
obstinate catarrhal coughs, and in the early stages of hooping 
cough. In hemoptysis, when anti-spasmodics are indicated, 
preference is given by many to the Hyoscyamin. For the 
same reason it is appropriate in other hemorrhages accom- 
panied with spasmodic action. 

In consumption of the lungs Hyoscyamin is frequently of 
essential service, moderating the spasmodic and erethismal 
symptoms, and gently promoting expectoration. 

Amongst the nervous affections in which the Hyoscyamin has 
been used with much success are included all those cases ac- 
companied with hypersesthesis. In mania and melancholy, 
when there is an abnormally exalted condition of the sensi- 
bilities, painful acuteness of touch and other senses, phantasma, 
and kindred symptoms, as well as in natural somnambulism, 
precocious development of the sexual functions, nymphoma- 
nia, etc., the Hyoscyamin will be found an invaluable auxiliary 
remedy. In these cases it is the surest and safest of the 
narcotic remedies. Hyoscyamin is also of great service in the 
treatment of amaurosis arising from excessive nervous sensi- 
bility, nervous headache, facial neuralgia, and nervous tooth- 


ache. In general convulsions, accompanied with hyperaesthe* 
sis, arising from an erethismal cc ndition of the nervous system, 
and unaccompanied with fever or cerebral excitement, and in 
epilepsy, hysteric tetanus and trismus, chorea, etc., Hyoscyamin 
is employed with much success. Also in the convulsions of 
nursing children, particularly those arisiag during dentition. 

Hyoscyamin is contra -indicated in acute sanguineous inflam- 
mations, vital or paralytic debility, violent determinations to 
the head, dyscrasia, and in all diseases having a putrefactive 

Externally, the Hyoscyamin is sometimes employed as a 
local application in various inflammatory, spasmodic, and 
painful affections, as, for instance, painful and irritable ulcers, 
enlarged glands, inflammation of the mammae, etc., in which by 
virtue of its relaxant, anti-spasmodic, and anodyne properties, 
it is frequently of much service. The dry powder may be 
sprinkled upon the surface of open ulcers, being careful not to 
use it too profusely, or applied by means of a poultice. In the 
latter form it is sometimes applied to the abdomen in cases of 
colic, and to other parts for the relief of spasmodic pains. 
For the purpose of applying to painful tumors and en- 
larged glands, it may be made into an ointment with lard. 
Its. injection into the rectum is considered a dangerous ex- 

The dose of the Hyoscyamin will vary from one eighth to 
one grain. It is always well to commence its use in small 
doses, and increase if occasion requires. To ensure a prompt 
and harmonious action, it should be rendered as diffusible as 
possible, which may be accomplished by trituration, or by the 
free use of diluents. We mention no combinations because 
we consider it a remedy of peculiar and sufficient potency in 
itself, and believe that the indications for its employment will 
be better subserved by employing the remedy uncombined, 
alternating with such other medicines as the necessities of the 
case demand. Neutralise undue acidity of the stomach previ- 
ous to its exhibition. Asclepin will be found an excellent 
article with which to triturate the Hyoscyamin. 



Like the other concentrated tinctures of which we have 
already spoken, this preparation represents the entire thera- 
peutic value of the plant in a condensed and reliable form, and 
of definite and uniform medicinal strength. It is very con- 
venient for office dispensation, and for combining with other 
of the concentrated tinctures. We employ it more frequently 
than the Hyoscyamin. In fevers and other acute diseases, 
when not contra-indicated, we find it of great value in reliev- 
ing pain and spasm, and procuring sleep. In acute rheumatism, 
and in scarlatina, measles, pneumonia, etc., we have derived 
much satisfaction from its employment. In menorrhagia, 
dysmenorrhea, and similar affections, it will be found a 
valuable anti-spasmodic and anodyne. For the relief of those 
peculiar headaches arising from an anaemic condition of the 
system, we know of nothing to equal it. Also for allaying 
excessive irritability of the nervous system arising from ex- 
cessive hemorrhages, or profuse colliquitive discharges. Use- 
ful combinations may be effected with the Con. Tine. Senecio, 
or Scutellaria, or Gelseminum, or Yeratrum, etc., when 

Locally, it may be applied by means of lint, or otherwise, 
to painful tumors, enlarged glands, and in cases of local 
neuralgic pains, rheumatic swellings, cramps, colicky pains in 
the abdomen, etc. 

The dose of the concentrated tincture will vary from FOUR 
to twenty drops, and even more. It may be repeated, in 
severe cases, once in two hours. 


■♦ > o 

Derived from Stillmgia Sylvatica, 

Nat. Ord — Euphorbiaceod. 

Sex. Syst. — Monoecia Monodelphia. 

Common Names. — Queens Hoot, Queen* s Delight, Yaw 
Hoot, Marcory, Cock-up-hat, etc. 

Tart Used. — T/ie Hoot. 

No. of Principles. — Four, viz., resin, reslnoid, alkaloid 
and neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, resolvent, stimulant, tonic, diu- 
retic, anti-syphilitic, etc. 

Employment. — Scrofula, syphilis, leucorrhea, gonorrhea^ 
cutaneous diseases, incontinence of urine, impotence, sterility \ 
rheumatism, bronchitis, stomatitis, and whenever an altera- 
tive is required. 

The Stillingia Sylvatica has long been in use in popular 
practice, but it is only of late that its remedial value has been 
duly recognised by the profession. In addition to the proxi- 
mate active principles above enumerated, the plant also yields 
an oil, which will be treated of in the proper place. 


We believe that the Stillingin now offered to the profession 
by Messrs. Keith & Co., embodies the therapeutic value of 
the plant in the most condensed and reliable form of any 
hitherto piepared. This opinion is based upon an observation 
of its utility in the treatment of disease. As an alterative, it 
has few, if any, superiors. The average dose of the Stillingin 
s three grains. When used alone, this quantity ma}'' be 
•epeated three times a day. The dose must be varied to meet 
the peculiarities of the case, as some patients will require 
double, and even quadruple the quantity of others to produce 
the desirvrd effect. In over-doses, it will produce nausea and 
sometimes vomiting. The proper time to administer it is two 
hours after meals. If taken a short time before meals, it 
materially interferes with the appetite. 

Among the diseases in which the Stillingin has been found 
most efficient, we might mention scrofula, gonorrhea, syphilis, 
leucorrhea, rheumatism, and mercurial affections. In order 
to realise ite full utility, when used alone, its use must be per- 
severed in for a length of time. From two to four grains 
may be given three times a day in scrofula, the bowels being 
'kept in a soluble condition by small doses of Podophyllin, or 
Leptandrin, or Euonymin, etc. It is well to alternate the 
Stillingin occasional^ with other alteratives. Or, if preferred, 
suitable combinations may be effected with other remedies. 

For gonorrhea and syphilis, the Stillingin is usually 
employed in combination with other agents, as the 
Corydalin, Irisin, Phytolacin, Smilacin, Myricin, etc. It 
is better, in these cases, to premise the alterative course with 
a thorough dose of Podophyllin, which will nrepare the 
system for the action of alterative remedies, and which should 
be repeated at suitable intervals during the treatment. One 
fact we have observed, in connection with the employment of 
Stillingin in the treatment of gonorrhea, and that is, its 
tendency to provoke urethral irritation and chordee, rendering 
its use, in some cases, inadmissible. This property, however, 
renders it of great value in the treatment of incontinence of 
urine, impotence, and sterility. In all atonic and paralytic 


affections of the generative and urinary apparatus, it seems u» 
be a remedy of much value. The most obstinate cases of 
leucorrhea have yielded to the Stillingin. 

Chronic rheumatism affords a fair field for the successfu 1 
employment of this remedy. It may be used alone, or com 
bined with such other of the concentrated agents as are suited 
to the case. In several cases of articular and mercurial rheu 
matism, we have used the following formula with much benefr 


Stillingin grs XX 

Irisin ' grs. X. 

Phytolacin grs. V. 

Mix, and divide 'into ten powders. Give one three times pei 

day. Or the following: 


Xanthoxylin _ aa. grs. XX. 

Macrotin grs. Y. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. Doses same as above. 
Both these formulas will be found excellent. "When a mild 
laxative is indicated, the Menispermin will answer a good 
purpose. They may be combined in equal proportions. If ;i 
more energetic remedy of this class is called for, Euonymin 
will be found admirably suited to the occasion. Few reme- 
dies excel the latter when a laxative tonic is required. 

We would not be understood to say that the Stillingin is 
fully equivalent to the plant, as considerable of its medicinal 
value resides in the oil, of which we next propose to treat. 
Deprived of the oil, Stillingin is not so efficacious in the 
treatment of affections of the respiratory organs, nor of leu- 
corrhea and other kindred female diseases. Nevertheless, it is 
a valuable stimulating alterative, exciting the glandular 
system in a peculiar manner, resolving viscidity of the secre- 
tions, and promoting depuration. It is of great utility, in 
combination with Xanthoxylin, in the convalescing stages of 
cholera infantum, dysentery, and other diseases attended with 
oolliquitive discharges. They should be combined in equal 



proportions, and administered in four grain doses three or 
ibiti times a day. 

Foi paralytic affections of the bladder, it may be employed 
with much confidence. In this affection, it may be used in 
conjunction with electricity, with much prospect of benefit. 

Chronic diarrhea and d}' - sentery have been cured with alter- 
nate doses of Stillingin and Leptandrin. From two to four 
grains of Stillingin may be given twice or thrice dail} r , and 
the same quantity of Leptandrin at bed time. In cold and 
sluggish conditions of the system, Stillingin operates well in 
combination with Macrotin. In chronic diseases of the liver, 
with jfiuonymin, Phytolacin, etc. In the treatment of dermoid 
diseases, Stillingin is justly esteemed a remedy of great value. 
Average dose, three grains. 


Derived from the root of Stillingia Sylvatica. 

We deem this remedy one of the most valuable accessions 
to our indigenous materia medica. Although pronounced by 
some authors to be too acrid for internal use, we have found 
such not to be the case. We have employed it largely in 
bronchitis, laryngitis, and other affections of the respiratory 
system, and in defective menstruation, chronic gleet, leucor* 
rhea, etc., and have found it a remedy of safe and exceeding 

The average dose of the oil is one drop, which may be 
repeated every half hour, in croup, with safety. In other 
cases, every four or six hours. It may be dissolved in alco- 
hol, and taken in a little water, or dropped upon sugar, or 
mixed with mucilage of gum arabic, slippery elm, etc. We 
are of opinion that its local action is most beneficial in bron- 
chitis and laryngitis, hence prefer to administer the oil upon 
a little sugar, which may be allowed to dissolve in the mouth 
and gradually swallowed. VThe following will be found an 
elegant and efficient remedy for coughs, colds; bronchitis, 
influenza, etc. 

Oil Stillingia 3j. 

11 Wintergreen 

". Cinnamon aa. gtt. X. 

Hydrastin 3 j. 

Alcohol, •. 3 X. 



Mix Dose — from ten to fifteen drops four or five times a 

■day, or whenever the cough is troublesome. The addition of 

3 ss. of Oil of Xanthoxylum will improve the mixture for 

cases of long standing. 

; We have 'administered the Oil of Stillingia in croup with 

-marked advantage, our first experience having been in our 
•own family. It seems to operate as a powerful diffusible 
■stimulant, resolvent, and anti-spasmodic. It overcomes the 
spasm and difficulty of respiration, and favors expectoration, 
hence will be found useful in asthma, hooping cough, and 
■other kindred affections. For the relief of asthma, it may be 
-combined with Oil of Lobelia. 

We have employed the Oil, in combination with Oil of 
Erigeron, with the most gratifying success in the treatment of 
defective menstruation. ] The Oils may be combined in equal 
proportions, and from ONE to three drops taken three times a 
day. "-% The peculiar headaches accompanying this affection are 
soon relieved by the use of this remedy. The same combina- 
tion will be found of great utility in uterine leucorrhea, and in 
gonorrhea. When it is desirable to have the entire properties 
•of the Stillingin combined, the following formula must be 
observed : 

>v • Stillingin 3 ij. 

Oil of Stillingia 3 ss« 

Alcohol, 95 per cent 3X. 

Mix. Dose — from ten to fifteen drops. This secures the 
■entire therapeutic value of the plant, and constitutes one of 

the most efficient remedies known for the cure of scrofula, 

syphilis, eruptions of the skin, and all affections arising from 

a vitiated condition of the blood. : f~ 

Externally, the oil is an invaluable stimulant, counter-irri- 
tant, and relaxant. It relaxes spasm of the muscular fibres 
-and at the same time stimulates the depurative functions of 
the skin to healthful activity. Among the affections in which 
it may be employed with certainty of benefit, we might men- 
tion croup, asthma, acute and chronic pleuritis, pneumonia. 


neuralgia, spinal affections, contracted joints, etc. For exter- 
nal use, it should be dissolved in alcohol, the proportions 
varying according to the degree of stimulation required. In 
ordinary cases, we observe the following proportions : 

Jh Oil of Stillmgia '. 3j. 

Alcohol 95 per cent _ 5j- 

Mix. Bathe the affected parts freely two or three times a 
day, or apply a cloth saturated with the solution. For slight 
neuralgic affections, spinal irritation, and rheumatic pains, this 
will be found of great service. We employ it, however, most 
frequently in combination with the Oils of Lobelia and Cap 
sicum. Our formula is as follows : 

ypt^fvl" Oil of Stillingia 3 j- 

JL " Lobelia 3 ss. 

" Capsicum gtt. XX. 

Alcohol 95 per cent ^ ij. 

Mix. This we esteem one of the most valuable external 
applications ever devised. ^ The quantity of the oils may be 
doubled, or even trebled, to meet the indications in very 
severe cases. In case more of the counter-irritant property 
is desired, the quantity of Stillingia may be increased, and the 
other ingredients allowed to remain the same. For croup, 
hooping cough, and asthma, bathe the throat and upper por- 
tion of the chest with this preparation two or three times a 
day. Its employment will be followed, 'after a few days, by a 
\ profuse vesicular eruption, which, in a few days, will assume 
, a pustular character. Frequently the eruption will appear 
1 within six hours after the first application. Spinal irritation, 
neuralgia, tic doloreux, rheumatic pains, contracted joints, 
chronic sprains, etc., are relieved and cured by the use of this 
remedy. When the relaxant property is not needed, the Oil 
of Lobelia may be dispensed with. We sometimes vary the 
formula, thus: 


Oil of Stillinofia 

" Erigeron 3j. 

" Lobelia 3 ss. 

Alcohol ^ ij. 

M*x. This formula is peculiarly serviceable in bronchitis, 
laryngitis, enlargement of the tonsils, rheumatic pains, etc. 
The Oil of Cajeput maybe substituted for the Erigeron when 
the latter is not at hand. It will be seen that the combina- 
tions may be easily varied, according as more or less stimu- 
lating or relaxing applications are required. We are certain 
that those who once test the value of the Oil of Stillingia as 
an external remedy, will be loth to dispense with it. 


r so 

# V . ■ -. X 1 . ■W U P Btn i 




Derived from Humulus Zupulus. 

Nat. Ord.— U'rticacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Dicecia Pentovndria. 

Common Name.— Hops. 

Part Used. — The Strobiles, or Cones. 

No. of Principles — three, viz., resin, resinoid, and neutral 

Properties. — Nervine, hypnotic, febrifuge, diuretic and 

Employment. — Dyspepsia, delirium tremens, hysteria, 
after-pains, chordce, spermatorrhea, intermittent fevers, etc. 

The Lupulin under consideration should not be confounded 
with that usually found in commerce, which consists simply 
of the pollen of the flowers. In the Lupulin of which we 
propose to treat, we have not only the virtues of the pollen, 
hut also additional properties derived from the parenchyma 
of the flowers. Lupulin is a remedy of much value in 
the treatment of nervous affections and is frequently 
employed as a substitute for opium, possessing tae Cvdvantagt 


of not disturbing the stomach, or producing constipation. 
Like all remedies of its class, however, it is not always to be 
relied upon for the purpose of allaying nervous excitement, 
frequently failing of its influence in this respect. In such 
cases it proves mainly diuretic. 

The average dose of the Lupulin is two grains, increased 
to five with benefit. On account of its febrifuge properties, 
it is peculiarly appropriate in the treatment of febrile diseases 
for the purpose of controlling the excitability of the nervous 
■system, and correcting a tendency to delirium. It will fre- 
•quently procure refreshing sleep in cases of great wakefulness 
when other remedies fail. In many cases it is an invaluable 
anodyne, allaying pain, promoting diaphoresis and diuresis, 
-and inducing sleep. It has 'been used with good results in 
delirium tremens. In this complaint larger doses than usual 
^are required, TEN grains, repeated every two hours, having 
been administered • with success Nervous headaches, hys- 
teria, chronic cough, suppression of urine, and various other 
affections have been relieved and cured by the use of Lupulin. 
In those forms of indigestion wherein there is a tendency to 
.gastritis, the Lupulin will be found an excellent remedy. It 
soothes and allays the irritability of the mucous tissues, and 
paves the way for the employment of more decided tonics. 
In these cases it is beneficially administered in combination 
with Helouin. 

i^ Lupulin grs. XX. 

Helonin grs. X. 

Mix, and divide into ten powders. Give one three times pel 
day. Or with Smilacin. 


Smilacin, aa. 3 j. 

Mix, .'tnd divide into ten powders. Dose — same as above. In 
chroni«; gastritis, enteritis, and ulcerations of the stomach and 
bowel'-, the latter formula will be found useful. 

Lu;-ulin has been used with extraordinary success in the 


cure of spermatorrhea. From two to five grains are given 
at a dose, and repeated three or four times daily. Some prac- 
titioners use it in combination with Cerasein, and with marked 
advantage : 

Lupulin ^j. 

Cerasein 3ss. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. Dose — one, once in six 

The efficacy of the Lupulin in the treatment of sperma- 
torrhea is enhanced by combining it with Grelsemin, and alter- 
nating with Cerasein. We prefer the following method of 

Lupulin grs. iij. 

Gelsemin grs. ss. adj. 

Olri. To be given at bed time, and five grains of Cerasein 
administered three times daily. If ulceration of the urethra 
oe suspected, use the following injection : 

Chloride of Lime 3 SS - 

Hydrastin 3j. 

Water O.j. 

Digest and filter. This injection is valuable in gonorrnea > 
^i let, leucorrhea, and other affections of the mucous surfaces 
M the generative apparatus. 

t*o far as our experience goes, the Lupulin here treated of 
m-cif be relied upon for all the purposes for which 
lhe> plant and its preparations have hitherto been em- 
ploy ?d. It has been reputed useful in the treatment of 
iguc dnd fever, but we have no well authenticated evidence 
of it,* utility in that complaint. Its tonic powers are feeble at 
best, md seem to be expended mainly upon the stomach. In 
sases tJ suppression and retention of urine, it sometimes 
ifforda *aost desirable relief. Its employment is more indi- 
sated ir sthenic than in asthenic conditions of the system, 
After-par' is are frequently relieved by its use, and the nervom 


irritabilit}^ peculiar to parturient females allayed and over- 

Lupulin lias frequently proved successful in the treatment 
of chordee, by virtue of overcoming the urethral inflamma- 
tion, and correcting the acridity of the urine. It has the 
reputation of diminishing the quantity of lithic acid in the 


Derived from Veratrum Viride. 

Nat. Ord. — Melanthaceoe. 

Sex. Syst. — Polygamia Moncacia. 

Common Names. — American Hellebore, Swamp Hellebore,. 
Itch Weed, Indian Poke, etc. 

Part Used. — The Hoot. 

No. of Principles— -four, viz., resin, resinoid, alkaloid, and 

Properties. — Emetic, cathartic, diaplwwtic, expectorant, 
nervine, antispasmodic, arterial sedative, alterative, resolvent, 
febrifuge, anodyne, soporific, etc. 

Employment. — Intermittent, remittent, typhoid, and other 
fevers, pneumonia, pleuritis, rheumatism, delirium tremens^ 
mania, affections of the heart, both functional and organic* 
congestions of the portal circle, /looping cough, asthma, hys- 
teria, cramps, convulsions, scrofula, dropsy, epilepsy, amen- 
orrhea, etc 

We fully realise our inability to do justice to the value of 
the article under consideration, yet we shall attempt to placs 
before our readers what positive information we possess in ret- 


gard to it. It has long been, with us, a favorite remedy, and 
we have learned to place much reliance upon its efficacy in 
m;my disorders afflicting the human frame. 

It will be seen that we have attributed to it a considerable 
number of therapeutic properties, all of which we shall en- 
deavor to substantiate, as being in accordance with our experi- 
ence in its employment No other remedy of its class, with 
which we are acquainted, is capable of fulfilling so many in- 
dications with safety, certainty, and uniformity of action. The 
indications for its employment are of frequent occurrence, and 
its administration affords well marked and positive evidences 
of its practical utility. Yet, as a necessary condition of its 
successful employment, a correct diagnosis is essential, and 
the remedy must be rightly timed, as well as proportioned. 
We do not hold it a specific in any, yet we claim for 
it the possession of positive and specific therapeutic properties 
available and reliable whenever the proper adaptation is had. 

In order that those who are not familiar with its properties, 
and employment may have a better understanding of its range 
of utility, we will endeavor to describe its physiological influ- 
ence upon the organism. Like Digitalin, its influences are 
diverse, and variously manifested upon the several divisions of 
the animal economy. Thus we call it an arterial sedative, as 
it reduces the force and frequency of the pulse. We cannot 
attempt to explain whether this influence is due to a 
property whereby a direct depression of the vital activity 
of the arterial system is produced, or whether it is the 
result of the correction of certain conditions which were the 
cause of the abnormally excited condition of the circulation. 
Certain it is that Yeratrin is a powerful resolvent and deob- 
struent, resolving the plasticity of the blood, and of the secre- 
tions generally, while, at the same time, it promotes the 
activity of the absorbent, venous, and lymphatic vessels, and 
glands. It exercises a wonderful control over the capillary 
S3'stem, particularly the deep-seated capillaries, hence, in con- 
gestions of the remote tissues, is a remedy of great service. 
In small doses Yeratrin stimulates the functions of the abdom* 


inal viscera, particularly of the stomach, liver, pancreas, and 
mesentery — promotes the secretion of the nervous fluids, and 
exercises a striking influence over the vascular structure of 
the abdomen, giving activity to the portal circulation, and pro- 
moling the sanguineous secretions, as the catamenia, hemor- 
rhoidal flux, etc. It also quickens the activity of the renal 
secretion and cutaneous exhalations. Upon the nervous 
structure of the abdomen generally, it acts as a powerful 
stimulant, alterative and tonic. 

In large doses Veratrin causes vomiting, diarrhea, and great 
depression of the arterial system, the pulse becoming very 
small and infrequent. The general sensibility of the system 
is also affected in a very disagreeable and violent manner. In 
very large doses, if not instantly ejected by vomiting, very 
violent symptoms are excited by the Veratrin. Copious and 
painful bilious vomitings, hemorrhagic diarrhea, metrorrhagia, 
tenesmus, pulse very small and infrequent, excessive prostra- 
tion, subsultus tandinum, swooning, paralysis, convulsions, 
tetanus and death. The immediate cause of death in this in- 
stance is more to be attributed to the excessive irritation and 
exhausting excitement of the abdominal nervous structure, 
and the depression of the arterial system, than to any inflam- 
mation excited in the intestinal viscera. 

In cases of febrile excitement, the first influence we have 
observed of the action of the Veratrin is, a softening of the 
pulse. Correspondingly, or immediately following, there is a 
slight elevation of the temperature of the skin, a gentle breath- 
ing perspiration ensues, and the skin becomes soft and flexible, 
while its temperature falls somewhat below the normal stand- 
ard. These several phenomena being produced, the pulse 
becomes less frequent, full and regular. If the medicine be 
continued, considerable relaxation of the system is observa- 
ble, and the pulse sinks to sixty, fi*fty, or even forty beats per 
minute. At this point vomiting usually occurs, and, in ordi- 
nary cases, the medicine must be omitted until the nausea sub- 
sides. In a great number of cases it is necessary to push the 
medicine to the production of emesis in order to bring the 


symptoms under control. As an emetic, the Veratrin operates 
generally with less of prostration than other remedies of its 
class. In most cases, when given hi emetic doses, it operates 
very promptly, but is sometimes tardy, owing, we are of opin- 
ion, to acidity of the stomach. When the quantity of Vera- 
trin given has reached an extent sufficient to produce emesis, 
the symptoms preceding vomiting are sometimes somewhat 
alarming. The patient becomes very pale, particularly about 
the lips and ala3 of the nostrils, and complains of great faint- 
ness and dyspnea. Vomiting almost immediately ensues, 
and is free, copious, and without spasm. The pulse at first 
sinks considerably, but, as soon as vomiting has occurred, 
oomes back to the normal standard, the temperature of the 
surface rises, a gentle perspiration breaks out, and the breath- 
ing becomes free and full. When used for the purpose of an 
emetic, the Veratrin should be thoroughly triturated with As- 
clepin or Eupatorin, (Perfo.,) and accompanied with a plenti- 
ful supply of fluid. In all cases the Veratrin should be 
thoroughly triturated with some one of the other concentrated 
medicines not contra-indicated in the case, of which we prefer 
Asclepin, as being most frequently admissable. TheYeratrin 
is a medicine possessed of a high concentration of therapeutic 
power, and, in order to ensure its kindly operation, it should 
be rendered as diffusible as possible. Too great a concentra- 
tion of therapeutic action upon a limited nervous surface will 
produce violent and serious symptoms, while the same amount 
of medicinal power diffused over a more extended space of 
impressible tissue will be productive of none other than kindly 
results. Extremes in medicine are always to be avoided. 
When too highly diluted or diffused, medicines become of 
negative value, their field of operation being too extended. 
On the other hand, when of too high concentration, the object 
in view is defeated by the overaction produced, and confusion 
of the vital manifestations, instead of harmony, ensues. 

We have observed, as the result of the administration of 
Veratrin, when care has not been exercised in regard to neu- 
tralising undue acidity, and ensuring proper diffusion of the 


remedy, very singular contortions of the muscular system^ 
particularly of the muscles of the face, neck, fingers and toes* 
The head would be drawn to one side, the mouth drawn down? 
at one corner, and the facial muscles affected with convulsive: 
twitehings. At the same time the fingers and toes would be- 
cramped as in cholera. At times these contortions would take- 
the form of tonic spasm, while at other times the action would 
similate a series of galvanic shocks, frequently of such vio- 
lence as to precipitate the patient out of bed. During all this; 
time the intellect of the patient remains undisturbed, and he- 
is perfectly conscious of all that is going on. As soon as this- 
spasmodic action has subsided, no further inconvenience is, 
felt, the patient passing from under its influence unharmed. 
Several instances have come under our observation when pre- 
parations of the Veratrin have been taken through mistake. 
In one instance a large teaspoonful of the concentrated tinc- 
ture was taken by a female patient of ours who supposed she 
was taking tincture of Valerian. Further than nausea and 
free vomiting, no ill effects were experienced. In another in- 
stance, in the practice of a brother practitioner, nearly a quart 
of a strong decoction of the recent root was taken within the 
period of a few hours. A considerable degree of sickness and 
prostration was produced, followed by copious vomiting and 
purging, but the patient soon recovered" without having expe- 
rienced any permanent mischief. We have never known of 
a single instance in which fatal consequences have ensued from 
the action of the preparations of the Yeratrum, yet we have 
no doubt but that such a result might occur from the adminis- 
tration of very large doses of the Veratrin, as mentioned in 
the preceding pages, We have administered the preparations 
of the plant to children and adults of every age, and under 
almost every circumstance of chronic and acute disease, and 
we have come to view it as an indispensible agent in our prac- 
tice. For the purpose of controlling the action of the heart 
and arterial system, stimulating the absorbent, venous, and 
lymphatic vessels and glands, it has no equal. Also as a re- 
sol vent in plastic conditions of the blood, and of the secretion* 



generally. That it is an alterative and depurative remedy <>l 
more than usual efficiency, is evident from the thoroughly 
renovated ancl iiwigo rated condition of the animal economy 
after having been fully subjected to its sanative influences. 
And it accomplishes its work without pioducing any disturb- 
ance of the cerebral functions, never exhibiting, so far as we 
have been able lo discover, any narcotic influences whatever. 
In view of its general physiological control, this fact is some- 
what remarkable, but which enhances its practical remedial 
value above that of all other remedies of its class. 

Indications for the employment of the Veratrin are had 
whenever there 's a disturbed condition of the circulation, 
either when the 9 bnormal excitement involves the whole arte- 
rial system, or si' nply affects some of its single branches. This 
morbid exaltati n is more frequently characterized by force 
and fulness, tU* 1 by rapidity of the pulsations. This condi- 
tion may arise rom two causes. In the first place, from the 
presence of ai? undue quantity, or a too highly stimulating- 
property of the natural excitants of the blood; and, in the 
second place, f om an abnormally increased excitability of the 
heart and arW lal vessels, even while the blood preserves its 
normal consul' ution. It is in the first named condition that 
Veratrin is *y ore particularly indicated. We employ Veratrin 
as a stimula' it and resolvent in obstructions and atonic condi- 
tions of th^ ^ver and portal system, and of the abdominal 
organs gene 1 ally. Also for the purpose of promoting the de- 
puration of retained and accumulated secretions, particularly 
of the sai guineous, as the catamenia, and in indolent condi- 
tions of t 7 ie mucous membranes, and glandular and lymphatic 
systems V The peculiar stimulant and alterative properties of 
the Vca,trin as manifested in its reactions upon the nervous 
tissues af the abdomen, render it a remedy of great value in 
the treatment of all forms of disease involving the abdominal 
gang! ta, and in all cases of functional inactivity or obstinate 
torpor, as for instance, mental debility and insanity, convul- 
sions, paralytic affections, &c. 


Of the special employment of Yeratrin in individual t/.pea 

of disease, we would note our observations as follows : 

It is indicated in all forms of acnte febrile disease manifest- 
ing a high plasticity of the blood, accompanied with a quick, 
full, and wiry pulse. This condition will be frequently met 
with in remittent and intermittent fevers, protracted and in- 
veterate cases of which have been successfully treated with 
Yeratrin. Obstinate quartan fevers, complicated with atra- 
bilious obstructions, phlegmonoid affections of the abdominal 
viscera, debility and torpor of the nervous structure of the 
abdomen, or with feeble hemorrhoidal action, are relieved and 
cured by means of the Y eratrin. In these affections it should 
be given in small doses combined with P odophylli a, and al- 
ternated with tonics, of which we prefer Cera sein. In rheu- 
matic fevers the Yeratrin is generally preferable to any other 
remedy, as it not only breaks up the feve r, but also arrets the 
copious symptomatic sweats arising from excessive capillary 
co ngestion. In this case it should be combined with Asclepin 
and Cerasein, or they may be alternated. 

In the treatment of every form of febrile exanthema, and 
particularly of scarlatina, the Yeratrin is unequalled, as these 
types of disease are accompanied with great arterial excite- 
ment, a high degree of plasticity of the blood, and a -strong 
tendency to the production of effusions and exudations, for 
the prevention or removal of which the Yeratrin is of such 
remarkable utility. Were Yeratrin of no further service than 

«"' —ill i _ ■Hl^. ,,, 

in the treatment of scarlatin a, we should still deem it invalu- 
able and indispensible. Solar as our observations have wne, 
and they extend over a period of five years experimental use 
of the Yeratrin, both in our own practice and in that of oth- 
ers, we have never yet seen a case treated with it that did not 
result in a perfect cure, unattended with effusions, exudations, 
or malignant sequela of any kind.yln scarlatina, as, we find 
it in this region, we premise our treatment, in the early stages, 
with Podophyllin, and afterwards rely upon Yeratrin and As- 
clepin in combination. Seldom is further medication neces- 
sary, unless it be to meet special symptoms. To prepare the 


- Veratrin for use in scarlatina, it should be thoroughly tritu- 
rated with Asclepin and made into solution with hot water. 

It may be then administered in such doses and with such fre- 
quency of repetition as may be necessary to control the 
disease. Our experience is in favor of administering it at 
intervals of two hours. When the inflammatory action is 
violeT.t, it may be administered every hour in the commence- 
ment until the violence of tde symptoms is subdued, and then 
repe.i \ed at intervals of two or three hours as may be neces-* 
sar^ to maintain its proper influence. As soon as an inter- 
mission, full and complete, occurs, the Cerasein may be given 
in suitable doses, the Veracrin and Asclepin being continued 
at intervals of four or six hours until all danger of a return 
of the febrile symptoms ia past. /, Veratrin seems appropriate 
in all stages of scarlet fever. f- We have known cases of the 
worst form, and in the latcer stages, where the patient was in 
convulsions, and the medical attendant had abandoned all 
hope, in which the exhibition of this remedy has promptly 
arrested the disease, breaking up the convulsions and saving 
the patient.^. The absence of effusions, exudations, and other, 
of the usual distressing sequents of scarlatina, when treated 
with Veratrin, we attribute to the remarkable resolvent, alter- 
ative and tonic power of this remedy, whereby the depurative 
action of the entire economy is promoted, and these retentions 
accumulations, and consequent congestions are prevented. It 
stimulates the functions of the absorbent, venous, and lym- 
phatic vessels in a peculiar manner, and, by resolving the 
viscid and plastic condition of the blood and secretions, 
enables them to discharge their various functions fully and 

=. effectually. It is our firm conviction that the three remedies 
aboye enumerated, namely, / Podophyllin, Veratrin, and * 

— Asclepin, will, when judiciously employed, cure a larger per 
centage of the cases of Scarlatina than any other plan of treat- 
ment yet devised. And when the patient is pronounced 
cured, the term is no misnomer. 

The virtues of Veratrin in the treatment of typhoid fever 
have been variously estimated, yet all agree in pronouncing 


it a remedy of great value. Differences of locality, atmos- 
pheric and other influences, previous habits and exposures > 
and many other causes tend to create a diversion in the special 
symptoms of typhoid fever, yet, in its general characteristics, 
it is the same. Derangement and torpor of the functions of the 
liver, portal vein, and of the secreting structure of the abdom- 
inal viscera generally, characterise the disease under all 
circumstances. A disposition to congestion of the glandular 
surfaces of the mucous membranes of the alimentary canal, 


is a constant accompaniment of typhoid fever. The sequent 
to this congestion is, an exhausting and frequently uncontroll- 
able diarrhea, which hurries the patient to his grave, despite 
all means employed for its alleviation. How important, then, 
that we possess a remedy that will early correct this functional 
aberration, and, by maintaining a proper degree of vital 
activity, obviate the danger of organic lesion. Not only is it 
necessary that the secreting apparatus be brought under the 
immediate influence of appropriate stimuli, but also that the 
secretions themselves shall be resolved and reduced to a 
degree of fluidity consistent with the ability of the apparatus 
to circulate them. A plastic condition of the blood is a 
marked characteristic of typhoid fever, and the neglect of 
early attention to this condition is the common cause of the 
fatality of this disease. Bleeding and other means of direct 
depletion serve to aggravate the existing obstructions by 
depriving the system of the fluid menstrua requisite in the 
work of resolution. In all febrile diseases there is danger ol 
the solid secretions becoming in excess of the fluid, hence tne 
free use of diluents is as indispensible a necessity as the 
employment of suitable medicines. Not only are they neces- 
sary for the resolving of the morbid deposits, but also for the 
solution and circulation of the remedy itself, whereby it may 
be enabled to reach the field of its operations. We have 
already dwelt at some length upon the necessity of the 
observance of this condition, in the first part of this volume, 
to which we respectfully direct the attention of the reader. 
Auxiliary remedies, in the treatment of typhoid fevei, will be 


found in Podophyllin, Leptandrin, Euonymin, Euphorbin, 
Asclepin, Cerasein, Greranin, Myricin, etc., according to the 
indications present. In this, as in scarlet and all other fevers, 
"the alkaline sponge bath should never be omitted. 

As before mentioned, the value of Veratrin in the treat- 
ment of typhoid fever is variously estimated. While 
admitted by all who have employed it to be a valuable agent 
in controlling this disease, experience goes to prove that it is 
seemingly much more efficient in some localities than in 
others. In the section in which we reside it is not uncommon 
to see severe cases of typhoid fever broken up completely in 
Irom twenty-four to forty-eight hours; while in other sections 
we have the testimony of practitioners to the effect that, while 
it relieves the urgent symptoms and abates the violence of the 
disease, yet the fever will run its course for the accustomed 
'length of time, although the danger is greatly lessened and 
'recovery rendered more certain. What may be the reasons 
■for this discrepancy of action, we have no present means of 
•ascertaining. Whether it be owing to local influence, such as 
'pertain to miasmatic districts — or to the want of proper pre- 
paratory or auxiliary treatment, are questions we do not feel 
competent to answer. The special points of congestion seem 
to vary in different sections. Thus, with us, the liver and 
•brain chiefly suffer; while at the south and west, the bowels 
seem the most vulnerable point, diarrhea and enteritis being 
the most dangerous symptoms likely to arise. Whether this 
tendency to aggravated inflammation of the bowels depends 
upon the previous habits and circumstances of the patient's 
.situation, or upon an immediate peculiarity of the disease 
itself, are questions which would require the closest scrutiny 
"in order to effect a satisfactory explanation. It is the duty 
of every resident practitioner to study the local phenomena 
occurring within the circle of his observations, and to modify 
liis treatment so as to meet existing necessities. It is unfor- 
tunate that we have no systematic concert of notation, by 
^ ~ans of which a record of the effects of local influences in 


modifying the types of febrile forms of disease might be had 
for the benefit of the profession at large. 

The employment of Veratrin in the treatment of diarrhea 
and dysentery affords occasion for some remarks in regard to 
the action of this remedy upon the bowels. We have seen 
it stated by some writers, that Veratrin is objectionable on 
account of its irritating influence upon this organ. Such has 
not been our experience. We have employed it much in the 
treatment of bowel complaints, and with the most happy 
results. In dysentery, after having premised our further 
treatment with Podophyllin and -Leptandrin, when indicated, 
we give one-eighth grain of Yeratrin, or two drops of the 
concentrated tincture, every two hours until the febrile symp- 
toms are subdued, and a proper action of the skin excited, 
alternating with Geranin, or other astringents, if needed. By 
referring to the preceding exposition of the physiological 
effects of the Yeratrin,' the reader cannot fail to perceive the 
appropriateness of this remedy in the treatment of all func- 
tional derangements of the abdominal viscera. With this 
remedy, as with all others, in order to ensure success, due dis- 
crimination must be exercised in regard to time, quantity, 
repetition, and continua/uce. 

Yeratrin is of exceeding utility in the treatment of menin- 
gitis, phrenitis, hydrocephalus, and cerebral difficulties gener- 
ally. We have seen some of the most severe and desperate 
cases recover under its timely and persevering administration. 
<T The patient must be kept fully under its influence, until 
1 i every vestige of inflammatory action has subsided. The 
auxiliary remedies are Podophyllin, Euphorbin, Asclepin, 
Scutellarin, Lobelia, etc. 

Inflammatory affections of every kind, and particularly 
when of a hypersthenic character, afford indications for the 
employment of Yeratrin. The peculiar influence of this 
remedy over the arterial system, and upon the absorbent, 
resolving, and lymphatic vessels of the system generally; 
renders it extremelv valuable in this class of affections 


Diseases of the raucous and serous membranes and glands 
are also successfully treated with Veratrin. 

We have the joint experience of many practitioners in con- 
firmation of the value of Veratrin in puerperal fever. When 
joined with Podophyllin, greater success has been had than 
by any other means or method of treatment. The most 
seemingly desperate cases have yielded to its sanative influ- 

Veratrin ranks high as a remedial agent in pneumonia 
pleuritis, croup, asthma, and other disorders of the respiratory 
system. It is one of the most reliable expectorants known. 
In all affections attended by dyspnea, Veratrin is of excel- 
lent service. We have used it in croup with entire success. 
In mucous and spasmodic croup it gives prompt relief. 
In membranous croup it is peculiarly appropriate, on account 
of its resolvent properties, lessening and overcoming the ten- 
dency to effusion of plastic lymph, and the formation of false 
membrane. In all inflammatory affections of the chest, the 
Veratrin is of exceeding utility. It relaxes spasm, lessens 
arterial excitement, equalises the circulation, resolves the vis 
cidity of the secretions, promotes diaphoresis and expectora 
tion, and imparts tone to the venous, absorbent, and lymphatic 
vessels, and glands generally. A consideration of these 
peculiar influences of the Veratrin will assist materially in 
determining its range of application. 

Veratrin is of equal service in the treatment of chronic as 
of acute forms of disease. Its remarkable control over the 
heart and arterial system renders it eminently valuable in the 
treatment of both functional and organic disease of the heart, 
as palpitation, sternocardia, chronic pericarditis, enlargement, 
etc. We have used it in many cases of organic disease of 
that organ, with the most beneficial results. We deem it the 
safest, and, at the same time, the most efficient remedy that 
can be brought to bear in these disorders. Many cases of so- 
called organic affections of the heart have been cured by the 

use of the Veratrin, which, however, were nothing more than 


functional disturbances dependent upon visceral engorgements, 
suppressed secretions, metastasis of eruptions, rheumatism, 

Veratrin is of essential service in the treatment of atonic 
mucous hemorrhoids, false membranous formations in the 
intestinal tube, and other forms of phlegmatic disease of the 
abdominal cavities, particularly when dependent upon or 
accompanied with debility and inaction of the portal vein 
and abdominal nerves, glands, and vessels generally. 

Veratrin exercises a specific influence over the uterus, and 
has been beneficially employed in amenorrhea, atonic chloro- 
sis, uterine leucorrhea, and other affections dependent upon 
vascular debility. 

Veratrin is valuable in the treatment of jaundice, when 
arising from obstructions of the liver and portal circulation. 
Also in dropsical affections characterised by much coldness 
and torpor, or when arising from suppression of the catamenia 
or hemorrhoidal flux. In all diseases of the mucous, mem- 
branes of the intestines, phlegmatic obstructions, tympanites, 
fleshy tumors of the abdomen, chronic enlargment of the 
liver, spleen, and mesentery, and in debility of the muscular 
fibres of the intestinal tube, the Veratrin is a valuable remedy. 
In these disorders, it operates most beneficially in connection 
with Podophyllin. In cachexies and dyscrasies, arising from 
functional aberation of the viscera of the abdomen, particu- 
larly of the liver and mesenteric glands, and in herpes, and 
other diseases of the skin, Veratrin is highly recommended. 
Also in atrabilious, arthritic, and rheumatic dyscrasies. 

Experience seems to prove that a majority of the cases 
of mental aberation, and of nervous diseases generally, 
arise from and are dependent upon a morbidly increased 
activity of the nervous structure of the abdomen, functional 
obstructions and organic lesions of the abdominal viscera, and 
disturbed and discordant action of the abdominal nervous 
plexus. At any rate, if such be not the case, experience 
proves that such remedies as act as stimulants and alteratives 
upon the nervous tissues of the abdomen, are most beneficial 


in that class of diseases. This would seem to explain \shy 
Veratrin is of utility in the treatment of mania, epilepsy, hys- 
teric cramps, chronic convulsions, melancholy, and mental 
weakness. Certain it is that when material obstructions are 
ascertained to exist, particularly of the sanguineous secretions, 
as the catamenia, hemorrhoids, etc., relief is almost certain to 
follow the exhibition of the Yeratrin. In cases of mental 
aberation accompanied with torpor and debility of the abdomi- 
nal organs, Yeratrin will be found serviceable. In such cases 
it may be administered in full doses, even to the production 
of an emeto-ca1 jartic effect, observing much caution, however, 
in its exhibition. Where visceral obstructions are of long 
standing, the treatment should be premised with the judicious 
use of Podophyllin, which will materially enhance the efficacy 
of Yeratrin in all cases in which the former may be indicated. 

In Chronic pneumonic and catarrhal affections, having a 
tendency to effusion and exudation, and in chronic rheu- 
matic affections of the lungs and pleura, and which are so often 
connected with hydrothorax, Yeratrin is an excellent remedy. 
In these cases it may sometimes be advantageously joined 
with Digitalin, and alternated with suitable doses of a combi- 
nation of Podophyllin, Asclepin, and Cerasein. 

Yeratrin is also of much value in the treatment of some 
forms of scrofula, particularly when occurring in persons 
laboring under vascular repletion, and whose lymphatic sj'stem 
is in an inactive or torpid condition. 

Yeratrin is contra-indicated in all cases of paralytic debility, 
tendency to hermorhage of the lungs, pregnancy, lingering 
hectic, internal ulcerations, etc. 

The dose of Yeratrin will vary, according to the impressi- 
bility of the patient's system, Imd the requirements of the 
case. In general this variation will be from one-eigiith to 
one-half of ONE GRAIN. In febrile forms of disease, small 
doses, frequently repeated, are of most service ; while in 
chronic affections, as in disease of the heart, dropsies, etc., 
larger doses, and at longer intervals, are preferable. In fevers, 
we usually administer it every two hours. In chronic affec- 


tions of the mucous membranes, visceral engorgements, etc., 
twice per day. In cardiac diseases, whenever the urgent 
symptoms arise. In croup, convulsions, and asthma, at inter- 
vals of thirty minutes, until the spasm is broken, and relief 
afforded, and then with such frequency of repetition as may 
be necessary to maintain the desired influence. To what 
extent the patient may be subjected to its influence, or for 
what length of time this influence may be continued, without 
danger to the patient, is a question difficult of solution. A 
case of scarlatina in a girl some ten or twelve years old came 
under our observation, in which the patient was kept so com- 
pletely under its control that, for the period of forty-eight 
hours, no pulse could be felt at the wrist. At the end of this 
time, the fever having been subdued, the medicine was 
omitted, the circulation rose to the normal standard, and the 
patient had a rapid convalescence. It was a most malignant 
case, and one which, when the treatment was commenced, 
afforded little prospect of recovery. It is iair to state that 
the preparation employed in this case was the concentrated 

It is of the highest importance, under all circumstances of 
the employment of Yeratrin, to previously neutralise undue 
acidity of the stomach, and to administer it in such form as 
to render it most diffusible. We generally prefer to triturate 
it with Asclepin, and to administer it in solution. We rind 
very few cases in which the Asclepin is contra-indicated. 

Except the above, very few judicious combinations can be 
effected with the Veratrin. In some forms of cardiac disease, 
and in dropsical effusions, it may be beneficially joined with 
Digitalin, as previously mentioned. When auxiliary reme- 
dies are needed, we deem our practice of alternation the best. 
Care must be exercised when employing the Yeratrin in chro- 
nic diseases, in order that too great a degree of relaxation and 
prostration be not produced, which must be obviated by alter* 
nating with suitable stimulants and tonics. 


Derivation same as the Veratrin. The properties ^r\u 
appliances of this tincture are the same in all respects as thoise 
•of the Veratrin. Its relative medicinal strength is as eight 
to one. That is, eight drops of the tincture are equivj>iem 
to ONE GRAIN of Veratrin. We prefer it to ihe Veratrin on 
account of its advantage of ready administration, as well as on 
account of its diffusible character. In view of the latior 
quality, we consider it more prompt in its influences than the 
Veratrin. We use it almost exclusively in our practice. -wThe 
average dose, as a diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic, febrifuge, and 
arterial sedative, is two drops, repeated once in two hours. 
As an emetic, in croup, convulsions, etc., from FIVE to ElGin 
drops, repeated every one or two hours. In chronic disease 
generally, we give from one to three drops thrice a day. In 
asthma and affections of the heart, we generally prescribe it 
when the urgent symptoms are present. The most convenient 
form for administration in fevers and other acute diseases, in 
as follows : 

Asclepin ........................ .-3 ss. 

Warm water 5 I"V. 

Con. Tine. Veratrum gttXXX. 

Dissolve the Asclepin in the water and add the Veratrum. 

Stir the solution well when used. Dose, from one to three 

teaspoonfuls once in two hours. If nausea arises, and 

vomiting be not desirable, omit the medicine until it subsides, 

*nd then resume in the same manner, or at longer intervals. 

, N S ^ 


In this form we employ it in remittent, scarlet, and typhoid 
fevers, pneumonia, pleuritis, measles, acute rheumatism, dys- 
entery, all forms of acute exanthema, and febrile diseases 
generally. In cardiac affections, and in dropsies, it may be 
combined with the Con. Tine. Digitalis in equal proportions. 

The Con. Tine, of Veratrum has been found a most excellent 
external application for the relief of neuralgia aim rheumatic 
pains, and for the discussion of indolent scrofulous find other 
tumors, enlarged glands &c. The parts may be bathed with 
the tincture two or three times per day, or a cloth saturated 
I with it may be bound upon the tumor or part affected. 

We have been informed that the tincture has been success* 
fully employed, in enemas, for the removal of the ascaris 
vermicuiaris or pin worms of the rectum, but of this fact 
we have no personal knowledge. From Five to ten drops 
may be administered in from two to four ounces of 
water. We should prefer a thin mucilage of slippery elm, 
or a solution of mouses and water. It is worthy of further 
trial in this respect. Much yet remains to be learned of the 
value of Veratrum and its preparations, although sufficient is 
already known to render it an indispensible agent in the hands 
of every practitioner. Its positive yet kindly control over the 
heart and arterial system, by means of which we may say to 
the turbulent currents of the blood, with certainty of obe- 
dience, "Peace, be still," constitutes it a sine qua no,n in the 
treatment of febrile diseases. In addition, its power of 
resolving the plasticity of the blood, its stimulant, alterative,, 
and tonic influences over the venous, absorbent, and lymphatic 
vessels and glands, and its power of promoting the sanguineous 
secretions, renders it ot inestimable utility to the requirements 
of the healing art. We would wish especially to note an 
.'mportant fact in connection with the employment of this 
.remedy in the treatment of acute diseases, and that is, we can 
truly pronounce our patient well when he is discharged. No 
;4yalism — no loosening of the teeth—no sloughing of the 
a-rft parts — no lesions of the mucous membranes or other tis* 
y^es — no morbid discharges from the eyes or ears, as is fits 


quently the case in scarlatina and measles — no troublesome 
eczema to harass the weary sufferer — no barometric pains to 
announce approaching meteoric change — nor fetid ulcers dis- 
changing their filthy ooze from fountains of corrupt and stag- 
nated secretions within : — but a system renovated and invigo- 
rated—the vital currents leaping in living joy through their 
unobstructed channels — the unfettered nerves harmoniously 
obedient to the mandates of the organic intelligence, and the 
rose of health blooming in grateful acknowledgment over the 
integrity of the soul's citadel, 

EUPATORIN. [Purpu.] 

Derived from Eupatorium Purpureum. 

Nat. Ord. — Asteracece. 

Sex. Syst. — Syngenesia JEqualis. 

Common Names. — Queen of the meadow, Gravel weed, 
Joe-pye, Trumpet weed, etc, 

Part *Used. — The Root, 

No. of Principles. — three, viz., resinoid, neutral and alka- 

Properties. — Diuretic, stimulant, astringent and tonic. 

Employment. — Gravel, dropsy, gout, rheumatism, hema- 
turia, hematamesis, hemoptysis, dysentery, hooping cough s 
asthma, etc. 

Although the system of nomenclature adopted by the 
manufacturers of concentrated medicines is calculated to create 
some confusion when two or more plants are taken from the 
same genera, we deem it better, until a uniform system of 
terminology is devised, to designate the preparations of plants 
belonging to the same genus by an abbreviation of their spe- 
cific names, as in the instance before us. Preparations pur- 


porting to be the active principles of this plant have been 
offered the profession under the designation of Euj)urpurin y 
etc., but we are at a loss to discover either scientific authority, 
or advantage in the name adopted. We shall, therefore, for 
the present, adhere to the method of distinction herein pur- 
sued, as the preparation of which we are treating has already 
been introduced to the profession under the title above given. 

The value of Eupatorin Purpii. in the treatment of gravelly 
affections depends more upon its alterative than upon its 
direct diuretic influences. It seems more effectual in the 
removal of uric acid deposits than of other calculous forma- 
tions, although it is beneficially employed in almost all affec- 
tions of the kidneys and bladder. It resolves mucous deposits 
and deterges and heals abraded mucous surfaces. In catarrh 
of the bladder, engorgement of the ureters, and in all atonic 
conditions of the urinary apparatus, it is peculiarly useful. In 
dropsy, strangury, hematuria, gout and rheumatism, it is a 
valuable auxiliary agent. Its utility in the last mentioned 
diseases is owing to the power of resolving the viscidity of the 
secretions, and of promoting renal depuration. s<The average 
— _4pse, in chronic disorders, is three grains three times per 
day. The quantity may sometimes be increased to five, and 
•even ten grains, with safety and advantage. In acute affec- 
tions, as hematuria, strangury, etc., the doses may be repeated 
.every one or two hours. Its efficacy will be enhanced and 
its action rendered more prompt, in these cases, by adminis- 
tering it in solution in warm water. 

Eupatorin Purpu. operates beneficially in dropsy by reason 
of its stimulating influence upon the absorbent vessels, as well 
as by its powers as a diuretic. In this complaint it may be 
joined with Ampelopsin, Helonin, and other of the concen- 
trated remedies, as mentioned under their respective heads. 

Hemoptysis, hematamesis, and other hemorrhages, have 
been arrested and cured by the use of this remedy. The 
doses in these cases will vary from two to five grains every 
thirty or sixty minutes, or at longer intervals, according to 
the urgency of the symptoms. If desired, it may be com- 


hined with Lycopin, or Geranin, or Trilliin, 01; Myricin, etc 
>We have found it of great value in dysentery, both as an 
astringent, when such is needed, and as a tonic in the conval- 
escing stages, y It seems to exercise a peculiar soothing and 
toning influence upon inflamed and abraded mucous surfaces. 
It promotes assimilation, and restrains the diarrheal tendency.. 
We have also found the Eupatorin Pnrpu. a most excellent 
remedy in whooping cough, asthma, and other affections of 
the respiratory system. We set a high, value upon it as an, 
expectorant. It resolves the viscidity of the pulmonary secre- 
tions, resolves the plasticity of the venous blood, and promotes- 
cutaneous depuration. We are also inclined to attribute much 
of its efficacy in these affections to its influences as an altera* 
tive and diuretic upon the urinary apparatus, as we believe 
that many cases of apparent disease of the lungs are dependent 
upon the retention of effete urinary materials. At any rate 
we have frequently found diuretics to be the best remedies in 
whooping cough, asthma, and chronic coughs generally. And 
in the treatment of dermoid diseases, we class those alteratives* 
possessing diuretic properties as the most efficient in the mate- 
ria medica. It is for the reason above given that we employ 
this remedy in the diseases above mentioned, and we find it 
efficient and reliable. If the patient partake of warm diluent 
drinks in. connection with the Eupatorin, a mild and pleasant 
diaphoresis is produced. 

We have found this remedy beneficial in all cases of dysp- 
nea, no matter by what cause produced. Also in catarrh, 
influenza, bronchitis, and phthisis. 

EDPATORIN, (Perfo.) 

Derived from Eapatorium Perfoliatum* 

Nat. Ord. — Asteraeem. 

Sex. Syst. — Syngensia JEqualis. 

Common Names. — Boneset, Thoroughwort, etc. 
. Part Used. — The Herb. 

No. of Principles — three, viz., resinoid, neutral, and alko 

Properties. — Aperient, emetic, diaphoretic, febrifuge, alter- 
ative, resolvent, and tonic. 

Employment. — Intermittent, remittent, typhoid, and other 
fevers, coughs, colds, influenza, catarrh, dyspepsia, debility, etc. 

Eupatorin is alterative, resolvent, tonic and aperient when 
taken in small doses and administered in powder or pill ; and 
emetic, diaphoretic and febrifuge when exhibited in a warm 
fluid menstruum. Hence the form of its administration 
will be governed by the necessities of the case. It is much 
employed, in solution in warm water, to facilitate the ope- 
ration of other emetics. It is a valuable diaphoretic and 


febrifuge in all febrile diseases, when given in small ant 
frequently repeated doses. Intermittent and remittent fevers 
have been etfectually cured by administering the Eupatorm 
in full emetic doses during the intermissions or remissions, 
<ind as near the time of the expected chill or exacerbation as 
possible, following with small repeated doses to the pro- 
duction of free diaphoresis, which should be continued unin- 
terruptedly for six or eight hours, and then employing the 
remedy in cold solution, pill, or powder, as a tonic. In con- 
sequence of its utility in periodic fevers, Eupatorin has been 
accredited with anti-periodic powers. We are of opinion, 
however, that this property no more pertains to it than to 
tonics in general. In all fevers and other affections manifest- 
ing a tendency to pntrescency of the fluids, Eupatorin has 
been found of excellent service, seeming to exercise well 
marked and desirable influences as an antiseptic. Hence it 
is employed in typhoid and typhus fevers, epidemic dysentery, 
erysipelas, putrid sore throat, etc. 

Eupatorin has been found useful in chronic cough, senile 
debility, constipation, diseases of the skin, loss of appetite, 
languid circulation, whooping cough, asthma, etc. 

The dose of the Eupatorin as an emetic is from five to ten 
grains in warm water, repeated every thirty minutes until it 
operates. As an emetic it is slow but thorough. When given 
in full doses it generally acts upon the bowels. It is valuable, 
in warm solution, for promoting the operation of other 

As a diaphoretic and febrifuge, from one to three grains 
may be given once in two hours, in warm water, or in an 
infusion of some aromatic herb, as catnep, pennyroyal, spear- 
mint, etc. It may be joined with other diaphoretics, as the 
Asclepin, Cypripedin, or Sanguinarin. 

As a tonic and aperient, from three to five grains three 
times a day, in cold water, pill, or syrup. It is also a valuable 
alterative or resolvent, useful in scrofulous and other cachexies, 
tinea capitis, eczema, herpes, and other cutaneous diseases 


This tincture may be used for all the purposes of the pre- 
ceding preparation. The average dose is six drops, increased 
or diminished as occasion requires. When desired, it may be 
combined with -other of the concentrated tinctures. Thus in 
dysentery, intestinal ulcerations, etc., with the Con. Tina 
Ehus Glab., as follows: 


Con. Tine. Eupatorium Purpu. ....... 3y« 

" " KhusOlab 3j. 

Mix. Dose from six to ten drops. In the asthenic forma 
of dropsy with Con. Tine. Euonymus : 

Con. Tine. Eupatoriu Puxpum............ 3j» 

" " Euonymus... .......... 3ss. 

Mix. Dose from four to eight drops, or more. In thia 
way various combinations may be effected suited to the cas3 
in hand. It is convenient of administration, and appropriate 
in hematuria and other cases in which promptitude of action 
is desirable. 

. ,v f 


Derived from Corydalis Formosa. 
Nat. Ord. — Fumariaceaz. 
Sex. Syst. — Diadelphia Hexandria. 
Common Names.— Turkey Com, Turkey Pea, Stagger- 
weed, etc. 

Part Used.— The Root. 

No. of Principles, four, viz., resin, retinoid, alkaloid, and 


Properties. — Alterative, tonic, diuretic, anti-syphihtic, 

antiscorbutic, resolvent, etc. 

Employment.— Scrofula, syphilis, cutaneous diseases, 

dropsy, debility, etc. 

This plant is the Dielytra Eximia of Wood's, and the 
Diecentra Eximia of Gray's botany. 

The remedial properties of this plant are of a very high 
order, and reside, as above stated, in four distinct proximate 
active principles. This combination of the active medicinal 
constituents embodies the entire therapeutic value of the plant. 
Our clinical experience in the use of both the crude root aDd 


its concentrated preparation enables us to speak positively 
upon this point. 

The therapeutic action of the Corydalin is at once both 
(remarkable and highly to be prized. With the most ener- 
getic alterative and resolvent properties, it combines a tonic 
power of exceeding value. Thus while it neutralises, deterges, 
and promotes depuration, it gives tone to the various organs 
•engaged in the performance of these functions. Its dynamic 
influences seem to be comprised in a power by which it re- 
solves the plasticity of the blood, regulates and quickens the 
activity of the eliminating vessels, particularly of the renal 
and cutaneous, and promotes the processes of digestion, as- 
similation, and nutrition. From this consideration of its 
physiological influences, it will be at once seen that the Cory- 
dalin admits of an extended and desirable range of applica- 
tion. In scrofula, particularly when accompanied with feeble 
digestion and poverty of the blood, it is of great value. As 
this disease almost invariably argues an atonic condition of 
the reparative and depurative functions, the peculiar efficacy 
of the Corydalin will be apparent. In this complaint the Co- 
Tydalin should be given in doses of from one to three grains 
three times per day, alternating with such other remedies as 
may be needed to correct hepatic aberation or other special 
visceral derangements. The practitioner may combine it, 
when he deems it expedient, with other alteratives, diuretics, 
or tonics, as Senecin, Ampelopsin, Cerasein, Stillingin, Irisin, 
etc. We prefer, however, to alternate it with such other re- 
medies as the necessities of the case may indicate. 

Corydalin has been employed with marked success in the 
treatment of syphilis, in connection with Podophyllin. Per- 
haps no single remedial agent possesses more positive and 
energetic anti-syphiltic and anti-scorbutic properties.^ Its use 
should be persevered in for a length of time, occasionally 
alternated with Stillingin, Phytolacin, Irisin, etc. The most 
-desperate and protracted cases have been cured by this treat- 

Our experience in the use of this remedy in the treatment 


of cutaneous eruptions has been higkiy satisfactory. We have 
succeeded in curing many cases of obstinate dermoid affec- 
tions, when other remedies proved inefficient, by the use of 
the Corydalin. On account of the smallness of the dose and 
the absence of any nauseous taste, it is peculiarly adapted to 
the necessities of children. It may be readily administered 
in solution, in a little water. When not contra-indicated, a 
little sugar may be added, which will render it of easy ad- 
ministration to infants and children. In strumous, herpetic, 
venereal, scorbutic, and other cachexies, the Corydalin is 
Worthy the entire confidence of the profession. 

Corydalin is also valuable in dropsy, general debility, 
gravel, and the various affections of the urinary apparatus, 
indigestion, torpor of the lacteals, visceral enlargements, and 
for the correction of all vitiated conditions of the blood and 

As a diuretic, the Corydalin is more to be valued on ac- 
count of its resolvent and alterative properties than for its 
direct influence in increasing the secretion of urine. In atonic 
gleet, passive leucorrhea, catarrhal affections of the bladder, 
incontinence of urine, etc., it will be found peculiarly service- 

The average dose of the Corydalin is TWO grains. It seldom 
or nerer disagrees with the stomach, and may be employed as 
a ton>B in irritable conditions of that organ. 


Derived from Jugla/ns Cinerea, 

Nat. Ord. — Juglandacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Moncecia Polycmdria. 

Common Names. — Butternut, White Walnut \ etc. 

Part Used. — Bark of the Root, 

No. of Principles. — Two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, tonic, chologogue, laxative, deob- 
etruent, detergent and diuretic, and in large doses emetic and 

Employment. — Fevers, dysentery, dyspepsia, piles, jaun- 
dice, hepatic disorders, and diseases of the urinary appa- 

Juglandin is a remedy of great value. As a laxative and 
cathartic, it is devoid of irritant properties, hence is exceed- 
ingly useful in all forms of bowel complaints, and in fevers 
and other disorders attended with gastric or enteric irritability, 
when such a remedy is indicated. We have employed the 
Juglandin with much satisfaction in the treatment of intermit- 
tent, remittent, and typhoid fevers accompanied with gastric 


irritability and a tendency to diarrhea. It corrects the acri- 
mony of the secretions, neutralises acidity, obviates the ten- 
dency to fermentative decomposition of the food, stimulates 
the hepatic secretions, resolves biliary deposits, deterges and 
soothes the irritability of the mucous surfaces, promotes peri- 
staltic activity, and gives tone to the depurative functions of 
the kidneys. From this statement of its capabilities, it will 
.be seen that its range of application is extensive. 

The average dose of the Juglandin is five grains. In large 
doses, say from ten to fifteen grains, it gen* -ally proves 
cathartic, and sometimes emetic, accompanied Twth vomiting 
of bilious matter. It is as an aperient and laxative, however, 
that the Juglandin is mostly esteemed, its cathartic powers 
being somewhat uncertain. 

In indigestion accompanied with gastric irritability, flatu 
Uency, acid eructations, etc., we have employed the Juglandin 
with the most gratifying success. We usually administer it 
in doses of five grains immediately after each meal. We im- 
bibed a notion, some years since, that medicines calculated to 
excite action in the digestive apparatus should be so adminis- 
tered as to expend their influences at the moment when such 
action was needed, and our experience has fully justified us 
in the correctness of the opinion then formed. The benefit 
here derived results from a local influence, hence by so timing 
the remedy that it may promote the action called forth by the 
natural excitant, food, we secure the benefits of its co-opera- 
tion. If the muscular fibre be lax and inactive, its contractile 
powers are stimulated into activity, and thus is the labor of 
attrition promoted. If the gastric secretions be deficient, de- 
pendent upon atony or torpor of the gastric functions, they 
are incited to yield up their stores of the digestive juices. In- 
corporated with the chyme as it passes into the intestinal tube, 
the medicinal constituents provoke a due supply of bile and 
pancreatic juice, flow onward with the duly elaborated chyle, 
quicken the impressibility of the lacteal vessels, and impel the 
life-sustaining currents forward to the completion of their 
'organic mission. We are further of the opinion that certain 


•chemical relations are sustained, whereby the processes of 
assimilation are facilitated. Be these considerations as th^y 
may, however, our plan of administering medicines calculated 
to act as local stimulants and tonics will be found reliable. 

Juglandin, answers an admirable purpose in combination 
with Leptandrin. Our formula is as follows : 

Juglandin - 

Leptandrin aa. 3j« 

Mucilage Gum Acacia - - q. s. 

Form a mass and divide into thirty pills. x 

- - We have found these pills to answer an excellent purpose \ 
in the treatment of indigestion, chronic hepatic disorders, tsdk- f 
stipation, jaundice, piles, and derangements of the urinary a)> 
paratus. The usual dose is one pill, taken immediately before 
or after each meal. If necessary, to obviate constipation, th<? 
•dose may be increased to two or three pills, or from two to 
four may be taken at bed time. We are confident that 
whoever tests the value of these pills will never be without * 
supply of them on hand. They correct a tendency to fermen- 
tative decomposition of the food, deterge and soothe the irrita- 
bility of the mucous membranes, obviate constipation, expel 
flatulence, and correct the acrimonv of the urine. In atonio 
conditions of the stomach and bowels, and in general debilitv 
and torpor of the abdominal viscera, we substitute the Con, 
Tine. Xanthoxylum for the mucilage of gum arabic in forming 
a mass for pills. When a milder stimulant is needed, we em- 
ploy the Xanthoxylin, which, being deprived of the oil, is not 
incompatible in conditions of sub-acute inflammation. Our 
formula then stands as follows: 

Juglandin ----- 

Leptandrin - - - - - aa. 3 ss. 

Xanthoxylin - - - - ±)i. 

Mucil. acacia - - - - - q. s. 

Form a mass and divide into twenty pills. Dose, same aa 


I For the relief of ischuria, eneuresis, and kindred disorders 
of the urinary apparatus, the Juglandin will operate most effi- 
ciently in combination with Populin ) They may be combined 
in equal proportions and formed into" four grain pills, one of 
which may be given every two hours, or oftener, until relief 
is obtained, and than continued at suitable intervals until a 
cure is effected. These will be found excellent for the relief 
of scalding of the urine in pregnant females, and in the treat- 
ment of cystitis a*\d urethral inflammation. 

In dysentery, the Juglandin is usually administered at in- 
tervals of two hours, and continued until the alvine discharges 
assume a healthier appearance. The average dose in such 
cases is two grains. When indicated, it may be alternate 
witb Gterani*" &r other astringents. 


Derived from Trillium Pendulum* 

Nat. Order. — Trilliaceas. 

Sex. Syst. — Hexandria. Trigynia, 

Common Names. — Beth-root, Birth-root, etc. 

Part Used.— The Root. 

No. of Principles. — Three, viz., resinoid, neutral and much 

Properties. — Astringent, styptic, alterative, tonic, diapho- 
retic, expectorant, anti-septic and emmenagoguc. 

Employment. — Hemorrhages, either external or internal, 
leucorrhea, prolapsus uteri, monorrhagia, dyspepsia, hooping 
cough, asthma, immoderate flow of the lochia, etc* 

Trilliin is one of the most valuable agents embodied in 
the organic materia medica. Its dynamic influences are chiefly 
directed towards the mucous surfaces, over which it seems to 
•exercise a special control. Though mostly employed in affec- 
tions of the uterine system, it is nevertheless of great utility 
in the treatment of all diseases involving the mucous mem- 
branes. Hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematuria, and uterine 


hemorrhages have all been relieved and cured by means of 
this remedy. The average dose in these cases is three 
grains, repeated hourly un :il the hemorrhage is arrested, and 
then continued at intervals of from four to six hours until all 
danger of a relapse is past—^Jtelief will be rendered more 
certain if the Trilliin be alternated with Oil of Erigeron, five, 
drops of which may be given every alternate hour.^Pr it may 
be alternated with Lycopin, of which from TWO to four 
grains may be given at a dose. In chronic cough, accompa- 
nied with spitting of blood, the Trilliin and Lycopin may be 
combined, as follows : , 


Lycopin .. 3ss. 

Mix and divide into fifteen powders. Dose, one, three 
times a day. This combination will also be found excellent 
in diabetes, and, in connection with suitable diet -and regimen, 
will be found successful in a majority of cases, if taken in the 
«arly stages. 

In the treatment of vaginal and uterine leucorrhea, particu- 
larly when of an atonic character, the Trilliin will be found 
one of the most reliable remedies. It resolves the viscidity 
of the mucous secretions, acts as an alterative tonic upon th& 
mucous follicles, deterges and heals the diseased membranes,, 
and corrects the acrimony of the discharges. Trilliin is deci- 
dedly antiseptic, and is useful in correcting a tendency to pu- 
trescency of the fluids, and the foetor of critical discharges. In 
dysentery, putrid fevers, cancrum oris, and in all cases having 
a tendency to gangrene, it will be found of essential service. 
When required, it may be applied locally, either in the form 
of a solution, as in cancrum oris, putrid sore throat, etc., as a 
gargle, or the dry powder may be applied, as in erysipelatous 
and other ulcers. In fetid discharges from the vagina and 
•iterus, it may be employed in the form of an injection. For 
this purpose, from ONE to TWO drachms may be infused in, 
boiling water and used when blood warm. For the latter- 
purpose it may be combined with Geranin, or Myricin, or Bap- 


UMxii, one drachm of eacl. to the pint. Thus combined it will 
bo *bund useful as an injection in vaginal, uterine, and rectal 
hemorrhages. 7 X A solution of the Trilliin, or a small quantity 
01 the dry powder, snuffed up the nostrils will immediately 
ch<vjk epistaxis. \ A small quantity of the powder introduced 
into the cavity rrom which a tooth has been extracted will 
effectually arrest the hemorrhage. Slight hemorrhages occur- 
ring from wounds, cancerous ulcerations, etc., may also be 
arrtsued by the same means. 

Bit among the most valuable of the haemostatic properties 
cf + he Trilliin is its power of restraining profuse lochial dis- 
Ciuj-ges. It facilitates the detergent action, regulating but not 
suppressing it. It may be given in doses of from TWO to 
A3LR grains three times a day, or oftener if the indications 

v/e have also found the Trilliin exceedingly valuable in 
the treatment of prolapsus uteri, particularly when of an as- 
ili€ tic character, and dependent upon an atonic condition of 
r.he uterine supports. It should be given in doses of from TWO 
o ^ive grains three times per day, and alternated with such 
otner remedies as the case demands. In engorgements of the 
^rvix uteri, chronic vaginitis, etc., the Trilliin will be found an 
exceedingly efficient remedy, and should be used both inter- 
i, ally and externally. In passive hemorrhages of the uterus 
md other organs, the Trilliin, if not sufficient alone, will al- 
ways prove a valuable auxiliary. 

Trilliin has been highly recommended in dyspepsia, hoop- 
mg cough, asthma, etc., and we have no doubt of its utility in 
these complain ss, although our personal experience of its 
value in sucli cases is too limited to allow us to speak 
authoratively. The average dose of the Trillin is three 


Derived from Scutellaria Lateriflora. 

Nat. Ord. — Lamvnacem. 

Sex. Syst. — Bidynamia Gh/mnosperma. 

Common Names.— Blue Scullcap, Mad Bog Weed, etc. 

Part Used.— The Herb. 

No. of Principxtjs — three, viz., resin, resmoid, and neutral 

Properties.— Nervine, tonic, diuretic, and anti-spasmodic. 

Employment.— Convulsions, chorea, delirium, hysteria, 
dysmenorrJiea, neuralgia, nervous debility, urinary disor- 
ders, etc. 

Much division of sentiment has heretofore existed among 
the profession in regard to the remedial value of the Scutella- 
ria Lateriflora. By many it is considered a medicine of great 
utility in the treatment of a variety of disorders, while others 
attach little or no value to it. We have shown, in the first 
part of this volume, while treating of the variations in the 
therapeutic constituents of plants, that this discrepancy of 
opinion had good foundation, in view of the different degrees 
of development attained by the proximate active principles 
under diverse local influences. The presence of a greater or 
less amount, or the entire absence of those constituents upon 


which a plant depends for medicinal value must ever give 
rise to a division of sentiment respecting its claims as a thera- 
peutic agent. Whoever uses the Scutellarin now being 
treated of, will not fail to place it in his catalogue of remedies 
as a medicine entitled to his confidence. An ounce of Scutel- 
larin being positive and uniform in its constitution and pro- 
perties, will better enable him to determine its worth than a 
thousand pounds of the crude herb. 

As a nervine tonic, we value the Scutellarin highly. It 
soothes and quiets the irritability of the nervous system, giv- 
ing tone and regularity of action, lessens cerebral excitement, 
abates delirium, diminishes febrile excitement, excites diapho- 
resis and diuresis, and accomplishes its work without any sub- 
sequent unpleasant reactions. The average dose of the Scut- 
ellarin is TWO grains, increased, when occasion requires, to 
five, or even more. The doses may be repeated every one, 
two, or three hours, according to the urgency of the symptoms. 

Scutellarin is of great service in fevers and other acute dis- 
eases in which there is a tendency to delirium. It seems to 
have the power of lessening cerebral excitement, and at the 
same time proves febrifuge. It is equally useful in the treat- 
ment of acute dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and other female 
disorders in which the head is liable to be unpleasantly 
affected. It would seem to have an especial influence in 
equalising the flow of the nervous currents, and so lessening 
the tendency to congestions. We have found the Scutellarin 
a remedy of great value in the treatment of coup de soleil or 
sun stroke, particularly when the case has become chronic. 
We meet with many patients who have been unpleasantly 
affected by heat, and who have never entirely recovered from 
its effects. They are unable to endure the sun's rays, and 
complain of dizziness, headache, nervous tremblings, wake- 
fulness, indigestion, etc. We have met with entire success in 
many of these cases by the use of the Scutellarin in connec- 
tion with Podophyllin. We administer the latter in full ca- 
thartic doses at the commencement of the treatment, in view 
of its derivative influences, and afterwards repeat it in such 


doses and at such intervals as in our judgment may be neces- 
sary. The Scuteliarin we exhibit in doses of from two to» 
FIVE grains three or four times a day. 

Scuteliarin is an excellent remedy in the treatment of con- 
vulsions, chorea, hysteria, etc., more as a radical remedy 
during the remissions, however, than as a means of overcom- 
ing the immediate spasm. It seems to be of more utility, ia. 
these cases, as a means of giving permanency to a condition,, 
than as a means of bringing about a condition. In the treat- I. 
ment of epileptic convulsions, as soon as we have secured a. 
remission of the attacks by means of Gelsemin, we employ the-. 
Scuteliarin in combination with the Gelsemin as a radical 
remedy, y We find them to operate admirably in combination 
Our formula is as follows : 

Scuteliarin 3 i. 

Gelsemin grs. V. 

Mix and divide into ten powders. Dose, one, two or three 
times a day. The proportions may be varied to suit the pe- 
culiarities of the case. 

Scuteliarin may be relied upon under all circumstances as a 
nervine tonic. In all cases of nervous irritability, debility, 
hysteria, dysmenorrhea, etc., indications will be found for its 
employment. We deem it much superior to the preparations 
of opium in the management of the disorders of children. For 
nervous irritability, wakefulness, slight febrile disturbances,, 
flatulence, colicky pains, etc., it answers admirably in combi- 
nation with Asclepin. Make a solution in warm water and 
administer in small and frequently repeated doses. 

When desired, the Scuteliarin may be combined with other 
antispasmodics, as the Caulophyllin, Viburnin, Cypripedin, 
etc., or with tonics, as the Cerasein, Cornin, Fraserin, etc., or 
with diuretics, as the Populin, Senecin, Eupatorin Purpu.,. 

We have used the Scuteliarin with benefit in threatened 
trismus, tetanic cramps, and other spasmodic disorders. Its 
diuretic powers are considerable, but not uniformly displayed- 


In many cases we have found it to induce a copious flow of 
urine, while in others no appreciable diuretic effects were ob- 
servable. When taken in warm solution it proves gently 
diaphoretic, and is useful in breaking up u recent cold 

ffS*- -44<Q9»»-t- *tBB 


This preparation of the Scutellaria is equivalent to the pre- 
paration first treated of, and is employed for the same pur- 
poses. It is convenient of dispensation and administration, 
and for combining with other of the Concentrated Tinctures, 
"We make much use of it in combination with the Con. Tine. 

Con. Tine. Scutellaria 

" " Gelseminum ; aa. 3 ii. 

Mix. Dose from five to fifteen drops. We employ it 
in epileptic and other convulsions, hysteria, dysmenorrhea, 
chorea, nervous debility, wakefulness, etc. 

Equal parts of the Con. Tinctures of Scutellaria and Senecia 
form an excellent combination for the treatment of pectoral 
disorders, gravelly affections, amenorrhea, nervous debility, 
hysteria, uterine engorgements, and other disorders of the 
female system. 

With the Con. Tine. Eupatorium Purpu. it will be found 
serviceable in affections of the urinary apparatus. 

Either alone or in combination with other suitable agents. 
it will be found valuable for the relief of nervous h eadaches, 
neuralgic pains, palpitation of the heart, and in all disorders 


indicating the employment of an antispasmodic, nervine, U.aJu 
and diuretic. 

The average dose of the tincture is five drops, varied as 
circumstances may require. It produces no unpleasant effects 
in over doses, operating under all circumstances, so far as we 
have observed, without excitement. 


We omitted to notice the Oil of Populus in its proper con- 
nection, hence introduce it here. It is chiefly as an external 
application that we desire to call attention to it, its value as 
an internal remedy being so indefinite that we prefer omitting 
any reference to its internal employment. As an external 
appliance for burns, sore nipples, abrasions of the skin, and 
various eruptions, we are enabled to speak from experience 
of its great value. In its influences it seems to partake of the 
character of the balsams, soothing irritation, correcting the 
acrimony of eruptive exudations, and favoring cicatrization. 
For the purposes above mentioned it may be made into an 
ointment with lard, fresh butter, simple cerate, or other bases. 
From one to three drachms of the Oil may be added to each 
ounce of the base employed. In some cases it may be usefully 
joined with Olive oil, or oil of sweet almonds. The samfe 
proportions above mentioned may be observed. At other 
times it may be requisite to apply the oil without admixture. 
For some forms of eczema, salt rheum, excoriated nipples, 
burns, scalds, abrasions, healthy ulcers; etc., this will be found 
one of the most efficient applications ever employed. In erup- 
tions of the scalp it will be found equally useful. 


<m m- 

Derived from Apocynum Cannabinum. 

Nat. Ord. — Apocynaceoe. 

Sex. Sjst. — Pcntcmdria Digynia. 

Common Names. — Black Indian Hemp, Dog's-bane, etc. 

Part Used.— -The Hoot. 

No. of Principles, three, viz., resin, resinoid, and neutral, 

Properties. — Emetic, cathartic, diuretic, diaphoretic, al- 
terative, tonic, and vermifuge. 

Employment. — Intermittent and remittent fevers, rheur 
matisrx, scrofula, dropsy, syphilis, constipation, chronic 
hepatitis, jaundice, etc. 

In sm*U doses, say from one fourth to one half of one 
grain, Apocynin is diaphoretic, expectorant, stimulant, and 
diuretic, and as such is employed in intermittent and remittent 
fevers, pneumonia, pleuritis, acute rheumatism, and other fe- 
brile disorders. In large doses it is an active emeto-cathartic, 
somewhat drastic in its operation, producing copious watery 
stools, and greatly promoting diuresis. 

We havsi found the Apocynin efficient in promoting the 



absorption of serous effusions, particularly when investing the 
larger cavities, as of the chest, abdomen, etc. We have em- 
ployed it with success in the treatment of hydrothorax. The 
average dose of the Apocynin is TWO grains, repeated twice 
or thrice daily. It frequently produces considerable nausea 
and griping, which may be corrected by combining it with 
aromatics and stimulants. As a diaphoretic and expectorant, 
from ONE fourth to ONE HALF grain may be given once in 
from two to four hours. It seems to resolve the viscidity of 
the pulmonary secretions, and to stimulate the mucous sur- 
faces into healthful activity, hence is useful in bronchitis, 
laryngitis, catarrh, etc.. We have employed the Apocynin 
successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis. It is most useful 
when the latter results from the suppression of some secretion, 
as the menses, hemorrhoids, or from serous accumulations 
within the cavity of the chest. 

Apocynin has also been found serviceable in scrofula, 
syphilis, eruptions of the skin, constipation of the bowels, 
chronic hepatic aberation, jaundice, and for the removal of 
worms, particularly the ascaris vermicularis. For the latter 
purpose it is administered three times daily, in doses sufficient 
to keep the bowels somewhat relaxed, continued for three 
days, then omitted for three days, and resumed again if re- 

Apocynin is accredited with some narcotic power, in view 
of the patient's becoming somewhat drowsy when under the 
influence of cathartic doses. The pulse at the same time di- 
minishes in frequency. These effects pass off, however, with 
the operation of the medicine. When given in too large, or 
too frequently repeated doses, a lingering and distressing 
nausea is produced, accompanied with prostration and debil- 
ity. In the treatment of scrofula and other diseases of an as- 


theme character, it should be alternated with tonics. Combi- 
nations with other remedies may be easily effected, at the op- 
tion of the practitioner, but we are decidedly in favor of using 
it singly and alternating with other remedies when indicated 
The diuretic power of the Apocynin seems to reside more 


in its property as a stimulant of the absorbent system, than in 
any direct influence it has upon the kidneys. For this reason 
it will be observed that its operation as a diuretic is not uni • 
form, and is governed by the existing diathesis. 




Derivation, properties and employment same as the above. 
."Medium dose, three drops. Preferred by many on account 
of its diffusible character, and the facility with which it may 
be administered. When desired, it may be combined with 
other of the concentrated tinctures indicated in the case. The 
following combinations are sometimes employed: 

Con. Tine. Apocynum 

" " Chelone aa. 3 i. 

Mix. Dose from two to five drops. 

Con. Tine. Apocynum 

11 " Euonymus ......... — aa. 3i« 

Mix. Dose same as above. 

Con. Tine. Apocynum 3i 

" u Eupatorium Purpu ...3& 

Mix. Dose from four to eight drops. 


<♦•♦* A 

X)erived from Barosma Crenata. 

Nat. Ord. — liutacece. 

Bex. Syst. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Common Name. — Buchu. 

Part Used. — The Leaves. 

No. of Principles. — Two {Resin and Neutral?) 

Properties. — Diuretic, alterative, diaphoretic, tonic, stimw 
lant and antispasmodic. 

Employment. — Gravel, catarrh of the urinary bladder, dis' 
ease of the prostate gland, hematuria, rheumatism, gout, 
dropsy, cutaneous diseases, gonorrhea, gleet, leucorrhea, &c. <&c. 

Barosmin is a diuretic of the alterative class, and its speci- 
fic influence is generally more observed in the corrected 
character of the urine than in its increased now. The reme- 
dial utility of the Barosmin is most especially manifested in 
the correction of the uric and lithic acid diatheses. Hence 
its employment is appropriate in all diseases complicated with 
or taking" their rise from a superabundant formation of these 

Gravelly affections, characterized by the deposit of a pink- 
ish colored sediment in the urine, offer a wide field for its 
employment. Both practitioner and patient will sometimes 
be astonished by the amount of urates eliminated in a few 
hours under the influence of this remedy. In all cases in 
which the writer has had occasion to employ preparations of 
the Buchu, he has found that its efficacy has been materially 


enhanced by the exhibition of alterative doses of PodopliylHn 
in connection with it. 

Catarrh of the bladder is another affection in which I have 
used tliis remedy with a very gratifying degree of success. 
Its peculiar alterative properties are here manifested. It al- 
lays the irritation of the mucous surfaces, lessens the amount 
of mucous voided, and apparently cleanses and heals the abra- 
sions of the mucous surfaces. 

hi enlargement of the prostate gland, and thickening of the 
urethral canal, its value as a resolvent can scarcely be esti- 
mated. A persevering use of the remedy is requisite in these 
cases. Among the serious affections to which the urinary ap- 
paratus is liable, and in the treatment of which I have em- 
ployed the preparations of the Buelm with remarkable suc- 
cess, I may mention hematuria. The specific tonic pro- 
perty of the remedy is here manifested, and in fact I know of 
no better tonic remedy for the kidneys under any circum- 

In rheumatic affections, so frequently dependent upon a 
uric acid diatheses, I have long employed this remedy with 
the most satisfactory results. Even in acute rheumatism, 
after the inflammatory symptoms are measurably subdued, I 
seldom omit its exhibition. 

I have cured many cases of lumbago with this remedy, in 
connection with alterative doses of Podophyllin. 

In dropsy it is mainly useful in the asthenic forms, particu- 
larly when the kidneys, from want of tone, are tardy in the 
elimination of the absorbed fluid, or are loaded with uric acid 

1p che treatment of cutaneous eruptions, such as salt rheum, 
eozo'/ia, tinea capitis, &c, I consider it a remedy of great 
v^Iit?. I have long been of opinion, as heretofore expressed in 
wiv writino's, that in the treatment of skin diseases diuretics 

%j O ' 

are flie best alteratives. I would also mention erysipelas, 
both acute and chronic, as being a complaint in which I have 
emp oyed this remedy very successfully. * 

1» the management of gonorrhea, gleet, leucorrhea, and ul- 
cere dons of the uterus, this will be found a most valuable aux- 


iliary remedy. I would mention, however, that its employ* 
ment in the treatment of females will sometimes be attended 
with a sense of tension and weight in the region of the uterus, 
and a tendency to prolapsus. When these symptom sappear, 
the remedy should be suspended. 

Administered in warm solution, the Barosmin will gener- 
ally prove strongly diaphoretic, and the peculiar odor of the 
plant will be perceptible in the perspiration. It is also very 
often perceptibie in the urine within an hour or two after 
being; exhibited. The warm infusion will sometimes nau- 

The dose of the Barosmin is from two to four grains. 
The best vehicle in which to adminster it is water. 


Derivation and properties similar to the above. I much 
prefer it on account of its possessing the volatile oil be- 
longing to the plant, and for its convenience of administration 
and dispensation. 

Both these preparations will operate better if a/ "ministered 
at least one hour before, or two hours after, meals. 

Dose of the Tincture, from ten to thirty drops 


Derived from Iris Versicolor, 

Nat. Ord. — Iridacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Triandria Monogynia 

Common Name. — Blue Flag. 

Part Used.— The Root. 

No. of Principles — four, viz., resin, resmoid, alkaloid, 
mid neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, resolvent, sialagogue, laxative, diu- 
retic, aiiti-syphilitic, vermifuge, etc. 

Employment. — Scrofula, syphilis, gonoi*rhea, dropsy rheu* 
matism, glandular swellings, eruptions of tlie skin, and 
affections of the liver and spleen. 

Irisin is justly esteemed as one of our most valuable alter- 
atives. It is eminently resolvent, and exercises a marked in- 
fluence over the entire glandular system, resolving morbid 
deposits, quickening the activity of the secreting apparatus, 
and promoting depuration through the various emunctories. 
It arouses the functions of the absorbent, venous and lym- " 
phatic systems, removes obstructions and corrects aberationa 


of the hepatic and renal functions. . As an anti-syphilitic, it has 
few, if any, superiors. It increases the salivary flow, and has 
the reputation of producing ptyalism. But a careful distinc- 
tion must be made between the effects produced by vegetable 
agencies upon the mucous and salivary glands, and mercurial 
salivation. The former are nothing more nor less than mani- 
festations of a quickened physiological activity ; evidences of 
special therapeutic stimulus, constituting, oftentimes, a critical 
conservative effort. No loosening of the teeth, no sponginess 
of the gums, no putrefactive fetor, no sloughing of the soft 
parts ; increased, but not disordered secretion. On the other 
hand, mercury induces a pathological condition of the mucous 
surfaces ; provokes a metamorphosis of the vital constituent? 
of the blood and fluids, and favors the formation of vitiated 
products ; altering from good to bad, and from bad to worse ; 
giving rise to congestions, lesions, putrefactive conversions 
and disorganizations of the organic structures. In the former 
case we have the evidence of a direct therapeutic stimulus 
operating upon the vital impressibility of the secreting appa- 
ratus, promoting increased activity of its functions for the 
ourpose of eliminating legitimate products. In the latter in- 
stance we have an augmented flow of morbid materials result- 
ing from the destructive conversions of the vital constituents 
by the remedy itself, and which are not the legitimate products 
of organic metamorphoses. In the former case the remedy 
itself is the motor-stimulus, while in the latter instance the 
mercurial corruptions constitute the stimuli of excitement. 

We have used the Irisin with good success in the treatment 
of scrofula. It is peculiarly useful in those cases accompanied 
with hepatic derangement. The average dose of the Irisin as 
an alterative is two grains, repeated twice or thrice a day. It 
will generally prove gently laxative in this quantity. In 
larger doses, say from FOUR to Six grains, it usually proves 
cathartic. Its operation is sometimes accompanied with pain 
and griping, which may be corrected by combining it with 
'stimulants as the Xanthoxylin, Capsicum, ginger, etc. Irisin 


is mostly employed in combination with other alteratives, as 
the Stillingin, Corydalin, Phytolacin, Kumin, etc. In many 
cases it is better to employ it alone and alternate it with tonics. 
The following formula is of great ralue in the treatment of 
hepatic torpor : 

Irisin 31 

Kumin . 3 ii. 

Mix and divide into twenty powders. Dose, one, three 
times a day. The dose may be increased as occasion requires. 
The Eumin is a most excellent remedy in chronic disorders 
of the liver. 

Irisin is one of the most excellent remedies we possess for 
the cure of syphilis. In eradicating the syphiltic virus and 
correcting the diathesis of the system, it has few equals. Its 
influences are positive and certain. It may be employed alone 
and occasionally alternated with other alteratives, or they may 
be combined as occasion requires. We have prescribed the 
following formula in many cases, with most excellent results: 

Irisin _ . 

Phytolacin aa. 3 i. 

Stillingin 3 ii. 

Mix and divide into twenty powders. One of these pow- 
ders may be given three times daily. We sometimes vary the 
formula as follows : 

Irisin . 3 ii. 

Corydalin 3i. 

Mix. From three to five grains of this compound may be 
administered three times per day. Or the following : 

Irisin.... ........... 

Xanthoxvlin aa. 3ss. 

Mix. Dose from two to four grains three times a day* 
In this way we vary the combination to meet the indications 


of the case. Other 9il' nhe concentrated medicines, as th© 
Smilacin, Chimaphilii, Alnuin, etc., may be combined with 
*he Irisin to suit part'c T alar cases. 

Irisin has been frond particularly serviceable in the treat- 
ment of leucorrhea, congestions of the cervix, ulceration, and 
other disorders of th s> uterine system. It is particularly indi- 
cated in uterine leucorrhea, in which affection it seems to be 
of almost specific value. Of course auxiliary treatment mast 
not be neglected. 

As an alterative, rfoolvent, and detergent, the Irisin is 
highly beneficial in rheumatism, glandular swellings, eruptions 
of the skin, and in all diseases indicating any peculiar cachexy. 
"We have found it oA' reliable utility in gonorrhea, gleet, and 
for the cure of all morbid discharges from the vagina and 

In the treatment *?f dropsy the Irisin is mainly useful as a 
resolvent, and for promoting the activity of the absorbent sys- 
tem. In conjunct;r n with the other remedies, it has been suc- 
cessfully employed in the cure of that complaint. 

In visceral engagements and torpor, as of the liver, spleen* 
etc., the Irisin is a remedy not to be lightly estimated. In 
doses sufficient tr> ensure a regular and soluble condition of 
the bowels, it wD *■ be found highly efficacious in chronic he- 
patic disorders. Also in glandular indurations. 

It has been er iployed in combination with Macrotin, with 
considerable success for the relief of menstrual suppressions. 
Two grains of lisin with HALF a grain of Macrotin will form 
the average doTKi, repeated twice or thrice a day. 

Irisic ; s sometimes substituted for Podophyllin when the 
latter is cont/> -udicatecL 


Derived from Hydrastis Canadensis, 

Nat. Order. — Ranunculaceas,. 

Sex. Syst. — Polyandria Polygamia, 

Common Names. — Golden Seal, Yellow Puccoon^ Ground 
Raspberry, Tumeric Root, etc. 

Part Used.— The Root, 

No. of .Principles.— -four, viz., resin, resinoid, alkaloid, and 

Properties. — Laxative, chologogue, alterative, resolvent, 
tonic, diuretic, anti-septic, etc. 

Employment. — Zeucorrhea, gonorrhea, gleet, cystitis, fevers, 
dyspepsia, constipation, piles, opthalmia, otorrhea, catanh, 
and all diseases involving the mucous surfaces. 

Hydrastis exercises an especial influence over mucous snr 
faces. Its action in this respect is so manifest that the indica 
tions for its employment cannot be mistaken. Upon the livei 
it acts with equal certainty and efficacy. As a chologogue 
and deobstruent it has few equals. In affections of the spleen^ 
mesentery, and abdominal viscera generally, it is an efficient 


and reliable remedy. Also in scrofula, glandular diseases 
generally, cutaneous eruptions, indigestion, debility, chronic 
diarrhea and dysentery, constipation, piles, and all morbid and 
critical discharges. 

Hydrastin has been successfully employed in the cure of 
leucorrhea. It is of singular efficacy when that Complaint is 
complicated with hepatic aberration. It is employed both in- 
ternally and externally. The usual dose is from one to two 
grains three times a day, increasing the quantity, if moie of 
the laxative effect is needed. For topical use, ONE drachm to 
ONE pint of boiling water, to be injected tepid or cold, at the 
option of the patient or practitioner. m The same will be ibund 
extremely valuable as an injection in gonorrhea, gleet, ure- 
thral inflammation, vaginitis, cystitis, hemorrhoids, etc. When 
considerable inflammation exists, and for injections into the 
bladder, the infusion should be allowed to stand for a time, in 
order that the resinoid principle may precipitate, as the neu- 
tral and alkaloid principles held in solution by the water are 
more particularly beneficial in these cases. The resinoid prin- 
ciple possesses a degree of escharotic power, and does not act 
kindly in certain irritable conditions of the mucous sui faces, 
proving too stimulating. On the other hand, when the con- 
dition is one of coldness and torpor, and when there art; exu* 
dations of plastic lymph, the action of the resinoid principle 
is particularly demanded. It is in consequence of this pecu. 
liar property of the resinoid principle that Hydrastin is con- 
tra-indicated in certain irritated and inflamed conditions of 
the mucous membranes of the bowels'. Its employment under 
these circumstances will be attended with a troublesome re- 
laxation of the bowels, with griping pains, tenesmus,' etc. If 
employed at all in these cases, it must be accompanied with a 
plentiful supply of mucilages. 

In the treatment of leucorrhea the Hydrastin may be com- 
bined with such other remedies as are suited to the indications. 
We find it valuable joined with Helonin. 



7 Helonin aa#3l 

Mix. Dose from two to four grains three times a day. 
This combination will be found excellent when indigestion, 
hepatic torpor, and constipation exist. Stillingin is an inval- 
uable adjunctive when the case has become chronic, and the 
patient is afflicted with a strumous or scorbutic diathesis. 

Hydrastin --.-...--........ 3i. 

Stillingin T)ii. 

Mix. Dose, from three to five grains three times a day. 
This treatment should be alternated with an occasional dose of 
Podophyllin. This formula will be found valuable in gonor- 
rhea, gleet, and catarrh of the bladder. 

We have also found the following formula of exceeding 
utility in leucorrhea when the vaginal secretions were acrid and 
.-J-^ offensive. 

/ 9- 

Hydrastin 3 i. 

/^ Super Carb. Soda 3i. 

Mix. Dose from four to eight grains three times per day. 
This is one of the best corrective remedies we have ever em- 
ployed. It is equally advantageous in those forms of indiges- 
tion accompanied with acidity, eructations, flatulency, and 
rectal irritation, and in ulceration of the mucous membranes 
of the bowels. We value it highly. 

The Hydrastin is of inestimable value in the treatment of 
chronic derangements of the liver and portal circulation. It 
seems to exercise an especial influence over the portal vein 
and hepatic structure generally, resolving biliary deposits, re 
moving obstructions, promoting secretion, and giving tone to 
the various functions. It is eminently chologogue, and may 
be relied upon with confidence for the relief of hepatic torpor. 
Its operation is materially enhanced by the administration of 
an occasional dose of Podophyllin. In some cases they may 
be combined with advantage. 

As a general remedy in the treatment of piles, we know of 
none better. We have cured many inveterate cases by ad- 



ministering the Hydrastin twice or thrice a day, alternated 
with an occasional dose of Podophyllin, and using an infusion, 
of the Hydrastin as an injection into tho rectum. Perseve- 
rance is highly essential to a cure in chronic cases. 

Ilydrastin has obtained considerable repute as a remedy in 
intermittent fever. We have employed it to a considerable: 
extent, and in a majority of cases successfully. We have, 
found it most reliable in those cases in which the prolonga- 
tion of the disease depended upon a disordered condition of 
the functions of the liver. The administration of a thorough* 
dose of Podophyllin, followed by the judicious use of the Ily- 
drastin, has effected a radical cure in many cases. When a. 
stimulant is required, we combine it with Xanthoxylin, and 
sometimes with Macrotin. We have used each of the follow- 
ing formulas, and found them all useful : 

Hy drastin 3 i. 

Xanthoxylin 3 ii. 

Mix. Dose, from TWO to four grains, once in from two to 
four hours. 

• Ilydrastin 3 ss. 

Macrotin grs. VIII. 

Mix. Dose, from two to three grains, repeated once in 
from two to four hours, or as often as the patient can bear. 
The Macrotin will sometimes produce too much cerebral ex- 
citement, and the quantity must be lessened or given at longer 
intervals. Hydrastin also operates well in conjunction with 

Hydrastin 3 i. 

Cornin T)ii. 

Mix. Dose, from three to FIVE grains. The anti-periodic 
power of Hydrastin is feeble, yet it will effect a cure in many 
diseases characterised by periodicity, by reason of its resolvent, 
alterative, chologogue, and laxative properties. 

In many derangements of the urinarv apparatus we have 


found the Hydrastin to answer an admirable purpose. In 
chronic inflammation of the bladder, we deem it one of the 
most reliable agents of cure. It should be given in small and 
repeated doses. In congestion of the ureters, chronic suppres- 
sion of the urine, and gravelly affections, it will be found 
highly useful. Also in incontinence of the urine, and diabe- 
tes. As a tonic in the convalescing stages of fevers, pneumo- 
nia, dysentery, and other acute diseases, particularly when a 
laxative property is needed, the Hydrastin is peculiarly appro- 
priate. It promotes digestion and assimilation, obviates con. 
stipation, and gives tone to the depurating functions gene- 
rally. It has been successfully employed in connection with 
astringents, as the Geranin, Myricin, Hamamelin, etc., in the 
treatment of chronic diarrhea and dysentery. Also in ulcera- 
tions of the mucous membranes of the stomach and bowels, 
apthse, stomatitis, etc. In theso cases it operates well in con- 
junction with Juglandin and Leptandrin. 

Externally, the Hydrastin is employed in opthalmia, otor- 
rhea, catarrh, eczema, ulcers, etc. From one to two drachms 
may be infused in one pint of boiling water, and the resinoid 
principle allowed to precipitate. It then may be used as a 
wash in opthalmia, as an injection in otorrhea, and snuffed up 
the nostrils for the relief of catarrh. We have used it in this 
way with much benefit. When more of the astringent pro- 
perty is required, it may be joined with Geranin, or Myricin, 
or Hamamelin, etc., one drachm to one pint of boiling water. 
The dry Hydrastin sprinkled upon the surface of an ulcer will 
act as a mild escharotic, dissolve fungoid growths, and pro- 
voke a healthful discharge. We sometimes combine it with 
Baptisin for this purpose, equal parts. Or with Sanguinarin, 
Phytolacin, or Trilliin. With Baptisin and Trilliin it forms 
an excellent application for cancerous and other offensive ul- 
cers, correcting the acrimony and fetor of the discharges. 
With Baptisin and Trilliin, in infusion, it forms an excellent 
injection for correcting offensive leucorrheal discharges. Also 
as an injection into the bowels in diarrhea and dysentery 
manifesting a tendency to putrescency. Made into an oint- 


merit with lard, ONE drachm to the ounce, it is useful in ecze- 
ma and other cutaneous eruptions, piles, etc. The following 
we have found excellent for piles, scaly eruptions about the 
nose, lips, ears, etc 


Hydrastin . ... 

Geranin ^ aa. 3 ss. 

Gelsemin grs. XV. 

Lard 3j. 

Make an ointment. The Hydrastin may be dissolved in 
alcohol and used with much benefit as a stimulant in obstinate 
scaly eruptions, opacity of the cornea, enlarged tonsils, syphil- 
itic ulcerations, etc. 

We would here add that our experience has demonstrated 
the Hydrastin to be a valuable remedy in bronchitis, 
laryngitis, and other affections of the respiratory organs. We 
give it in doses of from one to two grains three or four times 
a day, and use the following gargle : 

Hydrastin 3 j. 

Tine. Myrrh ^ij. 

Mix. One teaspoonful added to a wine glassful of water, 
and the throat gargled several times a day. A solution of the 
Hydrastin in water, or its alcoholic tincture diluted in water 
is also beneficial as a wash in apthous sore mouth, sore throat 
of scarlatina, etc. 


Derived from Capsicum Annuum. 

Nat. Orel. — Solanacece. 

Sex S} 7 st. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Common Name. — Cayenne Pepper. 

Part Used.— The Fruit. 

Properties. — Stimulant, anti-septic, and rubefacient. 

Employment. — Dyspepsia, constipation, remittent and scar* 
let fevers, coughs, colds, hoarseness, cholera, suspended ani- 
mazion, rheumatism, passive hemorrhages, and whenever a 
pure and powerful stimulant is needed. 

The properties and employment of Capsicum are so well 
understood that we deem it necessary to say but very little in 
regard to the oil by which it is represented. This oil is some- 
times known by the name of Capsicin. It embodies all the 
properties of the Capsicum, and is employed for the same pur- 
poses. It is sometimes joined with other remedies to promote 
their action, or with Quinine in intermittents, with Podophyl- 
lin in cold and indolent conditions of the system, and with 
l)ther stimulants. It is, perhaps, the very best and purest 
stimulant known ; more prompt but less permanent in its in 



fluences than many others, aa for instance, the Oil of Xan 
thoxylum. In obstinate hepatic torpor, constipation, paraly- 
sis, and in all diseases attended with loss of nervous energy, 
this remedy is of inestimable utility. 

Externally, the Oil of Capsicum is employed as a rubefacient 
and counter irritant. Except in severe cases of sciatica and 
neuralgia, the oil is seldom applied pure, but usually dissolved 
in alcohol. 

Oil of Capsicum 3 i, 

Alcohol 95 per cent 5 IV, 

Mix. This is used as an external application in neuralgia, 
chillblains, rheumatic pains, chronic sprains, and whenever a 
powerful stimulating embrocation is needed. Internally, it is 
administered in doses of from one half to one teaspoonfu] 
for pain in the stomach, colic, fainting, etc. Combined with the 
Oil of Lobelia and dissolved in alcohol, it forms one of the 
most valuable compounds known in pharmacy. Our formula 
is as follows : 


Oil of Capsicum 

Oil of Lobelia aa, 3 i. 

Alcohol 95 per cent %IV 

Mix. This forms one of the most powerful anti-spasmodic 
and stimulant preparations known.vjL.We use it in locked jaw, 
apoplexy, convulsions, suspended animation, sun stroke, poi- 
soning, etc., in doses of from one teaspoonful to one table- 
spoonful, and repeated at intervals of from twenty minutes to 
one hour, as occasion requires. In case the patient cannot 
swallow, it should be administered by injection, and the quan- 
tity doubled. As a general thing it may be diluted with 
water when exhibited, but in trismus and tetanic spasm, and ' 
in all cases of difficult deglutition we use the preparation with- 
out reduction, by which means we soon overcome the spasm 
and remove the chief obstacle to further ministrations. Iii 
tetanus, when the jaws are set, a small quantity poured be- 


tween the teeth will, as soon as it reaches the pharynx, relax 
the spasm and enable the patient to open his mouth, and to 
swallow. It may also be applied externally to the throat and 
angles of the jaw, as well as to any part of the system affected 
with muscular contraction. 

We have found this preparation of excellent service in the 
spasmodic stages of cholera, also in many cases of apoplexy, 
.aided, in the latter instance, by warm stimulating pediluvia, 
•and cold applications to the head. The following plaster ap- 
plied to the back of the neck, and to the soles of the feet will 
prove an efficient auxiliary: 

Oil of Capsicum gtt. X vel XX. 

Wheat flour ^ ss. 

Vinegar q.s. 

Make a plaster. Spread on paper and apply. We use thia 
plaster in preference to mustard as a counter-irritant. It will 
not vesicate. Applied to the back of the neck it relieves acute 
1 Leadaches and a tendency to congestion. We have also used 
it profitably for the relief of pain in various parts of the sys- 
tem, as of the pleura, kidneys, joints, etc., and for the relief 
of coughs and colds, applied to the chest. Also for the relief 
of facial neuralgia. When the oil is not at hand we make the 
plaster as follows : 

Pul. Capsicum one teaspoonful. 

Wheat flour one tablespoonful. 

Vinegar q. s. 

Form a plaster of the proper consistency and spread on 
paper. The practitioner who becomes fully acquainted with 
the value of this plaster will seldom use mustard. 

The following crmula will be found excellent for coughs, 
-colds, influenza, hv. arseness, sore throat, etc.: 

Oil of Capsicum .. gtt. V ad X. 

White sugar . 3 ii. 


Mucilage of Slippery Elm J IV« 

Triturate the oil thoroughly with the sugar and add the 
mucilage, mixing well together. 

Dose, ONE teaspoonful, repeated once in from two to four 

The Oil of Capsicum has been found useful in the atonic forms 
of dyspepsia, both as a radical remedy, and as an adjunct to 
other medicines. It promotes the flow of the gastric juice, 
and resolves the viscidity of the secretions. In sluggish con- 
ditions of the circulation, plasticity of the blood, venous con- 
gestions, etc., it is a remedy of much value. Combined with 
Trilliin, or other styptics and astringents, it will be found ex- 
ceedingly valuable for the relief of uterine and other hemor- 

The medium dose of the oil is one drop, increased or di» 
minished according to the necessities of the case. It enters 
into the compound StUlingia liniment, as given under the head 
of Oil of Stillingia. 

V I 

} : . 


,' 4 



Derived from Hamamelis Virginica. 

Nat. Ord. — Hamamelacece. 

Sex. Sjst. — Pentandria Digynia. 

Common Names.— Witch Hazel, Winter-lloom, Spotted 
Alder, etc. 

Part Used.— The Baric. 

No. of Principles. — Two, viz., resin and neutral. 

Properties. — Astringent, tonic, and sedati/ve. 

Employment. — Diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages, stoma- 
titis, leucorrhea, gleet, etc, 

The Hamamelin is employed with advantage in all case3 
in which astringents are indicated. It is exceedingly valuable 
in hemoptysis, hematamesis, hematuria, and in all affections of 
the mucous surfaces. In diarrhea, dysentery, ul cerations of 
the stomach and bowels, leucorrhea, gleet, and all excessive 
mucous discharges, it answers an admirable purpose. Exter- 
nally, in solution, it is used as a wash in opthalmia, as a gar- 
gle in apthous sore mouth, and as an injection in otorrhea, 
leucorrhea, piles, etc. 



The average dose is two grains. For injections, etc., from 
ONE to two drachms to ONE pint of boiling water. 

It may be combined, when occasion requires, with other 
astringents, as the Lycopin, Myricin, Geranin, Trilliin, etc., 
or with tonics, as the Helonin, Fraserin, Cornin, etc. It is 
very valuable in chronic diarrhea and dysentery, and in mu- 
cous hemorrhoids. In injection, it is useful in vaginitis, ul- 
cerations of the cervix, and other affections of the uterine or- 

It has been found beneficial in the latter stages of phthisis 
for allaying the gastric irritability and restraining the diar- 
rhea. It exercises a peculiar soothing and healing influence 
over inflamed and abraded mucous surfaces. In solution, it is 
employed with advantage as a topical application in eczema, 
tinea capitis, and other cutaneous diseases, bruises, wounds, 
etc. Made into an ointment with lard it has been used for the 
same purposes ; also in piles. 

The solution will be found useful as an injection in prolap- 
sus of the womb, rectum, etc. 

The doses may be increased to FIVE and even to TEN 
grains, in several cases, with safety and advantage. 



Derived from Euphorbia Corollata, 

Nat. Ord. — Buphorbiacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Dodecandria Trigynia. 

Common Names. — Bowman's Hoot, Blooming Spurge, etiv> 

Part Used.— The Boot. 

No. of Principles. — Two, Viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Emetic, cathartic, diaphoretic, expectorant^ 
end vermifuge. 

Employment. — Fevers, dropsy, diarrhea, dysentery, biliary 
congestions, worms, etc. 

The Euphorbia is" a reliable acquisition to our indigenous 
materia medica, and fulfills many important indications. In 
small, repeated doses, it acts as a diaphoretic, inducing free 
perspiration, deterges the mucous coats of the stomach and 
bowels, stimulates the functions of the liver, and corrects the 
tendency to colliquitive diarrheal discharges. In large doses 
it is emetic and cathartic. If an undue amount of acidity pre- 
dominates in the stomach, its emetic powers are suspended, 
*nd it passes off by the bowels. It is for this reason that, 


whew administered as an emetic, it has obtained the reputation, 
of being uncertain fin its operation. The necessity of neu* 
tralising undue acidity previous to its administration will^ 
therefore, be apparent. When administered as an emetic, it 
will generally vomit without exciting any previous nausea 
white, at other times, considerable prostration of the muscular 
system with lingering nausea will be observed, paleness of the 
countenance, and a cool, moist state of the skin, from which,. 
however, the patient rapidly recovers as soon as the me dicine 
has operated upon the bowels. Its action in this respect may 
generally be corrected by the administration of alkalies, or of 
a quick cathartic, as the Jalapin. We deem the Euphorbin 
oat; of the most powerful, and, at the same time, safest revul- 
sive remedies that can be administered for the relief of cere- 
bral congestions. It excites, powerfully, the absorbent and 
venous systems, and is, therefore, frequently employed for the 
removal oi dropsical effusions, removing them when other 
mea&s fail. Combined with Podophyllin, as given under that 
aead, its efficacy is enhanced, and, so combined, is employed 
m - the forming stages of typhoid and other fevers, dropsy,. 
cerebral congestions, obstinate menstrual suppressions, and 
rbr the removal of biliary concretions. 

We have found the Euphorbin of much utility in the treat- 
Dent of cholera infantum, diarrhea and dysentery. It seems. 
to .exercise a peculiar control over the glandular structure of. 
ihe intestinal canal, correcting and giving tone to the action 
of the secreting vessels, and promoting assimilation of the fecal 
jiatters. We have administered it in cases of cholera infan- 
tum when the alvine discharges were w r atery, copious, and 
offensive, and had, as the result of its operation, well assimi- 
lated s-tools, without fetor. It seems to possess considerable 
power in correcting a tendency to putrescency. We have 
been unable to discover that the Euphorbin acts as a special 
irritant upon the bowels, but, on the contrary, esteem it as a 
corrective of irritation. Our observations of its operatioa 
have led us to the conclusion that the irritation sometimes ob- 
servable is the result of an increased activity on the part of th® 


eliminating vessels of the alimentary canal, and the consequent 
depuration of certain morbid and acrid materials from the 
blood, which, being brought in contact with the mucous sur- 
faces, constitute an extraneous cause of excitement. It may 
be, also, when the root has been administered in substance, 
that the non-medicinal constituents have undergone a fermen- 
tative decomposition, and given rise to products that operated 
as special irritants. Or the ligneous portions may have ope- 
rated mechanically. At any rate, we have found the Euphor- 
bin to control rather than to excite irritation. , 

The average dose of the Euphorbin, as a diaphoretic, is from 
ONE FOURTH to ONE grain, repeated at intervals of from one ' 
to three Jiours. As an emetic and cathartic, from TWO to 
three grains. It may be combined with Asclepin to increase 
its diaphoretic and expectorant powers. 

9- . . 

Euphorbin _ grs. X. 

Asclepin grs. XL. 

Mix.-i From one to two grains of this combination may 
be administered once in from one to three hours, and will be 
found exceedingly valuable in fevers, acute rheumatism, pneu- 
monia, pleuritis, acute bronchitis, dysentery, etc. \ If nausea 
arise, diminish the close, or exhibit at longer intervals. In 
many cases it is desirable to provoke and maintain a degree 
of nausea, for which purpose nothing better can be devised. 

In the treatment of dropsy, the Euphorbin is usually ad- 
ministered in full doses, say from two to four grains. Its 
employment, however, will be contra-indicated in cases accom- 
panied with much debility. It may be combined with Podo- 
phyllin or Jalapin, at the option of the practitioner. 

For the removal of worms, we usually give from one half 
to one grain twice or three times a day, or sufficiently often 
to keep the bowels somewhat relaxed, and continue it for three 
•or four days at a time. Even when no worms are removed, 
its administration results in decided benefit to the patient. We 
value it exceedingly in the treatment of the indigestion of 
children, and for the removal of all that train of symptoms 


wkich is usually supposed to indicate the existence of worms 
These are, loss of appetite, or it may be variable, voracious 
at times, and none at others, furred tongue, feverishness, fetid 
breath, bloating of the stomach, constipation, or, on the con- 
trary, a troublesome diarrhea, emaciation, peevishness, wake* 
fulness or disturbed sleep, etc. For the relief of these symp- 
toms we rely with much confidence upon the judicious em- 
ployment of the Euphorbin. As a general thing no other 
modicine will be needed, but, when indicated, tonics may be 
employed in connection. 

We can conscientiously recommend the Euphorbin to tta 
profession as a remedy entitled to their confidence 



Derived from Lycopus Vwginicus, 

Nat. Order. — Laminaceoe. 

Sex. Syst. — Diandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Water Horehound, Bugle Weed, Sweet 
Bugle, etc. 

Part Used.— The Herb 

No. of Principles. — two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Astringent, styptic, sedative and tonic. 

Employment. — Incipient phthisis, hemoptysis, hematame- 
sis, hematuria, uterine and other /hemorrhages, diabetes, 
chronic diarrhea and dysentery, cardiac affections, etc. 

The Lycopin is, with us, an exceedingly valuable remedy, 
[ts action is peculiar and positive. It exercises a special in- 
fluence over the respiratory, cardiac, and renal functions, and 
obviates a tendency to sanguineous exudations and effusions. 
I No agent yet discovered can compare with it in efficacy as 
a radical remedy in the treatment of hemorrhage of the lungs. 
In this complaint it seems to be almost a specific. 4 We have 
Used the plant and its preparations long and successfully, and 



can speak with authority. It is an arterial sedative of the 
most valuable kind, reducing the force and frequency of the 
pulse when abnormally excited, and its operation is unattended 
with any symptoms of narcotism. It resolves congestions of 
the capillary and venous plexuses, and invigorates and gives 
tone to the capillary structure generally. It is a tonic of more 
than ordinary efficiency, invigorating the appetite, promoting 
digestion and assimilation, and allaying gastric and enteric 
irritability. It cleanses and heals abrasions and ulcerations 
of the mucous surfaces, and gives tone to the muscular fibres. 
Upon the skin and kidneys it operates in a peculiar and de- 
sirable manner, restoring the secreting power, and harmonising 
and giving tone to those functions. 

Lycopin is the most reliable remedy for the radical cure of 
hemoptysis that we have ever employed. We give it in two 
grain doses three or four times a day, preferring to administer 
it in water. In severe hemorrhages we administer it every 
thirty or sixty minutes until relief is afforded, and then con- 
tinue as above stated. The same directions will' apply in 
hemorrhages of every kind. The doses may be increased, or 
repeated at shorter intervals when the urgency of the symp- 
toms render it necessary. It may be combined, if desired, 
with other styptics and astringents, as the oil of Erigeron, TriJ- 
liin, Greranin, etc., but we have generally found the Lycopin 
competent without the aid of auxiliaries. Lycopin has been 
found serviceable in incipient phthisis, abating the febrile 
tendency, promoting expectoration, strengthening digestion, 
aiding cutaneous and renal depuration, and restraining a ten- 
dency to hemorrhage. It is employed in the manner directed 

For the cure of ulcerations of the stomach and bowels, chro- 
nic diarrhea and dysentery, and diseases of the mucous surfaces 
generally, the Lycopin should be given in doses of TWO or 
THREE grains three times a day, and alternated with Leptandrin 
or Juglandin in sufficient doses to ensure a soluble condition 
of the bowels. It may be combined, when in the judgment 
of the practitioner it is advisable, with Myricin, or Ehusin, or 


Geranin, and other astringents, or with tonics, as the Fraserh*, 
Cornin, etc. 

Lycopin has been found of remarkable efficacy in diabetes* 
We give it in doses of from two to four grains three times a 
day, and regulate the bowels with Hydrastin. A suitable 
diet and regimen must be adhered to. The alkaline sponge 
bath must be employed two or three times a week, and the 
food, for a time, consist mostly of animal gelatine. An occa- 
sional alterative dose of Podophyllin and Leptandrin w ; ll 
much facilitate the operation of the Lycopin. 

The properties above ascribed to the Lycopin are positive 
and uniform, and the remedy may be relied upon to accom- 
plish all we have said for it. Its value once known to the 
practitioner, he will consider his therapeutic repertory in- 
complete without it. Its operation is promoted by the ad« 
ministration of warm diluent infusions. 


Derived in *n Frasera CarolmensU. 
Nat Ord. -Genticmacece. 
Sex. Syst- -Pentandria Monogynia. 
Common Name. — American Colombo. 
Part Used.— The Root. 

No. of Principles — three, viz., resin, neutral and mucvrenu. 
Properties — Tonic, stimulant, and mildly astringent 
Employment. — Indigestion, debility, diarrhea, -n*<jht' 
sweats, hysteria, gravelly disorders, etc. 

Fraserin is a special tonic and stimulant to the digestive 
organs, and particularly to the mucous membranes of the liver 
and other viscera concerned in digestion and assimilation. It 
possesses no laxative properties, but, on the contrary, is slightly 
astringenc. As a tonic it will be accepted by the stomach 
when other tonics are rejected, and its employment is admissi- 
ble in the most extreme cases of debility, by virtue of its kindly 
influences upon this and the surrounding organs. 

We employ Fraserin in atony of the digestive organs, and 
in all cases of disordered secretion manifested in and by that 


apparatus. It is of exceeding utility in the convalescing 
stages of fevers, diarrhea, dysentery and cholera infantum, 
and in all cases in which the system has been exhausted by 
profuse colliquitive discharges. In all cases of viceral debility, 
whether primary or induced by copious and exhaustive secre- 
tion, Fraserin is equally appropriate. It is also useful in all 
cases in which the secretions evince a septic tendency, having 
considerable power as an antiseptic. 

Fraserin is of great service in the treatment of bilious dis- 
eases occurring in hot climates. In the latter stages of bilious 
and asthenic dysenteries, and even in cholera, we can recom- 
mend the Fraserin as entitled to much confidence. Also in 
jaundice accompanied with extreme debility, mucous hemor- 
rhoids, dyspepsia, etc. Hypochondriacal and hysterical af- 
fections are also relieved by it. Colliquitive diarrheas are fre- 
quently cured with Fraserin alone. V In arthritic and gravelly 
affections accompanied with debility of the digestive organs, 
the Fraserin will be found an excellent remedy. 

The average dose of the Fraserin is four grains, but will 
vary from two to ten. It is best administered dissolved in 
warm water. It may be combined with aromatics and with 
anti-spasmodicsj as the Dioscorein. 

,jl . t V~ Jr^il. k*i * ****** 


f fry- 


Derived fromXanihoxylum Fraxineum, 
Nat. Ord. — Xanthoxylacece. 
Sex Syst. — Dicecia Pentandria. 
Common Name. — Prickly Ash. 
Part Used. — The Bark. 

No. of Principles — two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 
Properties. — Stimulant, tonic, alterative and sialaf^gvs. 
Employment. — Rheumatism, scrofula, paralysis, indigc& 
tion, colic, syphilis, etc. 

Besides the two active principles above named, the bark • 
of the Xanthoxylum yields an oil, which will be treated of 
next in order. 

The Xanthoxylin possesses the properties enumerated 
above in an eminent degree, and will be found highly useful 
in the diseases mentioned. We have used it extensively, and 
esteem it a remedy of great value. It is a stimulant of the 
most permanent kind, having considerable control over the 
circulation, which it quickens and maintains. It also gives 
activity to the muscular fibres of the stomach and bowels, pro 


f/oxes the flow of the saliva, gastric, and other digestive juices, 
and restores the proper secreting power of the mucous sm> 

Xanthoxylin is a remedy of great value in the treatment 
ufthe atonic form of indigestion, scrofula, chronic rheumatism, 
paralysis, general debility, cutaneous eruptions, ulcers, chro- 
nic diarrhea, dysentery, ulcerations of the stomach and bow- 
els, syphilis, gleet, leucorrhea, etc., and for the correction of 
all languid conditions of the system. It enhances the efficacy 
and gives permanency to the influences of other stimulants 
and tonics. 

The average dose of the Xanthoxylin is from TWO to FOUR 
grains. Il may be combined with other remedies when indi- 
cated, or alternated with suitable agents, at the option of the 
practitionei It operates well in combination with Stillingin 
in syphilis, chronic diarrhea, gleet, etc. "With Macrotin we have 
found it highly beneficial in chronic rheumatism. In combi- 
nation with Fraserin it will be found highly serviceable in the 
convalescing stages of dysentery, cholera infantum, and other 
bowel disorders. Other combinations are pointed out in the 
course of this work, and need not be repeated here. 


Derivation same as above. 

This oil possesses properties analogous to the above, being, 
however, more decidedly stimulating, with less of the altera- 
tive and tonic proporties. Its use is more appropriate in as- 
thenic than in sthenic conditions, as it is apt to [produce too 
much irritation of the mucous surfaces. It is employed in 
colic, chronic rheumatism, syphilis, etc. It may be com- 
bined with Irisin and Phytolacin and formed into pills for the 
treatment of the diseases last mentioned. 

The average dose of the oil is from two to FIVE drops. It 
may be dissolved in alcohol and so incorporated with other 
mixtures when desired, or taken upon sugar, ox suspended m 


In this preparation we have embodied the entire therapeu- 
tie value of the bark, and which may be used for all the pur- 
poses of the crude article. It is positive and uniform in 
strength, and convenient of administration. The average 
dose is from TWO to four drops. It is more active than the 
Xanthoxylin, but not so appropriate in the treatment of in- 
fantile disorders, nor in cases of great debility. The Xan- 
thoxylin, being deprived of the oil, is easily soluble and 
readily assimilated, hence more compatible in enfeebled con- 
ditions, as the beneficial effects of remedies depend somewhat 
upon the ability of the system to appropriate them. We some- 
times employ the Con. Tine, in combination with Leptandrin, 
Populin, Juglandin, etc., as noticed under those heads. 


Derived from Sanguinaria Canadensis 

Nat. Orel. — Papaveracece. 

Sex. Syst.—Polyandria Monogynia. 

Common Names.— Blood Boot, Bed Puccoon, etc. 

Part Used. — The Root. 

No. of Principles, four, viz., resm, resinoid, alkaloid and 


Properties. — Emetic, sedative, febrifuge, stimulant, tonic, 
alterative, resolvent, diuretic, emmenagogue, detergent, anti- 
wptic, expectorant, laxative, errMne, and escharotic. 

Employment. — Fevers, pneumonia, croup, influenza, rheu- 
matism,, amenorrhea, hooping cough, asthma, constipation, 
gravel, scrofula, jaundice, dropsy, dyspepsia, etc. 

Various preparations of the Sanguinarin have been before 
the profession, each claiming to represent the medicinal pro- 
perties of the plant, but, being composed of single isolated 
principles, they failed to do so. We have had what was called 
the alkaloid principle under the name of Sangumarina, the 
alka-resinoid principle under the title of Sanguinarm, etc., 



but each were fractional and indefinite preparations entitled 
to no confidence whatever. The Sanguinaria Canadensis is 
truly a valuable plant, highly esteemed by the profession, and 
one of which a concentrated equivalent is highly desirable. 
Jn the Sanguinarin now under consideration, we believe this 
desideratum to have been accomplished. The four active 
proximate principles of which it is composed embody the en- 
tire therapeutic constitution of the plant, and in their physio- 
logical influences demonstrate the fact of their equivalency. 

In small, continued doses, the Sanguinarin is a stimulating 
diaphoretic, resolvent, alterative, and diuretic. Under its 
immediate influence the pulse rises, but subsequently sinks 
somewhat below the normal standard, for which reason the 
Sanguinarin has acquired the reputation of being narcotic. 
We are inclined to view the depression of the circulation as a 
secondary influence, resulting from the relief of certain abnor- 
mal conditions upon which arterial excitement was depend- 
ent, such as plasticity of the blood, retention of effete matters, 
capillary congestion, etc., and which have been obviated by 
the resolvent, diaphoretic, and other properties of the San- 
guinarin. Cutaneous depuration is powerfully promoted by 
the Sanguinarin, hence it is of great vaiue in all cases in which 
such a properly is required, as in fevers, rheumatism, skin 
diseases, etc. The Sanguinarin ranks high as an expectorant, 
for which purpose it should be given in small and frequently 
repeated closes. Few remedies exercise a more decided influ- 
ence upon the urinary apparatus, upon which it displays its 
peculiar powers as an alterative. In obstinate gravelly affec- 
tions, and in functional inactivity of the kidneys it is peculiarly 
serviceable. It is* equally efficient in promoting the secretions 
of the serous as well as of the mucous membranes, hence is a 
valuable remedy in the treatment of chronic pleuritis, perito- 
nitis, and other affections of the serous surfaces. Over the 
'janillary circulation it exercises a wonderful control, operating 
as a vascular excitant, and in cold and languid conditions of 
the circulation, manifested by coldness of the extremities, a 

relaxed and pallid appearance of the skin, great sensitiveness 



to atmospheric changes, etc., it will be found one of the most 

reliable remedies possible to employ. 

Sanguinarin resolves the plasticity of the venous blood, and 
stimulates the venous, absorbent and lymphatic vessels and 
glands. It is, for these reasons, a valuable remedy in the 
treatment of dropsy, particularly the asthenic forms, arousing 
the system from its torpor, and invigorating the functions of 
secretion and depuration. The liver comes within the especial 
province of the sanative influences of the Sanguinarin, and in 
all cases of hepatic torpor, jaundice, biliary concretions, chronic 
hepatitis, and other abnormal conditions of that organ, the 
practitioner will find it a remedy worthy of his highest confi- 

The emmenagogue properties of the Sanguinarin are marked 
and decided, and in chronic amenorrhea have proved of ex- 
ceeding utility. In all atonic conditions of the uterus and its 
appendages the Sanguinarin will be found an efficient auxil- 
iary. It is decidedly anti-septic, and is beneficially employed 
in offensive leucorrheal discharges, ulcerations of the cervix, 
chancres, buboes, etc. 

la larger doses the Sanguinarin operates as a prompt and 
efficient emetic, and is employed in croup, pneumonia, feveis, 
to eject poisons, and whenever prompt emesis is desirable. Its 
operation as an emetic is sometimes attended with a severe 
burning sensation, and pain in the stomach, which lasts for a 
considerable time after the medicine has operated. This effect 
may be obviated in a measure by the abundant use of mucil- 
ages. The Sanguinarin possesses a considerable degree of 
escharotic power, hence its use is contra-indicated in gastritis 
iind enteritis, and whenever we have occasion to suspect abra- 
sion or ulceration of the mucous surfaces of the stomach or 
bowels. When used as an emetic it should be thoroughly 
triturated with Eupatorjn Perfo., and diffused in plenty of warm 
water, or a thin gruel of corn meal. It may sometimes be 
usefully combined with the Wine Tine, of Lobelia, particularly 
in croup, asthma and pneumonia. It has a tendency to quicken 
the operation of other emetics. 


Of the special employment of the Sanguinarin we note as 
follows. In all fevers denoting a languid condition of the 
vital forces its employment is peculiarly appropriate. As a 
diaphoretic it is scarcely excelled. It belongs to the class of 
nauseants, hence its administration must be governed accord- 
ingly. For favoring the development of the exanthema in 
eruptive fevers, we know of nothing better. "We have used > 
it with marked success in the treatment of scarlatina. The \ 
average dose is from one eighth to ONE fourth of one 
grain, repeated once in one or two hours as occasion requires. 
If nausea arise, and it be not desirable, the doses may be di- 
minished, or administered less frequently. In many cases a 
•degree of nausea is necessary to the overcoming of capillary 
constriction, in which event the Sanguinarin will be found to 
answer an admirable purpose. It will operate more efficiently 
as a diaphoretic and febrifuge if administered in warm water* 
Joined with Asclepin, its efficacy will be materially enhanced. 
We observe the following formula : 

Sanguinarin grs. ii. 

Asclepin 3 ss. 

Warm water o lv * 

Triturate the Sanguinarin thoroughly with the Asclepin 
nd add the water. Dose, one teaspoonful every hour. The 
doses and frequency of repetition are to be governed by the 
necessities of the case. It is desirable to excite and maintain 
a gentle and permanent diaphoresis. This preparation may 
also be employed with great advantage in pneumonia, influ- 
enza, bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough, and other affections 
of the respiratory organs. The expectorant power of the San- 
guinarin is considerable, and is particularly displayed when 
the pulmonary secretions are viscid from retention. In in- 
cipient phthisis, asthma, influenza, bronchitis and other affec- 
tions of the respiratory apparatus, the Sanguinarin may be 
given in doses of from one eighth to one half of one grain 
three or four times daily. Suitable combinations may be 
■effected when existing symptoms indicate their necessity. 


Thus in asthma, the convalescing stages of croup, influenza, 
etc., the Sanguinarin will act exceedingly well in combination 
with Eupatorin Purpu. We observe the following propor- 
tions : 

Sanguinarin - g rs - ll - 

Eupatorin Purpu 3 ss. 

Mix and divide into sixteen powders. .One of these may 
be given in from two to four hours. Valuable in hooping 
cough, and in all cases of dyspnea. If these powders be alter- 
nated with suitable doses of Asclepin, their efficacy will be 
much enhanced. The latter will assist in promoting the action 
of the cutaneous exhalents. When tonics are indicated, the 
Sanguinarin may be combined with Prunin, or Fraserin, or 

Cornin, etc. 

Sanguinarin is efficient in overcoming hepatic torpor, in 
which affection it may be given in doses of from ONE eighth 
to one grain twice a day. Joined with Podophyllin, or Lep- 
tandrin, or Phytolacin, etc., it will promote their action, and 
so combined may be employed in chronic and obstinate cases 
of constipation, visceral enlargements, jaundice, gravel, and 
in all cases requiring a powerful alterative, resolvent, and de- 
obstruent remedy. 

In the treatment of secondary and tertiary syphilis, the 
Sanguinarin has been found of great service. In all cold and 
languid conditions of the system it is useful for arousing 
the impressibility of the nerves, and so preparing the way 
for other remedies. In the above mentioned disease it may 
be combined with other alteratives, as the Stillingin, Cory* 
dalin, Phytolacin, Irisin, etc. In eczema, herpes, syphilitic 
eruptions, and other diseases of the skin, it will be found to 
operate admirably in connection with Cerasein. The San- 
guinarin may be given in doses of from one fourth to one 
half grain twice a day, and altera .ited with five grain doses 

of Cerasein. 

As an emmenagogue, the Sanguinarin has acquired con- 
«dcrable repute. In cases of debility it should be used m 


connection with suitable tonics, as the Fraserin, Cornin, Iron, 
etc. The following formula constitutes the most powerful 
■emmenagogue remedy with which we are acquainted : 

Sanguinarin grs . ii. 

Macrotin „ mmm grs. 


Baptisin grs. xvi. 

Mix and divide into sixteen powders. One of these may- 
be given morning and evening. In simple amenorrhea, not 
•accompanied with debility or other complications, this remedy 
will be found one of the most efficient that can be employed. 
"The exhibition of an occasional dose of Podophyllin will ren- 
der success almost certain. The Sanguinarin, as with all 
other forcing remedies, is contra-indicated in anemic habits. 

We might specify many other forms of disease in which the 
Sanguinarin may be beneficially employed, but we are aware 
that the profession are already quite well acquainted with the 
virtues of the plant, and, as the Sanguinarin is its true con- 
centrated equivalent, they have but to transfer that knowledge 
to the preparation under consideration. Those who are not 
familiar with its properties and employment may, by atten- 
tively studying the history we have given of its dynamic in- 
fluences, easily comprehend its adaptation. 

Externally, the Sanguinarin is beneficially employed for a 
/ variety of purposes. It possesses considerable escharotic pow- 
er, and is also anti-septic. It is applied to nasal and uterine 
polypi, and in some cases will disorganise them. Applied to 
the surface of foul a?nd indolent ulcers, it cleanses and disposes 
them to heal. It may be combined with Hydrastin, Baptisin, 
Trilliin, or Phytolacin. In solution, in water, from ten to 
FORTY grains to the pint, there is, perhaps, nothing better as 
a gargle in the sore throat of scarlatina. Also in other ulcer- 
ative affections of the mouth and throat. In scaly eruptions 
of the skin, dissolved in alcohol or strong vinegar, it has been 
^emp^yed with much success. Also, in combination with, 
caustics, in the treatment of cancers and malignant ulcers. 

P R U N I N . 


i)erived from Primus Virgmiana. (Cerasus Serotina.J 

Nat. Ord. — Drupacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Icosandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Wild Cherry, Black Cherry, etc. 

Part Used.— The Baric. 

No. of Principles. — Three, viz., resinoid, neutral, and 

Properties. — Stimulant, tonic, expectorant, and, in large 
doses, sedative. 

Employment. — Coughs, colds, incipient phthisis, dyspejth 
*ia, hectic fever, debility, scrofula, etc. 

Much uncertainty has hitherto attended the question, in 
what peculiar principle resides the active properties of th© 
wild cherry bark ?" Some have supposed that its medicinal 
value depended upon the piesence of hydrocyanic acid, viewed 
by early writers as an educt, but latterfy, and correctly, as a 
product of the decomposition of amygdalin. Others have- 
attributed its medicinal influences to a portion of the amygda 
;in remaining undecomposed. Various conjectures in regards 


to its active constituents have prevailed at times, all open to 
objections, and all lacking confirmation, until, at last, the more 
philosophical conclusion was, that the more valuable thera- 
peutic properties resided in some " yet undiscovered principle." 
Such was truly the case. We now have the pleasure of pre- 
senting the profession with that " undiscovered principle" in 
the neutral proximate active constituent of the Prunin under 
consideration. In the neutral resides the chief tonic power of 
the bark. It is perfectly soluble, and is the principle yielded 
to infusions and decoctions. But it has been observed that 
decoctions of the bark seom deficient in medicinal value. By 
referring to the article on infusions and decoctions, in the first 
part of this work, the reader will there find the cause ex- 
plained, namely, the conversion of the neutral principle into 
apotheme. But our space will not permit our going into a 
fuller elucidation of the subject, and we shall rely upon the 
therapeutic integrity of the Prunin to sustain the statements 
we have put forth. 

Prunin is a valuable stimulant, tonic, and expectorant, when 
given in small and repeated doses, and an arterial sedative of 
considerable efficacy when given in larger doses. Its special 
tonic influences seem to be directed mainly to the digestive 
and assimilative apparatus, promoting activity and. giving 
vigor in the performance of their functions. Hence it is val- 
uable in cases of enfeebled digestion, particularly in the con- 
valescing stages of pneumonia, fevers, and other acute diseases, 
incipient phthisis, and in all cases in which the additional pro- 
perty of an expectorant is indicated. In the asthenic forms 
of dyspepsia it has been found peculiarly serviceable. In 
hectic fever it has likewise been employed with much benefit. 
It seems to give tone to the cutaneous capillary structure, and 
to restrain the tendency to colliquitive sweats. It promotes 
the appetite, strengthens digestion, calms the irritability of the 
nervous system, and allays inordinate action of the heart and 
arterial vessels. From these considerations of its dynamic 
influences, its range of application may be easily deduced. 
The average dose of the Prunin, as a tonic, is TWO grains. As 


a sedative from four to eight. The frequency of the repe« 
tition must be governed by the judgment of the practitioner. 
As an expectorant, we give from one to TWO grains every 
two hours. 

Prunin admits of many appropriate combinations, which 
may be used to advantage in the treatment of complicated 
cases. Thus, when we wish a diaphoretic, expectorant, and 
tonic influence, we combine it with Asclepin. 

Prunin 3 j- 

. Asclepin s 3 ss. 

Mix. From two to three grains of this compound may 
be exhibited once in two or three hours, as may be necessary. 
It will be found valuable in the convalescing stages ot 
pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, and in phthisis when the 
cough is dry and expectoration difficult. Also in hooping 
cough, chronic cough, and some forms of asthma, as well as 
in the asthenic stages of croup. 

Prunin may also be advantageously combined with Eupa- 
torin Purpu., forming a useful remedy in the treatment of 
dropsical affections. We employ it as follows: 

Prunin _. 

Eupatorin Purpu aa. 3 ss. 

Mix. From two to five grains of this mixture may be 
given once in six hours. Valuable in gravely disorders, 
catarrh of the bladder, leucorrhea, and atony of the urinary 
and generative apparatus. We sometimes employ it com- 
bined with Senecin. 

Prunin .......... 

Senecin aa. 3j. 

Mix. Dose, from two to five grains three times a day. 
In cases of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, leucorrhea, and other 
uterine disorders accompanied with feeble digestion, this 
remedy is of exceeding utility. 

It will be sometimes observed that the employment of the 


Prunin in affections of the respiratory system will prove ob 
jectionable on account of its producing constriction of the chest 
and difficult respiration. This effect seems to arise from 
some constitutional peculiarity of the patient, the Prunin prov- 
ing too much of a stimulant. If other indications are had for 
its employment, this influence may be obviated in a measure 
by combining it with anti-spasmodics and expectorants, as the 
Asclepin, Eupatorin Purpu., Veratrin, Cypripedin, etc. 

Prunin may be joined with other tonics with advantage in 
particular cases, as with Fraserin in the convalescing stages of 
diarrhea, dysentery, and cholera infantum ; and with Hydras* 
tin or Euonymin when a laxative property is needed. It is 
best administered in water. 




Derived from Menispermum Canadense. 

Nat. Ord. — Menispermaceo3. 

Sex. Syst. — Dicecia Polyandria. 

Common Names. — Yellow Parilla, Moonseed, etc. 

Part Used.— The Boot. 

No. of Principles — three, viz., resinoid, alkaloid, and neu- 

Properties. — Alterative, tonic, laxative, diuretic, and stimu- 

Employment. — Scrofula, syphilitic infections, cutaneous 
eruptions, gout, rheumatism, hepatic torpor, constipation y 
loss of appetite, indigestion, glandular enlargements, etc. 

The Menispermin is a remedy of positive and remarkable 
value. We have employed it with a great degree of satisfac- 
tion in the treatment of a variety of affections. As an altera- 
tive and resolvent, it deserves to be ranked with the best in 
the materia medica. It excites the action of the glandular 
system in a peculiar manner, resolving vitiated deposits, cor« 


recting the action of the secretory functions, stimulates the 
venous, absorbent, and lymphatic vessels, and promotes depu- 
ration through the various channels. It is an alterative diu- 
retic of well attested efficacy, and a laxative of more than 
ordinary value, operating without irritation. Upon the func- 
tions of the skin it seems to exercise an especial influence, 
promoting cutaneous depuration in a peculiar manner. At the 
same time it imparts a peculiar toning influence to all parts of 
the organism involved in its therapeutic control. It is espe- 
cially useful irf atonic conditions of the system, as it seems to 
possess the power of promoting its own appropriation. It 
stimulates the entire vascular system, and increases the force 
and frequency of the pulse. In very large doses, it proves 
emetic and cathartic. 

Among the diseases in which the Menispermin has been 
found valuable, we would mention scrofula. From a consid- 
eration of the foregoing enumeration of its physiological in- 
fluences, its appropriateness in the treatment of strumous dis- 
eases will be manifest. It increases the appetite, strengthens 
digestion, promotes absorption and assimilation, resolves viscid 
deposits, and imparts activity and tone to the entire depurative 
structure of the system. The medium dose of the Menisper- 
min, in these cases, is two grains, increased to five if more 
of the laxative property is needed, and repeated twice or three 
times a day. When the indications render it admissible, it 
may be joined with other alteratives, as the Stillingin, Irisin, 
Ampelopsin, etc. As a general thing, however, we prefer to 
alternate it with such other remedies as may be appropriate in 
the case. In strumous affections, complicated with suppression 
of the menses, it operates well in connection with Helonin and 
Senecin. In the treatment of chlorosis, it should be joined 
with Iron. V In the treatment of the asthenic forms of scrofula? 
we deem the Menispermin one of our most valuable agents. 
vlt is a stimulating alterative and tonic of a high order of ther- 
apeutic value, and peculiarly appropriate in all atonic condi- 
tions of the venous, lymphatic, and glandular systems. 

Menispermin has been found of marked utility in the cure 


of syphilis, particularly for the relief of that peculiar train of 
symptoms termed mercurio-syphilitic. It may be joined with 
Stillingin, Phytolacin, Irisin, Corydalin, Ampelopsin, etc., at 
the option of the practitioner, and alternated with suitable 
doses of Podophyllin. 

In the treatment of cutaneous diseases, we value the Menis- 
permin highly. Its action upon the skin is remarkable and 
peculiar, restoring the functional activity and integrity of tin 
entire cutaneous structure. When indicated, it should be 
combined with Iron, not omitting the alkaline sponge bath. 
Alternated with the tincture of the chloride of Iron, it will be 
found highly efficacious in scaly eruptions of the skin, herpes, 
^ erysipelas, etc. 

We have employed the Menispermin with much success in 
the atonic forms of dyspepsia, and in those cases of enfeebled 
digestion following attacks of acute diseases. Particularly 
when constipation, loss of appetite, and a feeble circulation are 
present, will it prove of peculiar utility. It may be joined 
with Hydrastin, thus forming one of the best combination? 
with which we are acquainted for fulfilling the indication! 
above mentioned. 

On account of the stimulant, tonic, alterative and resolvent 
properties of the Menispermin, it is highly beneficial in the 
treatment of chronic rheumatism. When desirable to increase 
the stimulant effect, it may be joined with Xanthoxylin ; and 
when the circulation is much enfeebled, accompanied with 
coldness of the extremities, with Sanguinarin. XMenispermin 
is hio-hlv useful in gravelly disorders and dropsy. It stimu- 
lates the functions of the absorbent system, and promotes the 
depurative action of the kidneys, resolving calculous deposits, 
and favoring their expulsion. In all affections of the glandu 
lar system we would recommend it as worthy of the confident 
of the profession. 

Medium dose, two grains. 



Derived from Solidago Odor a. 

Nat. Order. — Aster acece. 

Sex. Syst. — Syngenesia Superflua. 

Common Name. — Sweet Scented Goldenrod. 

Part Used. — The Leaves. 

Properties. — Aromatic, stimulant, carminative, and diu- 

Employment. — Pain in the stomach and oowels, flatulence, 
suppression of urine, inflammation of the kidneys and blad- 
der, and for inhalation in diseases of the respiratory organs. 

The oil of Solidago is a mild but efficient remedy in the 
tomplaints above mentioned. It may be given in doses of 
from TWO to FIVE drops, and repeated every thirty or sixty 
minutes until relief is obtained. It is peculiarly appropriate 
in the treatment of the colicky pains of infants, being mild and 
unirritating in its operation. It is likewise highly beneficial 
in the treatment of suppression of the urine occurring in chil- 
dren and infants. It is better, as a general thing, to dissolve 
the oil in alcohol for employment in these cases. 


Oil of Solidago - J i. 

Alcoliol - ^ vui. 

From five to twenty drops, or more, may be given at a 
dose, and repeated at suitable intervals. The same will be 
found excellent lor flatulent pain in the stomach and bowels, 
faintness, etc., in adults. The dose is from one-half to one 
teaspoonful.V Equal parts of the above ticture, Holland Gin, 
and Swt. Spts. l^itre^mixed and given in doses of from a tea- 
spoonful to a tablespoonful, will be found highly efficacious 
for the relief of suppression and retention of urine, and inflam- 
mation of the kidneys and bladder. In the latter •affections it 
should be accompanied with a plentiful supply of mucilages. 
"We have employed the Oil of Solidago for the purposes of 
inhalation in the affections of the respiratory organs, and with 
much benefit. The oil should first be dissolved in alcohol, in 
the proportion above directed. One teaspoonful of this tinc- 
ture may be employed for each inhalation. It relaxes con- 
striction of the lungs, soothes the pulmonary surfaces, and 
promotes expectoration. It is useful in bronchitis, asthma, 
influenza, catarrh, pneumonia, and phthisis. The inhalation 
may be repeated four or five times daily. 

When the alcohol is objectionable, the oil may be taken on 
sugar or suspended in mucilage. 



Derived from Smilax Officmalis. 

Nat. Orel. — Smilacece. 

Sex Syst. — Dioecia Hexand/ria 

Common. Name. — Sarsa/parilla. 

Part Used.— The Boot. 

No. of Principles. — two, viz., resinoid and neutral. 

Properties. — Alterative, resolvent, and detergent. 

Employment. — Scrofula, venerial diseases, rheumatism^ 

cutaneous diseases etc. 

Notwithstanding the Sarsaparilla is a remedial agent of 
variable reputation, it really possesses most valuable proper- 
ties as an alterative and restorative. Many facts can be ad- 
duced of the want of therapeutic uniformity manifested in the 
history of this plant, to a few of which we would wish briefly to 
•call attention. In the first place, the reader will please to call to 
mind the history we have given of the neutral proximate active 
principles. The variable amount of this constituent, whether 
it be owing to the fact of its imperfect development at the time 
the plant was collected, or to chemical reactions afterwards 
transpiring, we hold to be the chief cause of the discrepancy. 


On the other hand, be the neutral principle ever so abundant,. 
a faulty, method of preparation will eventuate in disappoint- 
ment to the practitioner. The influences of boiling and evapo- 
ration upon the neutral principle have already been fully set 
forth. Hence it will be seen that the chief active principle, 
instead of being volatile, and so dissipated by boiling as is 
generally supposed in the preparation of decoctions, syrups, 
etc., is, by the process of boiling and evaporating, converted 
into apotheme, and so altered in its constitution and therapeu- 
tic properties. Again, we have the highest authority foi 
stating -that many varieties of the Sarsaparilla are of no appre- 
ciable medicinal value under any circumstances, and taking 
into consideration the liability of their being thrown into mar- 
ket, we have another fact accounting for the sometimes nega- 
tive value of the drug. 

Thus it will be seen that the divided sentiments of the pro- 
fession relative to the medicinal value of the. Sarsaparilla had 
each good foundation. That it has proved of positive curative 
value in many cases and types of disease, is not to be disputed ; 
while it is equally true that it has proved inefficient in a large 
number of instances. "We are induced to believe that the ex- 
planations we have given in this volume will reconcile, iv a 
measure, the contrariety of sentiment existing respecting the 
medicinal value of the plant under consideration, as well as of 
many others. We believe that the preparations of Sarsaparilla 
here treated of embody all of medicinal worth pertaining to the 
plant, and in a form at once concentrated, positive, and 
uniform in therapeutic character. So far as we have 
employed the Smilacin, we have every reason to be satisfied 
with its operation. The precise manner in which its remedial 
influences are brought to bear upon the system, is a question 
difficult of solution. That it is alterative and resolvent in its 
action is manifested by the improvement following its exhibi- 
tion in those cases in which we know an alterative and resolv- 
ent influence to be indispensable. It is not an evacuant, no 
exaltation of the functions of one organ over another being 
liscernable. It seems to impart a healthful stimulus to the 



entire glandular system, promoting equally the functions of 
absorption, secretion, assimilation and depuration. It will at 
once be seen, therefore, that it is highly restorative in its pro- 
perties, and peculiarly appropriate in the treatment of various 

It is scarcely necessary for us to specify the individual types 
of disease in which the Smilacin may be employed with ad- 
vantage, yet we will give the results of our observations in 
a few cases. In scrofula, attended with feeble digestion and 
an anemic habit, it will be found highly useful. It may be 
given in doses of from two to five grains three times a day. 
As a general thing, it should be alternated with suitable 
tonics, as Fraserin, Iron, etc. When deemed advisable, it 
may be combined with other alteratives. In cold and indo- 
lent conditions of the system its operation may be rendered 
more prompt by combining it with Xanthoxylin, Sanguinarin, 
Macrotin, or other stimulants. 

In the treatment of scrofula, the Smilacin may be depended 
upon as an efficient auxiliary, if not as an exclusive remedy. 
We have lately prescribed it in a case of spinal curvature oc- 
curring in a patient having a strumous diathesis, and with the 
most beneficial results. The general health of the patient has 
been steadily improving since the medicine was commenced. 
We have noted several cases in which a gradual and steady 
improvement of the constitutional health has followed the 
exhibition of the Smilacin. We value it highly in the treat, 
ment of rachitis and other diseases of children connected with 
feeble nutrition. For the purposes of an alterative, resolvent 
and detergent, it may be advantageously employed in the 
treatment of skin diseases, necrosis, caries, and oiher affections 
of the bones, ulcers, and for the correction of all morbid ca- 
chexies. "In syphilis, joined with Irisin or Phytolacin, or Slil- 
lingin, etc., the practitioner will find ample opportunity for its 
employment. Predicating our opinion on the well known 
remedial value of the plant, when its therapeutic constitution 
has not been impaired by age, method of preparation, etc., to- 
gether with a limited experience in the employment of the 



Smilacin, which we believe to be its concentrated equivalent, 
we do not hesitate to recommend it for all the purposes for 
which the plant has been found useful. Dose, TWO to FIVE 


Identical with the Smilacin, and employed for the same 
purposes. Average dose, fifteen drops. 


Derived from Cerasus Virginiana. 

Nat. Orel. — Drupacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Icosandria Di-pentagynia. 

Common Name. — Choke Cherry. 

Part Used.— The Bark. 

No. of Principles. — -Jice, viz., resinoid, neutral, amygdalin 
.frhloridzin, and picrin. 

Properties. — Tonic, antiperiodic, diaphoretic, febrifuge, 
anti-spasmodic, and slightly astringent. 

Employment. — Intermittent and other fevers, debility, in* 
■digestion, chorea, hysteria, spermatorrhea, passive hermor- 
rkages, chronic cough, the convalescing stages of diarrhea, 
■dysentery, etc. 

Tpje Cerasein is one of the most important and valuable 
acquisitions made to the materia medica of late years. It sup- 
plies a necessity long felt by practitioners for a substitute for 
"Quinine in certain conditions of the system wherein the latter 
4s inadmissable. We do not offer it as a complete substitute 
for Quinine, but as its equivalent in a majority of cases, and 


as a competent substitute when the latter is contra-indicated. 
In oui own practice we have not prescribed a particle of 
Quininj in the past two years, having relied upon the Cera- 
>sem, ir>. connection with appropriate auxiliary remedies, in the 
treatment of intermittent forms of disease, and with invariable 
^ucce^s. Yet we do not recommend it as adapted to the pecu 
liaritLjs of periodic diseases in every section of the country 
A' ell knowing that local influences so modify the action of 
medicines as to frequently render them of negative value.. 
Tlid existence of these local influences, together with the pecu- 
liarities of organization, will forever exclude the discovery of 
^o n titutional- specific remedies. Nevertheless, we may ascer- 
tain, a remedy to be possessed of specific therapeutic properties, 
reliable when the conditions regulating its successful adminis- 
t::m> on are present. 
•n£ i erasein is an anti-periodic tonic of remarkable and extended 
\jUj ity. It neither produces cerebral excitement nor deranges 
t'Lx stomach or bowels : but, on the contrary, is a nervine and 
Itui -spasmodic, allaying irritability and quieting the action of 
i\:d nervous system, and correcting the diarrheal disturbances 
w<» characteristic of intermittent fevers. In, addition, it is 
<Tu?y heretic and powerfully febrifuge. V Under its influence the 
ska. becomes moist, soft, and flexible, and the pulse, when 
cxvb ied, is reduced in force and frequency, and becomes soft 
auvl regular. Upon the mucous membranes of the stomach 
a. id vowels it acts in a most desirable manner, deter&ino- mor- 
b..d oj. udations, allaying irritability, and restoring the secre- 
ting pvwer. It seems to operate remarkably well as an altera- 
z,\e. insolvent and tonic upon the capillary system, hence 
as ulilr y in passive hemorrhages, night-sweats and other col- 
Lquitiyn and exhausting discharges. 

y\ We krve employed the Cerasein with uniform success in the 

i -ire of [\^ue and fever. The first case in practice in which we 

i ad occasion to try it was of the double quotidian type, and 

• f eighteen months duration. We premised our treatment 

iy th^ exhibition of the following powder: 


-^Podophyllin gr.j. 

Gelsemin or. ss. 

Asclepin gr. ij. 

Mix. This powder was administered in the evening, during 
the febrile paroxysm, and the use of the Cerasein was com- 
menced next morning in doses of about ten grains, repeated 
once in three hours, and so continued fo'F forty-eight hours, 
then at intervals of four hours for forty -eight hours longer. 
'The dose was then diminished to about FIY.E grains, at which 
quantity it was continued for a few days longer, and such was 
the success of the treatment that not a single paroxj'-sm of the 
-disease was experienced from the time of taking the first dose, 
and the patient remains well at the present time, some two 
years having elapsed since she came under our professional 

The second case in which we employed it was of the 
quotidian type, and most inveterate in its character. The 
patient experienced severe pain in the head upon the approach 
of every chill, together with irritability of the stomach, 
nausea, griping pain in the bowels, and a troublesome diarrhea. 
The Cerasein accomplished a cure in three days. In many 
chronic cases we have employed the Cerasein with entire suc- 
cess. We remember one case, a lady, who had been afflicted 
with chills and fever eight months out of the twelve, for four 
years. The Cerasein, in connection with Podophyllin, effected 
a. permanent cure. But we need not multiply instances to 
prove its efficacy. The experience of many besides ourself 
will confirm all that we claim for it. 

Much will depend upon the judicious employment of the 
Cerasein, as regards time, quantity, repetition, continuance, 
and other necessary conditions, in order to reap success. Our 
conception of an anti-periodic tonic remedy is, that it is a 
means calculated to maintain a condition, and not to make -/- 
it. In all diseases of a periodic type there is a season of what 
we might term comparative health. It is this condition which 


we desire to prolong to an indefinite period, and thus render 
permanent. We should ascertain, therefore, whether the 
existing condition be one which it would be desirable to con- 
firm, before we employ means to render it permanent. We 
are of opinion that much mischief is done by the ill-timed? 
employment of remedies. 

If the condition indicating the employment of anti-periodic 
remedies does not exist, we must use proper measures to induce 
it. If there be aberation of the functions of the liver, skin, or 
kidneys, they must be corrected. Obstructions and morbid 
accumulations must be removed, the plasticity of the blood 
obviated, secretion, absorption and depuration established 
upon a physiological basis, and a condition so brought 
about, which, if then confirmed, will constitute the accom- 
plished object of sanative medication. It is true that the 
Cerasein possesses other than anti-periodic properties, all of 
which are desirable in connection with such a power, but 
which will not be sufficient, in a majority of cases, to induce 
the condition we desire to render permanent. Hence we must 
resort to other remedies, selected with a view of meeting the 
existing necessities. Thus, if there be hepatic derangement, 
we have Podophyllin, Leptandrin, Euonymin, Juglandin, etc. 
As resolvents, we have Yeratrin, Sanguinarin, Asclepin, etc., 
which are also febrifuge and diaphoretic. Stimulants we find 
in Xanthoxylin, Macro tin, Oil of Capsicum, etc. Grelsemin- 
and Lobelia will supply the relaxant, anti-spasmodic, and other 
appropriate powers. Thus we need be at no loss for agencies 
to bring about any condition desired. 

The average dose of the Cerasein is FIVE grains, but may- 
be increased to ten, and even fifteen grains with safety and 
advantage. . The frequency of repetition must be regulated 
according to circumstances. As a general thing, we find three 
hours an appropriate interval in the treatment of intermittent 
fever. The medicine should be continued for some days after 
the disease is arrested, in order to give tone to the system, and) 
so guard against a return. We have employed the Ceraseia 
successfully in the treatment of intermittent fever occurring 


during pregnancy. We deem it the safest remedy that can be 
exhibited, having used it in cases in which the patients were 
within one month of the period of confinement. 

But it is not alone in intermittent fevers that the Cerasein 
has proved of eminent utility. Eemittent, typhoid, and other 
fevers afford indications for its favorable employment. Being 
devoid of irritant properties, its employment is admissible in 
many cases in which other tonics are contra-indicated. Pos- 
sessing the additional properties of a diaphoretic, febrifuge, 
nervine, anti-spasmodic and diuretic, its range of application 
is widely extended. In the convalescing stages of acute 
diseases we have found it a remedy of great value. It allays 
irritation, promotes digestion .and assimilation, while its dia- 
phoretic, anti-spasmodic and diuretic properties are calculated 
to fulfill other existing indications. It is for these reasons 
highly useful for giving tone to the stomach and bowels fol- 
lowing an attack of diarrhea, dysentery, or cholera infantum. 
For the lutter purpose it may* be advantageously joined with 

We have found the Cerasein useful in the treatment of 
dyspepsia, particularly when there is a tendency to acidifica- 
tion of the food. From five to ten grains, administered in 
a little water will generally give prompt relief to that dis- 
tressing symptom known by the name of heart-burn. When 
joined with Cornin, or Juglandin, it will prove more effica- 
cious still. Its employment is admissible both in atonic and 
sthenic conditions of the stomach. 

We have employed the Cerasein with much advantage in 
the treatment of spermatorrhea. We use it in connection 
with Gelseinin. Our plan of treatment is to exhibit the Gelse- 
min in proper doses and at suitable intervals until a remission 
of the symptoms is induced, and then to commenee the use of 
the Cerasein in doses of ten grains three times a day, exhibit 
ing a dose of Gelsemin at bed time. When deemed expedient, 
the Geloemin and Cerasein may be combined. We sometimey 
combine the Cerasein with Lupulin in this complaint, and 
with good effect. Further remarks upon the treatment of 


spermatorrhea will be found under the heads of Gelsemin and 

Chronic coughs have been relieved and cured by the use 
of the Cerasein. General debility, night sweats, and defec- 
tive circulation, also improve under the influence of the 

Passive hemorrhnges have also been successfully treated' 
with this agent. When necessary, it may be joined with more 
powerful styptics and astringents, as the Trilliin, Lycopin, 
or Oil of Erigeron. 

Cerasein has been found of remarkable efficacy in the treat- 
ment of herpes, and other forms of chronic febrile exanthema. 
It breaks up the tendency to periodical eruptions, and effec- 
tually obviates the sthenic diathesis*^ Employed in connec- 
tion with the Oil of Populus externally, it will effectually cure 
many cutaneous affections. 

Cerasein has also been used with advantage in chorea, hys- 
teria, convulsions, and other affections indicating the employ- 
ment of an anti-spasmodic and anti-periodic tonic. The full 
range of employment of the Cerasein is not yet understood, 
but we predict for it a steadily extending field of utility. 


01 9m 

Derived from Collinsonia Canadensis. 

Nat. Ord. — Laminacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Diandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Eardhack, Stone Root, Ox Balmy Knot 
Hoot, Mealall, Rich Weed, etc. 

Part Used.— The Root. 

No. of Principles — two, viz., resin and neutral. 

Properties. — Tonic, astringent, diaphoretic, alterative, 
resolvent, and diuretic. 

Employment. — Diarrhea, dysentery, gout, gravel, dropsy, 
catarrh of tlie bladder, leucorrhea, hemorrhoids, colic, cramps, 
'ndigestion, etc. 

Although the active principles of this plant have been 
but recently introduced to the profession, they have rapidly 
gained well merited favor, and the Collinsonin is entitled to a 
prominent place in our materia medica. 

Collinsonin possesses the therapeutic properties above 
attributed to it in an eminent degree. It also seems to be 
entitled to the appellation of carminative, anodyne, and anti- 


spasmodic, as it expels wind, relieves pain, and relaxes spasm 
The sanative influences of the Coilinsoniji are particularly 
directed to the absorbent system and mucous membranes. It 
seems to possess efficient alterative and resolvent properties,, 
and proves efficacious in diseases of the glandular system. 
In diseases of the bowels and rectum, it stands unrivalled* 
We have experienced its-sanative influences in diarrhea in our 
own person, and can highly recommend it as a most desirable 
auxiliary agent in the treatment of all bowel disorders. It 
soothes, deterges, heals, and gives tone to the intestinal mu- 
cous surfaces. 
^^ The average dose of the Colli nsonin is TWO grains. In 
diarrhea, dysentery, and cholera infantum, this dose may be 
repeated once in two hours, except in the latter complaint, in 
which the dose must be proportioned to the age of the patient 
The quantity may be increased or diminished, relatively, 
according to the urgency of the symtoms in the different 
affections. When stimulants are indicated, it may be joined 
withXanthoxylin, which combination we have employed with 
much advantage. \ When astringents are required, it will 
operate well in connection with Geranin. v Combined with 
.. Dioscorein, no better remedy can possibly be had for the 
relief of cramp in the stomach, flatulent and bilious colics, 
cholera morbus, borborygmus, and all spasmodic affections of 
the stomach, bowels, and urinary apparatus.\JFor gravelly 
affections it may be joined with Populin, Senecin, etc. 

The Collinsonin has been found highly useful in dropsy, by 
reason of its peculiar stimulating influences upon the absorbent 
system. In languid and atonic conditions of the system, it is 
particularly beneficial, arousing an action in the venous, 
absorbent and lymphatic vessels, and greatly promoting renal 
depuration. At the same time it quickens the activity of the 
cutaneous functions, and, aided by warm diluent drinks, pow- 
erfully promotes diaphoresis. 4 It may be employed in con- 
nection with Sanguinarin, Ampelopsin, Veratrin, Digitalin, 

Collinsonin will be found valuable in the treatment of indi- 


gestipn, particularly when of an asthenic character, with a 
tendency to gastritis. 

Leucorrhea, catarrh of the bladder, and other critical and 
excessive mucous discharges may be successfully treated with 
the Collinsonin, in connection with suitable auxiliary reme- 
dies. In these complaints it will be found to answer an ad- 
mirable purpose in connection with Ilydrastin. 
-.4-. But the most remarkabte influences of the Collinsonin are 
observable in hemorrhoids and other diseases of the rectum. 
The most inveterate and chronic cases are relieved and fre- 
quently cured by means of this remedy alone. ^It should be 
given in large doses at first, sa} r five grains, and repeated every 
two hours, in severe cases, until the system is brought under 
its influence and the symptoms controlled, and then continued 
in average doses three or four times a day until the disease is 
eradicated. We have known it to act promptly in suppressing 
hemorrhage from the bowels, and in relieving those distressing 
pains characteristic of hemorhoidal affections. It is a valuable 
constitutional remedy in many affections, and its persevering 
use seldom fails to benefit the general health. ^It increases the 
appetite, and promotes digestion and assimilation. 



^ • m 

Equivalent in properties and employment to the above. 
Average dose, fifteen drops, increased to thirty in severe 
cases. We have employed it in connection with the saturated 
tincture of Xanthoxylum berries, in the treatment of diarrhea, 
and with excellent effect. Also for pain in the stomach and 
bowels, etc. 


<^ » — 

Derived from Lobelia Inflata. 

Nat. Ord. — Lobeliacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Common Names. — Indian Tobacco, Emetic Weed, eU 

Part Used.— The Herb. 

No. of Principles. — Two, viz., alkaloid, and neutral. 

Properties. — Ametic, diaphoretic, expectorant, nervine, 
anti-spasmodic, diuretic, resolvent, and relaxant. 

Employment. — Croup, pneumonia, bronchitis, /looping 
cough, asthma, influenza, catarrh, hysteria, chorea, convul- 
sions, poisoning, suspended animation, tetanus, false labor 
pains, sick- headache, epilepsy, neuralgia, febrile diseases, 
cutaneous eruptions, etc* 

This preparation of the Lobelia has long been a favorite 
remedy with us in private practice, and its introduction to 
the profession has given general satisfaction. The plant yields 
a number of proximate active principles, but its chief excel- 
lences reside in the alkaloid and neutral constituents. These 


principles are soluble in water, possess the emetic, diaphoretic, 
expectorant, nervine, anti-spasmodic, diuretic, and relaxant 
properties of the plant in an eminent degree, and operate 
without the slightest irritation. Besides the alkaloid and 
neutral principles, the Lobelia yields a soft resinoid or oleo* 
resinous principle, more valuable as an external application 
•than for internal administration. This oleo-resin is possessed 
of powerful relaxant properties, and is sometimes administered 
internally in cases of spasm, convulsions, asthma, and when- 
ever such a property is indicated. It is this active constituent 
of the Lobelia that produces the "alarming symptoms" of 
early writers, and which has caused the Lobelia to be regarded 
by many as narcotic and dangerous. But its chief utility is 
confined to its external employment. Dissolved in alcohol, it 
is applied to contracted joints, to the throat in spasm of the 
glottis, and whenever a powerful relaxant application is needed 
In the preparation of the Wine Tine, this principle is sepa 
rated from the alkaloid and neutral, and the latter are then 
redissolved in malaga wine. The seeds yield a fiixed oil, 
which will be treated of under the proper head. 

The Wine Tine, is employed for all the purposes of an 
emetic. The dose will vary from two drachms to two 
ounces, and even more in particular cases. We have had a 
clinical experience of fifteen years in the use of Lobelia in 
substance, infusion, alcoholic and acetic tincture, etc., but we 
give preference to the Wine Tine, over all other preparations. 
It is the safest and most reliable emetic, under all circum- 
stances, that can possibly be exhibited. We are governed in 
its exhibition, not by the quantity administered, but by the 
effects produced. The secret of success is, to give enough. 
It is not uncommon for us to administer from FOUR to six 
ounces of the Wine Tine, at one time, in the treatment of con- 
vulsions, tetanus, etc. When the tincture cannot be given by 
way of the mouth, in consequence of the patient's inability to 
swallow, the quantity intended to be exhibited should be 
doubled and administered by enema. Emesis can as readily 
be produced with the Lobelia employed in this manner as if 


it were taken in the stomach. It should be diluted with a 
proper quantity of warm water, and, in some instances, a 
stimulant joined with it, as the Myricin, Oil of Xanthoxylum, 
Capsicum, etc. In cases of suspended animation by drown- 
ing, banging, etc., this is the only way in which the medicine 
fcan be brought to bear. The following formula may be ob- 
served in the above .cases, as well as in cases of poisoning, 
■asphyxia, etc.: 

Wine Tine. Lobelia §. VI. vel. X 

Oil of Capsicum gtt. X. vel. XX. 

Mix and administer at once with a suitable sized syringe. 
It would, perhaps, be better to dissolve the Oil of Capsicum 
in a little alcohol before adding it to the tincture of Lobelia, 
From one to TWO drachms of the tincture of the Oil of Cap- 
sicum may be employed, as given under that head. Or, when 
neither are at hand, one drachm of powdered Capsicum may 
be used instead. This injection should be repeated at suitable 
intervals until relief is afforded, or until no chance for resusci- 
tation remains. ^ We have known the most desperate cases of 
suspended animation by drowning to be restored by this 
treatment when all other means had failed. 

In cases of poisoning, particularly when ignorant of the 
character of the substance swallowed, emetics should never be 
administered by way of the mouth, but by injection. By 
neglect of this precaution it frequently happens that the emetic 
is neutralised and does not operate, either in consequence of 
chemical reactions, or from paralysis of the nerves of the 
stomach. There is, also, a liability to the formation of dan- 
gerous compounds by the mutual reactions which take place 
between the substances introduced and the substances already 
there. These remarks apply when the character of the poison 
swallowed is not known. One very essential condition to be 
observed in connection with the employment of the Wine 
Tine, of Lobelia as an emetic, either per os or per anum, is, 
that undue acidity oi the stomach and bowels be neutralised, 
either by the previous administration of an alkalie, or by 


combining it with the Lobelia when exhibited. It frequently 
happens, when this precaution is neglected, that the emetic 
influences of the Lobelia are suspended, and the medicine 
passes off by perspiration, stool, and urine. Acids effect a 
destructive decomposition of the neutral principle, and hold 
the alkaloid in solution, thus suppressing its action. Tannic 
acid is incompatible with the alkaloid principle, forming with 
it an insoluble compound, and thus rendering it inert. When 
soda or other carbonic alkalies are administered for the pur* 
pose of neutralising acidity, severe pain will be experienced in 
the region of the stomach, accompanied with a death-like 
nausea. This is occasioned, probably, by the sudden disen- 
gagement of the carbonic acid of the alkalie, the base com- 
bining with the lactic or other acids present. It does not 
occur, however, in every instance, and is relieved as soon as 
vomiting takes place. When this phenomenon is properly 
understood, it prevents unnecessary alarm on the part of the 
patient. If the precautions here noted in regard to neutralis- 
. ing acidity be neglected, the Lobelia will be very tardy in 
manifesting its emetic influences, and, in many instances, 
will not operate at all. 

As a remedy in the treatment of mucous and spasmodic 
croup, the Wine Tine, of Lobelia is superior to any other 
single agent. Its purely innoxious character renders it a sate 
and reliable remedy for patients of all Ages, from the infant to 
the septagenarian. In the management of this disease the 
Lobelia must be administered promptly and in full doses, and 
repeated at intervals of from ten to thirty minutes until free 
vomiting ensues. It is necessary to induce complete relaxa* 
tion of the system by means of full emetic doses, and after- 
wards to maintain it with smaller doses repeated at suitable 
intervals. When inconvenient or difficult to administer it by 
the mouth, as in the case of infants and children, it should be 
given by injection. The same directions will apply in cases 
of pneumonia, asthma, convulsions, hysteria, tetanus, etc. In 
croup the Lobelia is sometimes joined with Sanguinarin, and 
with advantage. In other cases with Eupatorin Perfo. We 


have seen the Lobelia employed to a considerable extent in 
the treatment of pneumonia, and with the happiest results. 
We remember the case of our little sister, who, at two years 
of age, was attacked with this complaint, and to whom six 
Lobelia emetics were administered daily for several consecutive 
days, and we believe them to have been the means of savins 
her life. Lobelia not only unloads the lungs of the accumu- 
lated secretions, but it also resolves the plasticity of the blood, 
relaxes spasm, promotes diaphoresis, and changes the entire 
diathesis of the system. In all febrile disorders manifesting a 
determination to the brain, or a tendency to congestion, we 
have, in the Lobelia, one of the most reliable derivative reme- 
dies yet discovered. Here its powers of relaxing constric- 
tion, equalising the circulation, promoting absorption, secre- 
tion and exhalation are particularly called for, and will seldom 
disappoint the practitioner. The necessities of particular cases 
will best indicate the manner of employing the Lobelia. If it 
be desirable to produce sudden revulsion, as in severe and 
sudden congestions, it should be exhibited in full emetic doses, 
say from one to three ounces. In other instances, broken 
doses frequently repeated will subserve a better purpose. The 
latter plan of administration should be adopted in the treat- 
ment of low delirium, tonic spasm, and febrile disorders gene- 
rally. In confirmed and lingering cases of typhoid fevers this 
course will be found of much service. A case occurred in 
our practice in the fall of 1846, when typhoid fever was pre- 
valent, in which we administered one drachm of the infusion 
of the Lobelia herb every hour in the twenty-four for eight 
days consecutively, and we believe it to have been the means 
of effecting a cure. The patient had a rapid convalescence, 
and " still lives." The fever had been running eleven days 
before we were called. 

One noticeable feature in connection with the operation of 
Lobelia, as an emetic, is this, it does not derange the functions 
of digestion. In the treatment of chronic diseases, the patient, 
after having been subjected to the operation of a Lobelia 

*>metic is enabled, in thirty or sixty minutes thereafter, to eat 



his dinner, and not only eat but digest it. In the treatment 
of indigestion, the exhibition of a Lobelia emetic has frequently 
enabled the patient to eat and digest a substantial meal, 
-whereas he had not been able to either receive or retain food 
upon the stomach for a considerable time. Its sanative in- 
fluences, in many instances, seem to be almost electrical. We 
would mention, in connection with this idea, that, while under 
the influence of a Lobelia emetic, the patient frequently expe- 
riences a sensation as if a strong galvanic current was passing 
through the system, or rather the stomach seems to be the 
centre from which radiate numerous currents, passing along 
the limbs and to the periphery of the entire nervous system. 
These sensations resemble a series of rapid galvanic shocks, 
accompanied with a feeling of numbness, and pass off with 
the operation of the medicine. 

In the treatment of chorea we give an emetic of the Wine 
Tine, of Lobelia every other day, or every day in severe cases, 
and alternate with Cerasein, ilydrastin, Cornin, Capsicum, 
Scutellarin, Grelsemin, and other tonics and antispasmodics. 

In spasmodic asthma we administer the tincture in quanti- 
ties sufficient to relieve the immediate symptoms, and then 
continue the same in suitable doses, and at proper inter vols, 
in connection with appropriate auxiliary remedies, until a cure 
is effected. We observe the same method in the treatment of 
influenza, hooping cough, and other affections of the respira- 
tory organs. Ordinary catarrh or cold in the head may be 
relieved by taking from five to ten drops of the undiluted 
tincture at a time, and repeating as occasion requires. The 
benefit derived is more in consequence of the stimulating effect 
of the Lobelia upon the glands of the throat, than from its 
passing into the stomach. Fcr ^he colds, coughs, and il snuffles" 
of children, we mix the tincture with molasses or sugar-house 

Wine Tine. Lobelia 3 i- 

Sugar-house Syrup § iss. 

Mix. Dose, from one half to one teaspoonful every hum or 



two. This will be found excellent for ordinary coughs and 
•colds. Of course, the dose must be varied to suit the occa- 
sion. As an expectorant, the Lobelia has few equals, and no 
superior. It is of much utility in pleuritis, overcoming the 
viscidity of the pulmonary secretions and favoring expectora- 

The Wine Tine, of Lobelia is a remedy of great value in the 
i reatment of disorders of the female system. y^We have already 
spoken of its remarkable efficacy, in connection with Myricin, 
in relieving spasmodic and false labor pains. The reader ia 
respectfully referred to the article on Myricin for a description 
of the method of employing it, and thus save us the necessity 
of repetition. Equally efficient will the Lobelia be found for 
■controlling undilated and undilatable os uteri, puerperal con- 
vulsions, puerperal fever, retention of the placenta, etc. Our 
method of employing it in the latter instance is by injection 
per annul. 

V- Wine Tine. Lobelia 5 ss » 

Cypripedin ^%v 

Warm Water % lV ' 

Mix Administer blood warm, and repeat once in thirty 
minutes, if found necessary. The efficacy of this remedy in 
promoting the expulsion of retained placenta needs to be wit- 
Lssed in order to be fully appreciated. The same injection. 
will be found of great service for the relief of pams attendant 
upon the passage of calculi through the ureters, and for sup- 
pression and retention of the urine. In the latter affections 
its efficacy will be materially enhanced by the addition of from 
TEN to fifteen grains of Myricin to each enema. 

An occasional emetic of the Wine Tine, of Lobelia is fre- 
quently of great service in the treatment of diarrhea and other 
mtestinal disorders. In cholera morbus, when tue stomach 
* loaded with acrid ingeste, it should not be omitted. It has 
been employed in asiatic cholera, in the same conditions, With 
most excellent effect. Prolonged nausea and vomiting de- 
petding npon spasm of the. stomach are effectually relieved 


with broken doses of the tincture. In ordinary cases the 
tincture may be reduced with water when used as an emetic, 
but in urgent cases, and where smallness of dose is an 
object, we administer it without admixture. In croup and 
convulsions of children it is better administered undiluted. 

For relieving the ill effects of drinking too freely of cold 
water while heated, there is r.o better remedy than the Wine 
Tine, of lobelia. It should be given in large and repeated 
doses, and continued until complete reaction is established 
and the circulation equalised. In some cases it may be ad- 
visable xn combine a stimulant with the Lobelia, for which 
purpose we prefer the Capsicum or its preparations to anything 

A Lobelia emetic will give speedy relief in cases of sick- 
headache, and, where they are chronic, its occasional repeti- 
tion will frequently break up the constitutional diathesis. 
Neuralgia is often relieved by the same means. 

For relaxing constriction and favoring the development of 
the eruption in exanthematous fevers, we have, in the Lobelia,. 
a most excellent remedy The doses and repetitions must be 
governed by the necessities of the case. 

Externally, the tincture is applied in cases of erysipelas, 
various eruptions, and, diluted with water, is employed in the 
treatment of purulent, strumous, and other forms of opthal- 
mia. Also to the throat and chest in croup, asthma, etc. 

Finally, the Wine Tine, of Lobelia may be employed with 
advantage in all spasmodic affections, and whenever an emetic, 
nauseant, diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic, expectorant, or relaxant 
is indicated. It is neither narcotic nor dangerous, and may 
be employed with perfect safety for fulfilling any of the indi- 
cations embraced within its range of therapeutic properties* 
Experience in its employment will confirm the confidence of 
every practitioner in its utility, and he will learn to look upon 
it as an indispensable agent of the materia medica. We are 
far from deeming it a specific, yet we hold it capable of ful« 
filling specific indications with far more certainty and safety 
than any other remedy, and one for which there is no substi 


tute. We should feel lost without it, and are confident thai 
such would be the expression of all who become acquainted 
with its true value 





Derived from the seeds of the Lobelia Inflata. 

The oil of Lobelia is chiefly valued as an expectorant, anti- 
spasmodic and relaxant. Although sometimes used for the 
purposes of an emetic, it does not operate so kindly as the 
preparation first treated of. Internally, it is employed with 
much benefit in the treatment of asthma and other affections 
of the respiratory organs. The medium dose of the oil is one 
drop, repeated three or four times daily. It may be adminis- 
tered on sugar, or suspended in mucilage. It will be found 
a valuable expectorant and relaxant, and may be employed 
with advantage in all spasmodic affections. It may be com- 
bined with other agents at the pleasure of the practitioner. 

But it is in combination with the Oil of Capsicum that we 
make most use of this agent. Our formula is as follows : 

Oil of Lobelia 

' Oil of Capsicum aa. 3i, 

Alcohol, 95 per cent gii 

Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and it is ready for use. The 
dose of this preparation is from fifteen to sixty dops. We 
employ it in apoplexy, asphyxia, convulsions, suspended ani- 


mation, asiutic cholera, tetanus, and all violent spasmodic 
disorders. No physician should be without this remedy at 
hand. In cases of fainting, falls, concussions, drinking too 
ireely of iced-water, violent spasmodic pains in the stomach 
and bowels, and whenever it is necessary to relax spasm, 
equalise the circulation, and so bring about a re-action, this 
remedy is unequalled. When it cannot be swallowed, the 
quantity may be doubled and administered by enema' In 
tetanus, when the jaws are set together, also in hysteria, and 
other convulsions, a quantity of this preparation poured be- 
tween the teeth, will, as soon as it reaches and kaa time to act 
upon the muscles of the throat, relax the spasm and enable the 
patient to open his mouth and swallow. At the same time 
the throat may be bathed externally with the same. Neural- 
gic and rheumatic pains, toothache, etc., are relieved by 
bathing with this preparation. When the tooth is decayed 
and the nerve exposed, it may be applied on cotton. We 
have treated many cases of apoplexy with this medicine, and 
in connection with hot mustard foot baths and the application 
of cold to the head, with invariable success. 

The oil applied to the throat externally has given prompt 
relief in spasm of the glottis, croup, etc., and applied to the 
chest relieves dyspnea. It enters into the Comp. Stillingia 
— vLiniment, for the formula of which see Oil of Stillingia, In' 
applying the oil to infants and children, externally, care must 
be taken not to apply it too freely, as more relaxation may be 
produced than is desirable, together with nausea and vomit- 


In spasmodic croup, the oil may be given in doses of one 
drop, and repeated once in thirty minutes until relief is 
afforded. But we prefer the Wine Tine, in the treatment of 
the disorders of infants and children. 




Had. Stillingia Sylvatica. 

" Gorydalis Formosa, 

" Phytolacca Decandria. 

" Iris Yersicolor. 
Cort. Xanthoxylum Fraxinewm, 
Fol. Chi?naphila Umbellata. 
Sem. Cardambmum. 

We quote from the manual of Messrs B. Keith k Co., the 
following extracts explanatory of the character and peculiari- 
ties of this preparation : 

" Complaints having reached us that the above syrup, (Syr. 
Stillingia Conip.) as put up by manufacturing druggists, had 
failed in numerous instances of exercising its accustomed 
remedial influences, we directed our attention to the discovery 
of the cause, and the remedy. The former we found to de- 
pend upon the fact that, in its preparation, the starch, grape- 
sugar, and the other non-medicinal elements were retained, 
and in consequence of there not being alcohol enough present 
to resist a tendeney to fermentation, a destructive chemical 


decomposition ensued, whereby the therapeutic elements were 
destroyed. Syrups long made up, undergo a progressive dis- 
integration of their therapeutic constituents, and thus become 
unreliable and unfit for use." 

" Another pertinent reason is found in the fact which we 
have heretofore advanced, that is, the uncertain amount of 
active principles any given number of pounds of a crude ar- 
ticle will yield. Hence, so long as organic pharmaceutic com- 
pounds are regulated by the weight of the crude substances of 
which they are composed, instead of the actual amount of 
active principles present, there can be nothing but uncertainty 
in regard to their medicinal strength." 

" Having ascertained, by repeated analyses, the utmost yield 
•of the above articles, when dictated by weight, we are no 
longer governed by a stipulated number of pounds, but by the 
actual product of active principles, Our estimate is based 
upon therapeutic and not upon physical considerations. In 
this way we secure an uniformity in no other way attainable, 
and avoid the discrepancy in remedial value which renders 
ordinary syrups unreliable." 

" One ounce of our preparation is equivaelent to 32 ounces 
of the Comp. Syrup of Stillingia as prepared by other drug- 
gists, when of maximum strength." 

1 The dose of the latter is from one fluid-drachm to one fluid- 
ounce.' " 

( The dose of our preparation is from two to five drops.' 

" Any practitioner so inclined, may prepare one quart of 
Comp. Stillingia Syrup in a few minutes, by adding an ounce 
of our Con. Comp. Stillingia Alterative to thirty-one ounces of 
simple syrup, and flavoring as preferred. , We warrant our 
preparation against change in any climate, and for an unlimited 
period of time." 

" Thus are portability, uniformity of strength, convenience 
of administration, and protection against inertness secured." 

The reader may learn, by referring to their respective heads, 
the properties of the various ingredients composing this prepa- 
ration, and thus form some conception of its range of applied 


tion. Although opposed to such complexity of combination, 
we must acknowledge that our experience in the employment 
of the Con. Comp. Stillingia Alterative has been of the most 
gratifying character. With it we have treated scrofula, 
syphilis, cutaneous eruptions, hepatic disorders, rheumatism,, 
mercurial affections, leucorrhea, gonorrhea, glandular enlarge- 
ments, and almost every form of disease requiring the em- 
ployment of an alterative, resolvent, and tonic remedy. As a 
constitutional remedy in the treatment of contagious, purulent, 
and strumous opthalmia, when not complicated, it is remark- 
ably efficient, and seldom will any other remedy be needed. 

Although the dose of this preparation averages from two 
to FIVE drops, we frequently increase it gradually to ten, 
finding cases and conditions requiring more than the average 
dose to produce the desired effect. We find that it operates 
much better by exhibiting it two hours after eating, than when 
given shortly before meals. In the latter instance it interferes 
with the appetite, and when food is taken nausea is produced, 
as is also the case when the dose is too large. The best way 
of administering it is to drop it into a little cold water. It ia 
easily made into syrup, as above stated. 


Derived from Strychnos JSux Yo?nica t 
Nat. Ord. — ApocynacecB. 
Sex. Syst. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Common Name. — Nwx Vomica, 
Part Used. — The Seeds. 

No. of Principles. — three, viz., two alkaloids, (strychinia 
and brucia,) and a neutral principle. 

We have never employed the Strychnin in practice our- 
selves, but the concurrent testimony of those who have tested 
it clearly defines it to be equivalent to the Nux Vomica in 
therapeutic properties, and infinitely preferable to the extracts 
and other preparations of that remedy, as it is of definite, re- 
liable, uniform, and unchanging medicinal strength. It is 
employed for all the purposes for which the seeds have been 
found beneficial, for a history of which the reader is respect- 
fully referred to the U. S. Dispensatory, and other standard 
works on materia medica. It has been manufactured by 
request, and has given satisfaction to those for whose use it 
was prepared. It is ONE third less in remedial strength 
than the Strychnine of commerce. Thus, if the dose of the 


Strychin^ be from one sixteenth to one twelfth of om 
grain, the dose of the Strychnin will be from one twelfth to 
ONE eighth of one grain, or thirty-three and one-third per 
cent. more. 

It is a medicine of great power, and will not bear to be in- 
cautiously trifled with* 


■» i 

This preparation is equivalent to the Strychnin above de- 
scribed. The dose is from ONE FOURTH of ONE drop to ONE 
drop. It is simply a solution of the active principles com- 
posing the Strychnin. For a history of its properties and 
uses, the reader may consult standard authorities upon materia 


«^ •■ 

Derived from Cannabis Indica. 

Nat. Ord. — Canabinnacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Dicecia Pentandria. 

Common Name. — Indian Hemp. 

Part Used.— The Herb. 

No. of Principles — two, viz., resinoid, and neutral. 

Properties. — Narcotic, anodyne, anti-spasmodic, etc. 

Employment. — Nervous diseases generally. 

We are not enabled to record our personal experience of the 
utility of the Cannabis Indica, never having employed it in 
practice. According to the U. S. Dispensatory " it is recom- 
mended in neuralgia, gout, rheumatism, tetanus, hydrophobia, 
epidemic cholera, convulsions, chorea, hysteria, mental depres- 
sion, insanity and uterine hemorrhage." Of the modus operandi 
of this remedy we have been enabled to learn but little. So 
far as we can ascertain, it is of doubtful and uncertain effect, 
its administration being attended with great disparity of action. 
The Dispensatory further tells us, "in morbid conditions ot 
the system, it has been found to produce sleep, to allay spasm, 
to compose nervous inquietude, and to relieve pain." These, 


we apprehend, are the accidental deductions made from the 
joint experiments and opinions of various practitioners. 
Further than this, nothing entitled to our credence has been 
adduced. For our own part, we do not look upon the Cannabis 
Indica as a desirable acquisition to our materia medica, much 
less an indispensible one, as we know of no indications it is 
capable of fulfilling that cannot be met with other medicines, 
and with far more precision, certainty, and uniformity of 

We are of opinion that medicinal plants grown in remote 
sections of the earth, and known to produce certain specific 
physiological influences upon the natives of that locality, 
should not be looked upon as being capable of inducing the 
same train of results when transferred in their application to 
the people of another clime. Differences of organization, tem- 
perament, habits, occupation, diet, climate, and other in- 
fluences all tend to modify the impressibility of the nervous 
system, and correspondingly will the means of therapeutic im- 
pression vary in their operation upon the living forces. We 
hold that the experiments of Dr. O'Shaughnessy in India can- 
not be accepted as a criterion in estimating the remedial value 
of the Hemp in this country. In a volume entitled "Headland 
on the action of medicine," the reader may find recorded some 
interesting information in regard to the diversity of therapeutic 
action. In speaking of opium, he tells us, "in the Caucasian 
race it generally produces somnolency; in the Chinese, intoxi- 
cation ; in the Javenese, and Malays, it will cause a raving 
delirium." And from some notes of an intelligent reader and 
writer we take the following : — " Do not ardent spirits act in 
the same mysterious way upon the different races? It is sel- 
dom that an Indian becomes "jolly" — he is, as a rule, sullen, 
morose, and savage. The Negro is sleepy. The Malay is a 
raving, blood-thirsty maniac." These facts would seem to 
support the conclusions we hav3 come to in the preceding 
paragraphs. When uniformity of organization and tempera- 
lnent shall become a national characteristic, then may we ex- 
oect to find the people of that nation similarly exercised by the 


vrmbition of a given therapeutic agent. True, nations as well 
•w individuals have their distinguishing characteristics, but 
each are subjected to a variety and diversity of 'modifying in- 
fluences. In the one instance the phenomena produced are 
national; in the other, individual. As we see individuals 
among people of the same race variously impressed by alcohol 
and other narcotics, so may we behold it of nations. In an 
mdividual case opium soothes and depresses; in the other it 
excites and exhilerates ; in a majority ot instances it consti- 
Dates the bowels, while we have known individuals to employ 
it for the purposes of a cathartic, being freely purged by 
even a small quantity. 

We have adduced the fact, in the first chapter of this work, 
that the Cannabis Indica grown upon the hills of India is en- 
tirely different from that grown in the valleys, an additional 
evidence of the uncertainty of the plant as a reliable remedial 
agent. But it is not improbable that time and further experi- 
ment may enable us to overcome these objections, and to give, 
in future editions of this work, a fuller and more reliable his- 
tory of the remedial value of this plant. The average dose 
of the tincture is FIVE drops. 

We now conclude our history of the therapeutic properties 
«o'f concentrated medicines proper, hoping, in future editioi.s, 
*;o enlarge the list by making such additions as the necessities 
of the profession demand. The Erythroxylin, from the 
Erythroxylum Coca, and the Daturin from the Datura Stram- 
imonium, are now under consideration, and as soon as they 


shall have been thoroughly tested in clinical practice, th« 
history of their therapeutic properties and range of employ- 
ment will be laid before the profession. The Con. Tinu. <Gros- 
sypium Herbaceum is likewise being put to practical tests, but 
so far the results secured have not been sufficiently definite to 
enable us to recommend it to the confidence of the profession. 
We are conscious that we have not embraced the entire 
range of application of the various remedies described in this 
work, yet we have endeavored faithfully to portray their 
therapeutic action. Since penning the article on Grelsemin, 
we have employed that agent extensively in the treatment of 
bowel disorders, and with the most satisfactory results. For 
controlling the spasmodic action of the stomach and intestinal 
tube, it far excels any single remedy we have yet employed. 
It soothes the irritability of the mucous surfaces, and com- 
pletely controls the spasmodic tendency. For the relief of 
tenesmus, we employ the Con. Tinct., adding from ten to 
sixty drops to an enema, according to the severity of the case 
and the age of the patient, and repeat as occasion requires. It 
operates admirably. The Con. Tine. Senecio Gracilis has been 
found, by several / practitioners, an excellent . and reliable 
remedy for allaying the nausea attending pregnancy. The 
Con. Tine. Gelseminum has been applied with complete success 
to counteract the effects of the bite of a spider, relieving the 
pain, abating the inflammation and swelling, and effecting a 
cure. So we might go on enumerating instances of the diver" 
sified application of these remedies, but space will not admit 
of a lengthy recapitulation, and we shall be content to submit 
the question of adaptation to the intelligent judgment of our 
readers, trusting that our feeble efforts to elucidate the history 
of these agents may shed some light upon tkeir pathway. 




Derived from Aconitum WapeUus. 

Nat. Ord. — RanunculacecB. 

Sex. Syst. — Polyandria Trigynia. 

Common Names. — Wolfsbane, Monkshood* 

Parts Used. — Leaves, and Root, 

No. of Principles. — Three, viz., resin, neutral, axi(l alhrtoid. 

Properties. — Diaphoretic, diuretic, alterative, antispasmo- 
dic, and narcotic. 

Employment. — Phthisis, dropsy, gout, neuralgia, rheuma- 
tism, paralysis, portal congestions, hysteria, etc. 

In small and frequently repeated doses, Aconitin promotes 
diaphoresis and diuresis, and increases the secretions of <the 
mucous, 6erous, and synovial membranes. Its long contin- 
ued use is attended with the appearance of exanthematic 
eruptions upon the skin, accompanied with a troublesome 
itching, and severe pain in the joints. 


In larger doses Aconitin gives rise to severe cardialgia, 
paralysis of the tongue and pharynx, a sense of suffocation, 
vomiting, painful diarrhea, quick and irregular pulse, dysp- 
nea, swelling of the abdomen, tremors of the limbs, followed 
in due time by extreme prostration, chills, severe pains in the 
head, bones and joints. After a longer or shorter duration 
of these symptoms, the patient is attacked with profuse sweats, 
together with an increased flow of urine, and oftentimes a 
measley looking eruption makes its appearance on the skin. 
Permanent derangement of the digestive functions, together 
with a jaundiced condition of the system, are the general 
sequents of excessive doses of Aconitin. 

Large doses of Aconitin sometimes prove speedily fatal, 
preceded by convulsions, delirium, cerebral congestions, 
tetanus, &c. A post-mortem examination in these cases 
reveals severe congestion in the veins of the head, lungs, 
and abdomen. Sometimes, but not always, inflammation of 
the membranes of the stomach and intestines is present. 

The above described dynamical effects of Aconitin de- 
monstrates it to be a stimulant to the nerves of sensation 
and to the secreting apparatus generally, but more particu- 
larly to the veins, skin, kidneys, mucous and synovial 
membranes, and the sheaths of the muscles and tendons, in- 
creasing their secernent activity, and exalting their sensi- 
bility and irritability. It also hastens the metamorphosis 
of the fluidiform materials of the circulation. 

From a consideration of the physiological influences of 
Aconitin, it has been recommended in those forms of dis- 
ease originating in a suppression of the peripheric secretions, 
particularly in obstinate chronic cases — also in chronic affec- 
tions of the sheaths of the muscles, tendons, and nerves 
—of the fibrous membranes and organs — of the mucous and 

synovial membranes — for the resolving of exudates and dis- 
persion of swellings in these organs, such as are dependent 
upon inactivity or obstruction — in paralytic affections of the 
nerves, and in those neuralgic disorders which originate in 
\ ten] metaplastic, rheumatic or arthritic affections of the ncu- 


jrilcma. Aconitin has also been recommended in phthisis 
ipulmonalis, in the incipient stage, beginning with small doses 
and gradually increasing. Aconitin is contra-indicated in 
the presence of pneumonic inflammations and congestions, 
high febrile excitement, and colliquitive sweatings. 

Aconitin has been found of benefit in the asthenic forms of 
dropsy, particularly when arising from suppressed perspiration, 
rheumatic and arthritic cachexies, and especially when located 
in the skin and joints. In connection with Podophyllin, Yera- 
trin, Jalapin, Apocynin, &c, Aconitin has been successfully 
employed in the treatment of portal congestions, and for the 
correction of those functional derangements of the abdominal 
viscera manifesting unusual torpor, occurring in individuals 
of a cold, lymphatic or phlegmatic habit, though contra-indi- 
cated when plethora or excessive nervous sensibility of those 
organs is manifest. 

Aconitin has been successfully employed in different forms 
of rheumatism, even in the acute varieties when the fever and 
erethism are diminishing, or have entirely ceased. In linger- 
ing rheumatic pains of the joints, rheumatic headaches, rheu- 
matic cardialgia, rheumatic metrorrhagia, and obstinate neu- 
ralgias, occurring in asthenic habits, Aconitin has likewise 
proved a valuable remedy. Also in atonic gout, asthma, &c, 
combined with Asclepin, Eupatorin Purpu., Yeratrin, and in 
cases of great nervous sensibility, with Gelsemin. 

To recapitulate the principal uses of Aconitin, we may men- 
tion, all that class of diseases arising from or dependent upon 
suppressed cutaneous or other secretions, or inactivity of the 
secernent vessels, as rheumatic, arthritic, strumous, syphilitic, 
psoric, and mercurial cachexies, glandular enlargements, ob- 
stinate salt rheum, itch, synovitis, amaurosis, deafness, paraly- 
sis, as of the extremeties, bladder, &c, incontinence of urine, 
tfec. The writer has employed the Tincture with much success 
in the treatment of hysteria, more particularly of the chronic 
forms, and in the absence of acute inflammations or conges- 

Aconitin is contra-indicated in acute inflammation, hypers 


thenic fevers, gastritis, threatened congestions of the brain, 
lungs, or other organs, colliquitive sweats, great irritability of 
the nerves of sensation, and acute hepatic affections. 
.The dose of Aconitin is from one twenty-fourth to one 



Derivation and properties same as Aconitin. The internal 
employment is the same. Externally, the Con. Tine., diluted 
with eight times the quantity of water, is employed as a colly- 
rium in rheumatic and arthritic inflammation of the eyes. 
The dose of the Con. Tine, is from one to five drops. 




Derived fron Cucumis Colocynthi*. 

Nat. Ord. — Oucurbitacece. 

Sex. Syst. — Monoscia Monadelphia. 

Common Names. — Golocynth, Bitter Cucumber, 

Part Used.— The Fruit. ' 

No. of Principles. — One, viz., resinoid. 

Properties. — An irritant hydragogue cathartic. 

Employment. — Obstinate quartan fevers, atonic jaundice, 
indolent dropsies, amenorrhea, worms, chronic nervous affeo- 
ions, <&c. 

In small doses, Colocynthin accelerates the peristaltic motion 
f the intestinal canal — increasing the mucous and other se- 
cretions ; promotes the activity of the abdominal blood-vessels, 
and quickens the functions of the lymphatic and glandular 
systems, and of the kidneys. In large doses, Colocynthin 
gives rise to severe griping pains in the abdomen, vomiting, 
a violent diarrhea, with frothy discharges, accompanied with 
tenesmus and hemorrhage of the rectum. In yet larger doses, 
it gives rise to the same train of symptoms in a more aggra- 
vated form, followed by vertigo, blindness, deafness, delirium, 
convulsions, and death. The fatal effects are produced by 
excessive and exhaustive irritation, accompanied, in some in- 
stances, with gangrene of the rectum. The continued employ- 
ment of Colocynthin produces, like all other drastic remedies* 


paralytic-like debility of the bowels and rectum, suppressed 
secretion, and obstinate constipation. 

Colocynthin is employed, in small doses, in excessive torpor 
of the abdominal organs, particularly of the lymphatics, 
glands, mucous membranes, and nervous plexus, and in thoso 
disorders arising irom or supported by said abnormal condi- 
tions. Of this class we may mention obstinate and fre- 
quently recurring quartan fevers, atonic jaundice, retention 
of the catamenia- and hemorrhoidal discharges, indolent 
dropsies, ascarides- and chronic blenorrhea. 

Colocynthin has been employed with some success in the 
cure of those chronic nervous ailments based upon or suppor- 
ted by a general torpor of the nerves of sensation, or upon 
local paralysis of the abdominal and lower spinal nerves. 
It would seem to act, therefore, in the latter instance, as a 
local deducive stimulant, and, when long continued, as a 
stimulant to the entire nervous system. 

In the treatment of mania, melancholy, epilepsy, chronic 
nervous vertigo, aDd headache, Colocynthin is employed in 
doses sufficient to purge ; a considerable interval — say several 
days — being allowed to elapse between the repetitions of the 
doses. Small and repeated doses of Colocynthin have proved 
useful in the treatment of mild forms of mania, lethargies, 
and as a prophylactic of serous and mucous apoplexies, para- 
lysis of the rectum, urinary organs, and lower extremities. 
Its employment is contra-indicated, however, in the presence 
of an inflammatory condition of those organs. Colocynthin 
has been employed with some success in dyspepsia, arising 
from a paralytic debility of the stomach and its appendages. 

The dose of Colocynthin will vary from one-half to two 



Derived from Rheum Palmatum. 

Nat. Ord. — Potygonacem. 

Sex. Syst. — Enneandria Trigynicu 

Common Name. — Rhubarb* 

Part Used.— The Root. 

No. of Principles. — Three, a retinoid, and two neutral* 

Properties. — Cathartic, alterative, laxative, tonic, resolvent 

chologogue, and antiseptic. 

Employment. — Dyspepsia and its concomitant symptoms, 
heart-burn, flatulence, constipation, &c, diarrhea, dysentery, 
colic, atonic dropsy, chlorosis, mucous cachexies, scrofula, 
diabetes mellitus, fevers, hemorrhoids, jaundice, biliary cal- 
culi, asthenic catarrhs, etc. 

Administered in small doses, Ehein stimulates the digestive 
apparatus, improves the appetite, promotes the formation of 
chyle and the supply of bile, and corrects disturbed action of 
either function. 

It exercises a general tonic influence over the secretive func- 
tions, and particularly those of the mucous membranes. In 
very large doses, Ehein gives rise to diarrhea, which is 
usually followed by constipation. 

Ehein, in small doses, may be usefully employed for the 
relief of heart-burn, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and 
other symptoms attendant upon indigestion, and for the cor- 


reetion .of the excessive mucous discharges which sometimes 
follow an attack of gastric or bilious fever. In asthenic 
dysenteries, it may be usefully combined with Leptandrin, 
Collinsonin, Cerasein, Fraserin, &c. It is a valuable remedy 
in the digestive disorders of children, such as vomitng of the 
food, colic, diarrhea, and convulsions produced by the reten- 
tion of acrid ingesta. In the disorders of dentition, it answers 
an admirabie purpose, in combination with alkalies and aro- 


Khein is also of much utility in the treatment of chlorosis, 
leucorrhea, dropsy, scrofula, rickets, diabetes mellitus, and 
atonic hemorrhoids. For the cure of jaundice, and for the 
removal of biliary concretions and impacted foeces, the Rhein 
is said to be of remarkable efficacy. Finally, in all disorders 
connected with the digestive and assimilative apparatus, either 
of the organs themselves, or from sympathy therewith, and in 
all disorders of the mucous surfaces, the Ehein will be found 
a remedy of much value. 

Rhein is sometimes employed locally as an application to 
foul ulcers, on account of its tonic and antiseptic properties, 
and in the form of an injection to restrain excessive hemorr- 
hoidal and leucorrheal discharges. 

Rhein is contra-indicated in active inflammations, conges 
tions, and hemorrhages. 

The dose of Rhein is from one to four grains. 


*— * 

Derived from Atropa Belladonna. 

Nat. Ord. — Solanacece. 

Sex. Syst. — JPentandria Monogynia* 

Common Names. — Belladonna, Deadly Nightshade, <£& 

Parts Used. — Leaves and Boot. 

No. of Principles. — Three : resin, neutral, and alkaloid. 

Properties. — Narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, calmative, 
alterative, resolvent, diaphoretic, and diuretic. 

Employment. — Convulsions, epilepsy, neuralgia, schirrus, 
dropsy, obstinate intermittents, scarlet fever, whooping cough, 
asthma, suppression of the menses, syphilitic infections, par air 
ysis, amaurosis, nervous affections, mania, melancholy, <&c. 

The dynamical effects of Atropin, when given m email 
doses, are dryness in the fauces, thirst, difficult deglutition, 
deluded vision, increased sensibility and irritability of the 
optic nerve, dilated pupil, vertigo, mental exhiliration, and 
increased perspiration. When the doses are increased, the 
thirst becomes excessive, swallowing is difficult if not impossi- 
ble, the throat becomes swelled and painful, with spasm of 
the glottis, a sense of numbness is felt about the eyes, follow- 
ed by delirium, mania, hiccough, dyspnea, grinding of the 
teeth, convulsions, tetanus, lethargic slumber, and apoplectic 
death. A post-mortem examination reveals severe and ex- 
tensive congestions of the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, stomach, 


and intestines. The spleen is soft and easily separated betweea 
the fingers, the blood is in a state of decomposition, and the- 
body soon putrefies. 

According to the experiments of Orfila, Atropin acts most 
speedily when taken into the stomach, or injected into the 
veins ; more slowly when brought in contact with the cellular 

Important indications for the employment of Atropin are 
found in the early stages of organic affections, such as indu- 
ration and schirrus of the more important organs, and in the 
dispersion of glandular enlargements. The peculiar utility 
of Atropin in these cases depends, in addition to its alterative, 
resolvent, and stimulant powers, upon the possession of re- 
markable anti-spasmodic and sedative properties, whereby if 
soothes and overcomes the abnormal sensibility giving rise 
to and accompanying these structural changes. The employ- 
ment of stimulating resolvents devoid of these auxiliary 
properties would, under like circumstances, be more likely to 
aggravate the disorder by provoking the existing irritation to 
a dangerous extent. The use of Atropin is said to have 
cured fully developed indurations, even when of long stand- 
ing ; but in general its influence in these cases goes no further 
than to arrest the development at its present stage, and to 
act as a prophylactic of cancerous degeneration. 

Atropin is employed in the treatment of mania, preceded 
by the use of alteratives and relaxants. Much care must be 
exercised in its employment, and all existing idiosyncrasies 
carefully noted. The encephalic constitution is said to bear 
this remedy best. 

Atropin is likewise said to have been successfully employed 
in the treatment of hypochondria, hysteria, epilepsy, chorea, 
and other nervous diseases dependent upon abominal ob- 
structions 01 suppressions, as of the menses, or upon a morbid 
exaltation of the nervous sensibility of the parts. It is exhibi- 
ted in connection with Podophyllin, Yeratrin, Lobelia, Khein, 
<fcc. In connection with Lobelia, Podophyllin, Hyosciamin, 
Prunin, Asclepin, &c, it has been highly recommended in 


whooping cough, asthma, and other affections of the respira- 
tory system. In various forms of neuralgia, the use of 
Atropin, both internally and externally, has been attended 
with much success. 

In hydrophobia, Atropin is said not only to act as a pre- 
ventive, but also to have effected a cure in several instances. 
In order to be efficacious, it must be given in sufficient doses 
to induce a degree of narcotism, and its use persevered in. 
"While under its influence the patient will frequently complain 
of a smarting sensation in the wounds inflicted by the bite. 

Paralysis dependent upon torpor of the abdominal functions 
is said to have been successfully treated with Atropin. In 
dropsy arising from biliary derangement, this remedy has found 
useful employment. In suppression or defective flow of the 
catamenial and lochial secretions, when arising from ob- 
structions in the portal system, and in rheumatic, arthritic, 
and exanthematic metastases, salt rheum, and even in long 
standing syphilitic infections, Atropin is recommended as a 
remedy entitled to much confidence. In chronic nervous 
rheumatism Atropin will afford much relief. It is sometimes 
employed to prevent abortion in consequence of too great 
sensibility and contractility of the uterus. Small doses are 
exhibited at bed time. 

Atropin has gained considerable reputation as a prophy- 
lactic of scarlet fever, and is also extensively employed in the 
treatment of that malady. 

Contra-indications to the employment of Atropin are, high 
inflammatory excitement, plethora, tendency to congestion of 
the brain, lungs, or other organs, erethism of the blood, and 
extreme debility. 

The dose of Atropin is from one twenty-fourth to one- 
twelfth of one grain. When the exhibition of this remedy 
produces dryness of the fauces, sparkling of the eyes, or dila- 
tion of the pupil, the dose must be diminished, or the remedy 
entirely laid aside for a time. Physicians will do well to 
triturate the Atropin with Asclepin, as the latter will in no 
case counteract the effects of the Atropin, but in view of its 


diaphoretic and neutralising properties, will materially enhance 
its action. It will also ensure a proper diffusion of the reme- 
dy, and enable the practitioner to more easily proportion and 
regulate the doses. 


Derivation, properties and employment same as the Atropin. 
"We give preference to this preparation of the Belladonna, as 
it is more diffusible, the dose is more easily proportioned than 
that of the powder, and is more readily prepared for local 
employment. Diluted with from one to eight parts of water 
according to the extent and condition of the local affection, it 
is employed as an injection in painful neuralgic affections of 
the uterns and rectum, and as a local sedative over the seat 
of neuralgic pains, either by means of cloths saturated with 
the solution, or added to fomentations. When employed for 
injections, not more than twice or thrice the quantity exhi- 
bited to the same patient at a dose should be administered. 

The dose of the Tine, is from one to five dbops. 



-• -+~ • 

Acid". Vegetable 38 

Alkaloids 4(1 

Amy linn 45 

^pothemo 63 

Amygdalin 08 

Asclepin . 122 

Ampelopsin 153 

Alnuin 2<56 

Apocynin '. 34!) 

Aconitiii. .... 483 

A tropin 441 

Baptisin 219 

Barosmin 852 

Cmdc organic remedies .... 4 17 

( "Tstitucnts of plants 3i 

Cellulose 42 

Cnticnlar or cork substance 43 

Camphors 55 

Caoutchouc 08 

Coloring matters 58 

Concentrated medicines 70 

Concentrated medicines proper 83 

Chemical transformations 91 

Concentrated tinctures 92 

Con. Tine. Apocynum 354 

" " AconitTim Napellns 436 

u " Atropa Belladonna 444 

" " Collinsonia. 412 

" " Cannabis Ihdioa 429 

" " Digitalis 'J 1 3 

u " Euonymus . 200 

"' " Knpatorittiu Purpu 333 

" " (lelseminnm 139 

u " Oossypium 432 

" " Hy-oscvamns 297 

* . H EhusGlabum. 213 

» " Scutellaria 347 

«* u Smilax 402 

«* " Strvchnos Xux Vomica 428 

a •» Sen'ecio 120 

u " Veratrum 325 

« " Xantho.vylum 3S3 

Combinations .". 95 

Cvnripedin IJp 

Chimaphilin 172 

Cornin 272 

Canlophyllin 2,3 

Corydalin 334 

Chelonin • 1S J- 

Collinsonin 40? 

Capsicum, oil of 3Co 

Cerasei n ■ . 403 — V 

Con. (Jomp. Stillingia AlteratiVH *24 

Colocynthin 437 

Dextrine 47 

Decoctions 7 ; { 

TMoseorein 170 

Digital in 201 

Daturin 43i 

Extractive substances 59 

Emulsin > 08 

Extracts 74 

'' aqueous 74 

" nleoliolic '. 76 

" Imlro-aleoholie .• 70 

" inspissated 77 

fluid 77 

Euonymin 257 

Eiipatorin Pi-rfo 323 

Eupatorin Purpu. . ., 33ft 

j&uphorbin 37! 

Erijrcron. oil of 2''. I 

Ery throxylin 431 

Fraserin .» 373 

Fixed oils 51 

Fluid extracts 77 

'I'll*... ■••■•••• ••*••■•••■•• •••«•••••■•* "*" 

Onm iv«ins 5<> 

Celsomiii 129 

Geranin 159' 

TTnmns 01 

Helonin 185 

Ilyoscynmin 292 

J 1 V Ul d.'l III , , , ••■• ••••• ••• ■ ■ • • •••• • ' '' '■' 

Hamamelin 309 

Inulin 4? 

Infusions 70 

Isolated preparations 101 

Irisin 355 

Jalapin 234 

Juglandin 337 

Leptandrin 193 

Lupulin 806 

Lycopin 875 



Mucilage 49 

Muci-resins 50 

Macrotin ...143 

Myricin 252 

Menispermin 394 

Neutral principles 41 

Neutrals 59 

Oils, fixed 51 

" volatile 53 

01co-resi«s 56 

Officinal preparations 70 

Oil of Eriireron 261 

" " Capsicum 365 

" " Stillingia - 3"02 

w " Populus 348 

" tt Solidago 397 

w " Xanthox)-lum 3S2 

u tt Lobelia 422 

Oleo. Resin of Lobelia 414 

Protei n 44 

Pectin 48 

Populin 164 

Phytolacin 287 

Podophyllin .. 225 

Prunin 890 

Resins 55 

Retinoid* 5« 

tt tin sin '_M4 

Rumin 9"h 

Rhein 439 

SuTnrs 47 

Syrups 79 

Senecin Ill 

Stillinirin 29^ 

Scutellaria 344 

Smilacin ,. 399 

San?uinarin '. 3S4 

Strychnin 427 

Tinctures .*. 79 

Trilliin 341 

Vegetable bases 40 

V.iscin 5') 

Volatile Oils 53 

Viburnin 269 

Veratrin 310 

Wax 58 

"Wood substance 43 

Wine Tine. Lobelia 413 

Xylojjen 43 

Xanthoxylin 8S0 

Xantlioxylum oil of.. 89S 


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I.V V 






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